(1)This quotation is typically attributed to the German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer, but it does not appear in any of Schopenhauer’s published works. What Schopenhauer actually wrote was: “Der Wahrheit ist allezeit nur ein kurzes Siegesfest beschieden, zwischen den beiden langen Zeiträumen, wo sie als Paradox verdammt und als Trivial gering geschätzt wird.” (“Truth is allowed only a brief celebration of victory, between two long periods, during which it is condemned as paradoxical and disparaged as trivial.”) From Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung (The World as Will and Representation), first published in Germany in 1818.
(2)See Wildman, Derek E., Monica Uddin, Guozhen Liu, Lawrence I. Grossman, and Morris Goodman, 2003, “Implications of Natural Selection in Shaping 99.4% Nonsynonymous DNA Identity between Humans and Chimpanzees: Enlarging Genus Homo.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100:7181–7188.
الفصل الأول: منطلق الرئيسيات
(1)There is, of course, facial hair above and below the lips in the form of mustaches and beards among the adult males in most human populations. However, the presence or absence of this facial hair varies greatly. In some human societies, such as the San Bushman of Africa’s Kalahari Desert and the Yanomamö of South America’s Amazon Basin, adult males typically have little or no facial hair. Some non-human primates also have facial hair: the male orangutan often grows a beard, and both male and female patas monkeys typically have well-developed mustaches and beards in adulthood.
(2)Some baboon species (e.g., the hamadryas baboon of Ethiopia) that inhabit open, exposed environments have a flexible, multi-layered social structure, in which several harems combine to form “clans” that forage together during the day and then combine with other clans to share a common sleeping area at night. This enables the baboons, while maintaining their pattern of forming exclusive harems, to form very large groups of up to 750 individuals that are effective defenses against predators during the hours of darkness.
(3)In the modern world, ethnic identities are not as uniformly strong as they are in traditional societies. Some people tend to remain faithful to their cultural origins, while others—especially the young—prefer to embrace innovation and change. But the tremendous increase in contact among the world’s cultures made possible by industrial technologies of interaction and later by the invention of digital technologies—combined with the hugely accelerated pace of technological and cultural change—has in recent years caused many ethnic traditions to lose their former power and importance, much to the despair of the older generations.
الفصل الثاني: تقنية الحراب وعصي الحفر
(1)For a detailed description of the discovery of the Laetoli footprints, see John Reader, Missing Links: In Search of Human Origins (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011).
(2)As I have previously explained in greater detail in the introduction, for many decades, the familiar term “hominids” was universally used by anthropologists, paleontologists, and all other scientists to refer to the various species of prehistoric and modern humans. But “hominids” fell out of favor during the 1990s, when advances in DNA analysis showed that gorillas and chimpanzees are genetically closer to humans than had been previously assumed. As a result of these findings, all of the great apes were reclassified and grouped together into the family Hominidae. In the years since this reclassification took place, anthropologists have generally favored using the term “hominins”—on the theory that it identifies humanity as belonging not to the family Hominidae but rather to the sub-family Homininae and/or the tribe Hominini. However, since the Hominini includes chimpanzees and the Homininae includes both chimpanzees and gorillas—both of which are quadrupedal apes that are not human and are not part of the human family tree—I have decided, with apologies to my fellow anthropologists, to use the more familiar term “hominid” in this book, since it is addressed to the general reader as well as to the scholar and scientist.
(3)A. L. Kroeber, Anthropology (New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1948), 79. In the same work, Kroeber also asserts that culture “is that which the human species has and other social species lack” (p. 253) —another “prevailing opinion” among scientists of the day that has since been completely discredited.
(4)Even the kangaroo (which is not a placental mammal but rather a marsupial), with its specialized ability to stand comfortably on its hind legs and to run across the landscape with great speed by jumping with its hind legs, must get down on all fours when it walks. And the kangaroo is burdened by an immensely heavy tail, required to counterbalance its forequarters. Even when the kangaroo is standing erect, its spine is held not in a vertical position but rather at an angle, halfway between vertical and horizontal.
(5)See P. S. Rodman and H. M. McHenry, “Bioenergetics and the Origin of Hominid Bipedalism,” American Journal of Physical Anthropology 52, (1980), 103–106.
(6)See Tim D. White et al., “Ardipithecus ramidus and the Paleobiology of Early Hominids,” Science 326, no. 5949 (2009), 64, 75–86.
