• Henry Chadwick, Some Reflections on Conscience: Greek, Jewish and Christian (London: Council of Christians and Jews, 1968). I am indebted to conversations with Robert Alter of University of California, Berkeley, on the Hebrew conscience and the etymology of matzpun.
  • Philip J. Ivanhoe, Ethics in the Confucian Tradition (Indianapolis: Hackett, 2002); Confucian Moral Self-Cultivation (Indianapolis: Hackett, 2000). I am indebted to conversations about liangxin with Lydia Liu of Columbia University, and also Xiao Han.
    On al-zãjir, see D. S. Margoliouth, ‘Conscience (Muslim)’, in Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics (New York, 1908).
  • I am indebted to Cathy Popkin of Columbia University for her observations on Russian sovest.

الفصل الأول

  • My comments on syneidesis are informed by Dominic Mangiello, ‘Conscience’, in A Dictionary of Biblical Tradition, ed. David L. Jeffery (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1992). Also see Mangiello’s excellent summary of traditions of conscience in works of English literature.
  • Peter of Celle, ‘On Conscience’, Selected Works, tr. Hugh Feiss (Kalamazoo, MI: Cistercian Publications, 1987).
  • A. V. C. Schmidt (ed.), Vision of Piers Plowman: A Critical Edition of the B-Text, 2nd edn. (London: Everyman, 1995).
  • Derek Pearsall (ed.), Piers Plowman: A New Annotated Edition of the C-text (Exeter: University of Exeter Press, 2008).
  • John Wyclif, Sermon 49, in Sermones, Latin Works, vol. 7:3 (London, 1890).
  • On Fisher’s rejoinder, see Richard Rex, The Theology of John Fisher (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991).
  • More’s letters are cited from The Correspondence of Sir Thomas More, ed. Elizabeth Frances Rogers (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1947). Henry’s Censurae are printed in The Divorce Tracts of Henry VIII, ed. Edward Surtz and Virginia Murphy (Angers: Moreana, 1988). Other period documents are cited from Letters and Papers … of the Reign of Henry VIII, vols 4:1 and 5 (The Stationery Office, 1878–80).
  • Luther’s words are quoted from D. Martin Luthers Werke, kritische Gesamtausgabe, vol. 7 (Weimar: Böhlaus, 1897).
  • On Luther and Erasmus, see Luther and Erasmus: Free Will and Salvation, ed. E. G. Rupp and P. S. Watson (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1969). For Luther’s comparison of conscience to sexual organs, see Works, ed. J. Pelikan, vol. 27 (St Louis: Concordia, 1955–96). For Calvin’s Institutes, see Institution of Christian Religion, tr. Thomas Norton, 1578 (EEBO). The full modern English text is available at (http://www.ccel.org/ccel/calvin/institutes) (accessed 31 January 2011).
  • I thank Katherine R. Cooper for introducing me to the sonnets of Anne Vaughan Lock. See (http://newmedia.alma.edu/ottenhoff/psalm51/meditations.htm) (accessed 31 January 2011).
  • Richard Hooker, Of the Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity, ed. Christopher Morris, vol. 1 (London: Everyman’s Library, 1907).
  • Max Scheler, Formalism in Ethics (Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 1973); Person and Self-Value (Dordrecht and Lancaster: Nijhoff, 1987).
  • Reinhold Niebuhr, The Nature and Destiny of Man (New York and London: Nisbet, 1941).
  • For Tillich, see below.

الفصل الثانى

الفصل الثالث

  • Fyodor Dostoevsky, Crime and Punishment, tr. R. Pevear (London: Vintage Classics, 1993); The Brothers Karamazov, tr. R. Pevear (London: Everyman’s Library, 1990).
  • Cathy Popkinhas assisted me with comments on the intimate relation of Russian sovest (etymologically, ‘with’ + ‘knowledge’) with Western (and, ultimately, Greek and Greek Orthodox) ideas of conscience.
  • Basic Writings of Nietzsche, tr. Walter Kaufmann (New York: Modern Library, 2000). On the letter to Overbeck, see Kaufmann, Nietzsche: Philosopher, Psychologist, Antichrist (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1950).
  • Freud’s various essays are found in the Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, tr. J. Strachey (London: Hogarth Press, 1953–74).