(7)See C. Owen Lovejoy, “The Origin of Man,” Science (new series) 211, no. 4480 (1981), 341–350.
(8)See R. W. Newman, “Why Man Is Such a Sweaty and Thirsty Naked Animal: A Speculative Review,” Human Biology 42 (1970):12–27, and Peter E. Wheeler, “The Evolution of Bipedality and Loss of Functional Body Hair in Humans,” Journal of Human Evolution 13 (1984), 91–98.
(9)See N. Jablonski, and G. Chaplin, “Origin of Habitual Terrestrial Bipedalism in the Ancestor of the Hominidae,” Journal of Human Evolution 24 (1993), 259–280.
(10)See Kevin D. Hunt, “The Evolution of Human Bipedality: Ecology and Functional Morphology,” Journal of Human Evolution 26 (1994), 183–202.
(11)See Ralph L. Holloway, “Tools and Teeth: Some Speculations Regarding Canine Reduction,” American Anthropologist 69(1) (1967): 63–67. For a different perspective, see Sherwood Washburn and R. Ciochon, “Canine Teeth: Notes on Controversies in the Study of Human Evolution,” American Anthropologist 76, no. 4 (1974), 765–784.
(12)Gen Suwa noted that the canine teeth of Ardipithecus had become significantly reduced when compared with those of its likely ancestors. “In the hominid precursors of Ar. ramidus, the predominant and cardinal evolutionary innovations of the dentition were reduction of male canine size and minimization of its visual prominence … The fossils now available suggest that male canine reduction was well underway by six million years ago.” See Gen Suwa et al., “Paleobiological Implications of the Ardipithecus ramidus Dentition,” Science 326, no. 5949 (2009), 94–99.
(13)For a detailed explanation of this hypothesis addressed to a scholarly audience, see Richard L. Currier, “Canine Teeth and Lethal Weapons: Was the Fabrication of Wooden Spears and Digging Sticks by Human Ancestors Responsible for the Evolution of Bipedal Locomotion?” Available at: http://www.richardlcurrier.com/articles/canine-teeth-and-lethal-weapons.html.
(14)Charles Darwin, The Descent of Man (New York: Penguin Books, 2007), 90–91.
(15)C. Loring Brace, The Stages of Human Evolution, 5th ed (New York: Prentice-Hall, 1995), 130-131.
(16)Graber, Robert Bates, Randall R. Skelton, Ralph M. Rowlett, Ronald Kephart, and Susan Love Brown, Meeting Anthropology Phase to Phase: Growing Up, Spreading Out, Crowding In, Switching On (Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press, 2000), 90.
(17)Monogamy is common among birds, because once the female has laid the eggs, either parent can perform all the remaining tasks required to care for the offspring, from sitting on the eggs to keep them warm to protecting and feeding the nesting chicks. Thus it stands to reason that two birds would generally have a better chance of successfully raising a nest of offspring than would a single bird. But monogamy is rare among mammals, including primates, among which the care and feeding of the young is primarily or exclusively the burden of the female, the giver of milk (although among a few monogamous primate species, the father tends to become the preferred beast of burden). There are several monogamous primates, including gibbons, siamangs, titi monkeys, and marmosets, but in every one of these species the primary group consists of a single breeding pair. Humans are the only primates that form monogamous families that remain integrated within larger groups of cooperating adults.
الفصل الثالث: تقنية النار
(1)See Charles K. Brain and Andrew Sillen, “Evidence from the Swartkrans Cave for the Earliest Use of Fire,” Nature 336 (1989), 464–466.
(2)In The Spark That Ignited Human Evolution (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2009), 173, Frances Burton, an anthropologist at the University of Toronto, writes: “It is hard to identify why the Ancestor [the earliest hominid] first approached fire. It surely must have occurred, however, somewhere between 7 and 10 million years ago.” On the other hand, Steven R. James, an anthropologist at the California State University at Fullerton, wrote in 1989 that “there are no actual hearths until the appearance of the Neandertals … at the end of the Middle Pleistocene [approximately 130000 years ago]. Much of the evidence [for the human use of fire] prior to this time is equivocal, and natural processes may explain it.” See Steven R. James, “Hominid use of Fire in the Lower and Middle Pleistocene: A Review of the Evidence,” Current Anthropology 30, no. 1 (1989), 1–11.
(3)It is no accident that those species of non-human primates who have adapted to a terrestrial existence—including baboons, vervets, and patas monkeys—never venture far from the safety of the trees and high cliffs that they use as sleeping places when darkness falls. Even the chimpanzee, hardly a terrestrial species, always sleeps in the trees, even though, due to its large size, it must construct a sleeping platform out of tree branches that is strong enough to support its weight. Only the massive gorilla, which lives in mountain habitats where large predators are rare, and is strong enough to overpower most predators, sleeps on the ground at night.
(4)The various emerging humans that have been given their own status as separate “species” to date include Homo habilis, Homo ergaster, Homo rudolfensis, Homo erectus, Homo antecessor, Homo heidelbergensis, Homo rhodesiensis, and Homo floresiensis. Some of them, such as H. habilis and H. ergaster, are very ancient and have long been extinct, while others, such as H. floresiensis, may have survived until as recently as twelve thousand years ago. Still others, especially Homo heidelbergensis, were so advanced that they may not have been emerging humans at all but rather early forms of modern humans. Precisely how all of the many fossil remains of the various emerging humans should be classified continues to be the subject of lively debate among prehistorians and will doubtless remain so for a long time to come.
(5)For a fascinating discussion of the probable antiquity of Homo erectus, see Christopher Wills, Children of Prometheus: The Accelerating Pace of Human Evolution, 164–171.
(6)For a full explanation of this hypothesis, see Richard Wrangham, Catching Fire: How Cooking Made Us Human (New York: Basic Books, 2009), 98–102. Wrangham further elaborated this argument in a publication with Rachel Carmody in 2010. See Richard Wrangham and Rachel Carmody, “Human Adaptation to the Control of Fire,” Evolutionary Anthropology 19 (2010), 187–199. See especially 190-191 and 196.
(7)In captivity, however, the chimpanzee has demonstrated an uncanny degree of casualness in handling and using fire—complete with the ability to smoke cigarettes and cigars, a behavior that is described in detail in A. S. Brink, “The Spontaneous Fire-Controlling Reactions of Two Chimpanzee Smoking Addicts,” South African Journal of Science 53 (1957), 241–247. One particularly precocious chimpanzee was even capable of gathering dry twigs together, lighting them with a cigarette lighter, adding more twigs to this little fire, and toasting a marshmallow. See Frances D. Burton, Fire: The Spark That Ignited Human Evolution (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2009).
(8)Several of the more primitive primate species, however, are nocturnal in nature. Aside from a few species of “night monkeys” (aotidae) that live in Central and South America, most of these nocturnal primates belong to a more ancient and more primitive suborder of primates called “prosimians” (literally, “before monkeys”) that include dwarf lemurs, tarsiers, bush babies, galagos, lorises, and pottos. As a rule, the nocturnal prosimians tend to be rare, relatively small-brained, and solitary. Most of them survive in small numbers in the more remote habitats of Africa and Madagascar.
(9)The release of melatonin is also governed by the normal daily pattern of wakefulness and sleep, a phenomenon known as the “circadian rhythm.”
(10)With apologies to the French anthropologist Claude Lévi-Strauss, who published The Raw and the Cooked: Mythologiques, volume 1 in 1964, a classic work that explored the food mythologies of numerous societies. In it, Lévi-Strauss concluded that all human cultures distinguish between food in its natural state (“the raw”) and food that has been processed by human activity (“the cooked”). He further theorized that the process of cooking was viewed in all cultural mythologies as the crossing of the boundary that exists in the human mind between nature and culture.
(11)See Francesco Berna, Paul Goldberg, Liora Kolska Horwitz, James Brink, Sharon Holt, Marion Bamford, and Michael Chazan, “Microstratigraphic Evidence of in situ Fire in the Acheulean Strata of Wonderwerk Cave, Northern Cape Province, South Africa,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 109, no. 20 (2012), 1215–1220.
(12)See Victoria Wobber, Brian Hare, and Richard Wrangham, “Great Apes Prefer Cooked Food,” Journal of Human Evolution 55 (2008), 343–348.
(13)The difficulties that humans encounter when they attempt to live on a diet of raw foods are described in detail in Richard Wrangham’s Catching Fire: How Cooking Made Us Human, 15–36.
(14)See Leslie C. Aiello and Peter Wheeler, “The Expensive-Tissue Hypothesis: The Brain and the Digestive System in Human and Primate Evolution,” Current Anthropology 36, no. 2 (1995), 199–221.