الفصل الرابع

  • Among many pertinent studies of conscientious objection are Peter Brock (ed.), Records of Conscience: Three Autobiographical Narratives by Conscientious Objectors, 1665–1865 (York: William Sessions, 1993); John Rae, Conscience and Politics: The British Government and the Conscientious Objector to Military Service, 1916–1919 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1970); A. Keim and G. Stoltzfus, The Politics of Conscience: The Historical Peace Churches and America at War, 1917–1955 (Scottdale, PA: Herald Press, 1988); Peter Brock (ed.), Liberty and Conscience: A Documentary History of Conscientious Objectors in America through the Civil War (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002).
    I am indebted to Records of Conscience for the instance of the objecting Quaker.
  • On ‘conscience clauses’, see especially Ben Smith, ‘Coakley’s Conscience Clause’, Politico, 44, (http://www.politico.com/blogs/bensmith/0110) (accessed 31 January 2011).
  • For the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, see (http://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr) (accessed 31 January 2011).
  • Alan Gewirth, Human Rights: Essays on Justification (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982) contributed valuably to my thinking about this chapter. I am indebted to him for the Supreme Court citation. See also Henry Shue, Basic Rights (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996). For a lively discussion of ‘rights’ as a basis for justice, see Joseph R. Slaughter, Human Rights, Inc (New York: Fordham University Press, 2007).
  • R. Panikkar’s discussion of Western concepts of civil liberty and their applicability to non-Western cultures appears in Diogenes, 120 (1982).
  • Hannah Arendt, Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil (London: Penguin, 1977).
  • William Tyndale, Obedience of a Christian Man, ed. David Daniell (London: Penguin, 2000). I thank Holly Crocker for bringing Tyndale to my attention.
  • For Hobbes on conscience, see Leviathan, ed. J. C. A. Gaskin (Oxford World’s Classics, 1996), especially part 1, chapter 7. A stimulating blog by Stanley Fish adduces Hobbes as a proponent of public (versus private) conscience in relation to discussions of religiously based medical conscience clauses. In his acute analysis, Fish observes that ‘one can (and should) relax the obligations of faith when one is not in church’. See New York Times Opinion, 12 April 2009: (http://www.opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/04/12/conscience-vs-conscience) (accessed 31 January 2011).
  • For Aquinas, see St Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica, tr. Fathers of the Dominican Province, vol. 1 (New York: Benziger Brothers, 1947), Part 1, Question 79, Article 13.
  • The commentator who wants ‘a little human rights just now’ is Slaughter, Human Rights, Inc, previously cited.

الفصل الخامس

  • Edward, Earl of Clarendon, Miscellaneous Works, 2nd edn. (London, 1751). I thank Laura Perille for this reference.
  • Augustine’s Confessions is available in numerous editions; the Latin text is conveniently found in Loeb Classical Library, 2 vols (1989).
  • Robinson Crusoe is also widely available; see Oxford World’s Classics, ed. Keymer et al. (2008).
  • ‘Markheim’, The Complete Short Stories of Robert Louis Stevenson, ed. Barry Menikoff (New York: Modern Library, 2002).
  • Seventeenth-century works by Andrew Jones, Jeremiah Dyke, and John Jackson may be found in Early English Books Online (hereafter, EEBO).
  • For a discussion of conscience ‘written on the heart’, see Eric Jager, The Book of the Heart (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000).
  • Pamela Gradon (ed.), Ayenbite of Inwit, Early English Text Society, Original Series, no. 278 (Oxford, 1987).
  • ‘Everyman’, Medieval Drama, ed. David Bevington (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1975).
  • Martin Heidegger, Being and Time, tr. Joan Stambaugh (New York: SUNY Press, 1996).
  • Camus’s characterization of Clamance is from Charles Rolo, ‘Albert Camus: A Good Man’, The Atlantic Monthly (May 1958), 32.
  • James Joyce, A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (London: Penguin, 1992).
  • On documentary photography, see Robert Coles, Doing Documentary Work (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997). For the agency of images, see W. J. T. Mitchell, What Do Pictures Want? (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005).
  • The Sabrina Harman quotations are from Philip Gourevitch and Errol Morris, ‘Exposure: The Woman Behind the Camera at Abu Ghraib’, New Yorker, 28 March 2008. Also see Gourevitch and Morris, The Ballad of Abu Ghraib (New York: Penguin, 2009).
  • Wil S. Hylton, ‘Prisoner of Conscience’, appeared in GQ magazine, September 2006.
  • Susan Sontag, On Photography (New York: Anchor Books, 1990).

النصوص الواردة داخل إطارات

محكمة «الضمير»
In addition to works cited above, see J. Swift, ‘On the Testimony of Conscience’, Irish Tracts and Sermons, ed. Louis Landa (Oxford: Blackwell, 1948).

صرصور الليل المتكلم

The Pinocchio of C. Collodi, tr. J. T. Teehan (New York: Schocken Books, 1985).

تحديد جنس الضمير

Jane Eyre is available in many editions; see Oxford World’s Classics (2008).

الضمير: هل هو مثير للمتاعب أم ذات أخرى؟

See William Perkins, A Discourse of Conscience, 1596; Early English Books Online. I thank Abraham Stoll for this reference.

أقوال توما الأكويني حول الضمير بوصفه «معرفة تطبيقية»

Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica, Part 1, Question 79, Article 13.

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