(15)It should be noted that Aiello and Wheeler argued that the increase in brain size between the early hominids and the emerging humans was most likely due to the addition of substantial amounts of meat in the hominid diet, and they assumed that cooking was invented much later, closer to 250000 years ago. But Wrangham makes a convincing case that cooking was indeed responsible for the first and most dramatic increase in brain size, and his argument has been strengthened by the steady accumulation of evidence that hominids were already using fire on a regular basis well before one million years ago. See Richard Wrangham, Catching Fire: How Cooking Made Us Human, 96–127.
(16)Just as the human embryo has a tail and other archaic structures in an early phase of its development, the human fetus may have a considerable amount of fine hair all over its body before it is born. This fetal hair, or lanugo, is typically shed in the womb several weeks before birth.
(17)In The Palaeolithic Settlement of Asia (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009), Robin Dennell explains in detail how changes in geology and climate resulted in a huge expansion of grasslands in Asia and Africa and that by three million years ago, the grasslands of the two continents had merged into a vast belt of savannah habitats that stretched uninterrupted from West Africa to Northern China. Dennell theorized that this unbroken belt of grasslands provided a pathway for the migration of hominids north out of Africa and eastward all the way to the Pacific shores of East Asia.
الفصل الرابع: تقنيات الملبس والمسكن
(1)The Schöningen javelins described in chapter 2 provide one of the rare exceptions. These wooden spears, fortuitously preserved in the highly acidic environment of German peat bogs for four hunderd thousand years, showed that the manufacture of wooden artifacts by emerging humans was already in an advanced state by the beginning of the Middle Paleolithic approximately three hunderd thousand years ago. Yet of all the billions of wooden artifacts that were doubtless created by the hominids who roamed the earth for several million years, only these four objects, some wooden artifacts from Bilzingsleben in Germany, and a single spear point from Clacton, England, have been found that date from before fifty thousand years ago.
(2)Among the rare exceptions are the decorative beads that some prehistoric humans fashioned from seashells beginning about eighty-five thousand years ago.
(3)While gold, silver, and copper were used extensively throughout the Americas in pre-Columbian times, these metals were used primarily for the manufacture of jewelry and other objects that functioned as symbols of wealth and status. The techniques we usually associate with metallurgy and that characterized the technologies of the Bronze Age and Iron Age cultures in Europe and Asia—the smelting of ores, casting of metal into shapes, mixing of molten metals to create alloys, and the tempering of finished metal objects—were rudimentary in pre-Columbian America and were not central to their technologies. In fact, in some of the most advanced of these civilizations—such as the Mayan civilization of Guatemala and the Yucatán Peninsula—metal artifacts played only a marginal role and were not essential components of their military, political, or economic activities.
(4)See Colin Groves and Jordi Sabater-Pi, “From Ape’s Nest to Human Fix-Point,” Man 20, no. 1 (1985), 22–47. “Anyone however slightly familiar with Great Apes in their natural environment,” the article begins, “will have been struck by their elaborate nests: their ubiquity, the regularity of their construction, [and] the skill required to make them.”
(5)A few instances of nest-sharing between adults have been observed between consort pairs of bonobos, which occasionally share sleeping nests with their partners. But juvenile gorillas and chimpanzees as young as one year of age have been observed beginning to construct their own nests, and juveniles older than five years of age regularly construct their own nests and use them to sleep apart from their mothers.
(6)Groves and Sabater-Pi, 1985, 38.
(7)This was the time period during which the inhabitants of Schöningen, less than one hundred miles to the north of Bilzingsleben, were making their famous hardwood javelins and using them for hunting wild horses.
(8)For an excellent argument in support of the view that Neandertals must have used dwellings and clothing in spite of the near total lack of archeological evidence, see Mark J. White, “Things to Do in Doggerland When You’re Dead: Surviving OIS3 At the Northwestern-Most Fringe of Middle Palaeolithic Europe,” World Archaeology 38 (2006), no. 4, 547–575. For a rebuttal of the hypothesis that the stone circles of Terra Amata were in fact the remains of prehistoric habitations, see Paola Villa, Terra Amata and The Middle Pleistocene Archaeological Record of Southern France (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983).
(9)See Aiello and Wheeler, “Neandertal Thermoregulation and the Glacial Climate” in Tjerd van Andel and William Davies, eds., Neandertals and Modern Humans in the European Landscape of the Last Glaciation: Archaeological Results of the Stage 3 Project, (Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, 2003).
(10)Remains from Paleolithic sites in eastern Europe indicate that as long as twenty-seven thousand years ago, prehistoric people had already developed sophisticated techniques of weaving and sewing. They made cordage, knotted netting, wicker basketry, and woven and twilled textiles sewn together with bone needles. In fact, the advanced state of weaving and sewing that was already evident by twenty-seven thousand years ago indicates that these technologies had actually originated much farther back in time. Finally, many of the Venus figurines recovered from these time periods are inscribed with patterns and designs suggesting that the people of those ancient societies were customarily wearing woven, tailored clothing.
(11)Since women in preindustrial societies typically bore several children during their lifetimes, it can be estimated that as many as 10 percent of all human mothers died in childbirth throughout all but the most recent decades of human history. This high rate of mortality in human childbirth still exists throughout much of the developing world, and it continues to be the norm in much of sub-Saharan Africa.
(12)See Vincent Balter and Laurent Simon, “Diet and Behavior of the Saint-Césaire Neandertal Inferred from Biogeochemical Data Inversion,” Journal of Human Evolution 51 (2006), 329–338.
الفصل الخامس: تقنية التواصل الرمزي
(1)The spear-thrower or atlatl is a short stick with a cupped or hooked end that is held in the throwing hand, with the hooked end fitted into the butt end of the spear, and used to increase the effective length of the hunter’s throwing arm. The use of a spear-thrower makes it possible for a spear to be hurled with significantly greater force and speed than is possible when a spear is thrown while held only in the hand. A light spear or javelin launched with a spear-thrower can attain speeds of 150 miles per hour and has enough force to pass entirely through the body of an antelope when thrown from a distance of less than twenty-five feet. Spear-throwers first appeared about thirty thousand years ago and were still in use until modern times by hunter-gatherers all over the world.
(2)The term “petroglyph” was originally coined in the eighteenth century by the early investigators of cave art, who combined two Greek words: petros, meaning “stone,” and glyphē, meaning “carving.” The meaning of this term has since been extended to mean any man-made design on a rock or stone surface, whether carved or painted, either out in the open or on the walls of caves.
(3)See Carl C. Swisher, III, W. J. Rink, S. C. Antón, H. P. Schwarcz, Garniss H. Curtis, and A. Suprijo Widiasmoro, “Latest Homo erectus of Java: Potential Contemporaneity With Homo Sapiens in Southeast Asia.” Science vol. 274, no. 5294 (1996), 1870–1874.
(4)Homo floresiensis stood only three feet tall and had a brain no larger than the typical chimpanzee brain. But the anatomy of its brain case indicates that its prefrontal lobes—the area of the brain devoted to conscious thought—may have been more highly developed than the corresponding regions of the brains of early hominids. This suggests that Homo floresiensis may have been the offshoot of a Homo erectus population that had become isolated on Flores Island when the sea levels rose during a warming period in the global climate. See P. T. Brown, et al., “A New Small-Bodied Hominin from the Late Pleistocene of Flores, Indonesia.” Nature 431, no. 7012 (2004), 1055–1061. See also M. J. Morwood and W. L. Jungers, “Conclusions: Implications of the Liang Bua Excavations for Hominin Evolution and Biogeography,” Journal of Human Evolution 57 (2009), 640–648, and Leslie C. Aiello, “Five Years of Homo floresiensis,” American Journal of Physical Anthropology 142, issue 2 (2010), 167–179.
(5)For a detailed discussion of how anatomically modern humans were responsible for the decline and eventual extinction of the Neandertals, see Pat Shipman, The Invaders: How Humans and Their Dogs Drove Neanderthals to Extinction (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2015).
(6)The Paleolithic or “old stone age” technically refers to the entire span of time during which the hominids evolved from the earliest bipedal forms such as Australopithecus to the first anatomically modern humans, because the remains of stone tools were by far the most common artifacts found in prehistoric habitation sites throughout this long period.
The Paleolithic is usually subdivided into three eras based on tool types: (1) the Lower Paleolithic, which begins roughly three million years ago with the manufacture of the first crude Oldowan pebble tools by the early hominids and continues throughout the 1.5-million-year period during which the emerging humans such as Homo erectus made their more finely worked Acheulean hand axes; (2) the Middle Paleolithic, which begins approximately 250000 years ago and is generally associated with the Neandertals and their Mousterian flake tools; and (3) the Upper Paleolithic, which begins roughly fifty thousand years ago and corresponds to the time of the anatomically modern humans such as the Cro-Magnons, who made the finest and most varied stone tools from long, thin blades of fine-grained stone such as flint and obsidian.
The term “Paleolithic” is useful here because it distinguishes the societies of the nomadic hunters and gatherers from those of the Neolithic or “new stone age,” which begins shortly before the development of agriculture. During the Neolithic, the larger stone tools are increasingly made by grinding and polishing rather than by flaking, while the smaller stone tools made by flaking—generally called microliths— became very small and specialized. In the later years of the Neolithic, the use of pottery became widespread, and the remains of broken pottery eventually became the most common type of artifact in prehistoric habitation sites. In between these clearly-defined periods, there is a somewhat vague middle ground called the Mesolithic or “middle stone age.” This is sometimes used as a catch-all term for prehistoric cultures that do not fit neatly into the categories of either Paleolithic or Neolithic.
I have used the term “Upper Paleolithic” extensively in this chapter to refer to the period when anatomically modern humans appeared in Europe roughly fify thousand years ago—and who lived by nomadic hunting and gathering—in order to distinguish them from the food-producing societies of the Neolithic that first began to appear fifteen thousand years ago and that will be described in detail in chapter 6.
(7)The anatomically modern humans of the Upper Paleolithic were the first hominids to show clear evidence of distinct cultural traditions. Although many different Upper Paleolithic cultures have been identified in different areas of the world, those of Europe are the best known and have been the most carefully studied. While most of these cultures overlap in time with each other, they are usually organized in a rough chronological order. The oldest of these cultures was that of the Châtelperronians, who lived roughly thirty-thirty thousand years ago. They were followed by the Aurignacians, Gravettians, and Solutreans. The most recent culture was that of the Magdalenians, who survived in Europe until approximately eleven thousand years ago.
(8)These include the grotto of Chabot in Gard in 1878, the cave of La Mouthe near Les-Eyzies-de-Tayac in 1895, the caves of Les Combarelles and Font-de-Gaume at Les Eyzies in 1901, Marsoulas Cave in the Pyrenees in 1902, and La Calevie and Bernifal caves in the Vézère Valley in 1903.
(9)I am indebted to Robert Bates Graber for this observation. See Bronislaw Malinowski, Magic, Science, and Religion (Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Company, 1954), 30-31.
(10)Homo heidelbergensis was a large-brained emerging human so similar to the more advanced forms of Homo erectus that many scientists consider them to be essentially the same species. It was originally identified from a fossil jaw found near Heidelberg, Germany in 1907, and other remains of this hominid have since been found in Africa and western Asia. Homo heidelbergensis is the evolutionary branch of Homo erectus that is most likely to have been ancestral to the Neandertals as well as to anatomically modern humans.
(11)See John Feliks, “The Graphics of Bilzingsleben: Sophistication and Subtlety in the Mind of Homo erectus,” Proceedings of the XV UISPP World Congress, Oxford: BAR International Series, 2006. Available at: http://www-personal.umich.edu/~feliks/graphics-of-bilzingsleben/index.html. See also: John Feliks, “The Golden Flute of Geissenklösterle: Mathematical Evidence for A Continuity Of Human Intelligence as Opposed to Evolutionary Change Through Time,” Aplimat—Journal of Applied Mathematics 4, no. 4 (2011), 157-162.
(12)This argument is set forth by Iain Davidson and William Noble in “The Archaeology of Perception: Traces of Depiction and Language.” Current Anthropology 30, no. 2 (1989), 125–156.
(13)See Leslie C. Aiello and Robin I. M. Dunbar, “Neocortex Size, Group Size, and the Evolution of Language,” Current Anthropology 34, no. 2 (1993), 184–193.
(14)From Alice in Wonderland, by Lewis Carroll.
الفصل السادس: تقنية الزراعة
(1)For the “oasis theory,” see V. Gordon Childe, “Chapter V: The Neolithic Revolution” in Man Makes Himself (New York: Oxford University Press, 1936). For the “hilly flanks” theory, see Robert J. Braidwood, “The Agricultural Revolution,” Scientific American 203 (1960), 130–148. For the “demographic” or “population pressure” theory, see Lewis R. Binford, “Post-Pleistocene Adaptations,” in Sally R. Binford and Lewis R. Binford, New Perspectives in Archaeology (Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company, 1968), 313–342. See also Kent Flannery, “The Origins of Agriculture,” Annual Review of Anthropology 2 (1973), 271–310, and Mark N. Cohen, The Food Crisis in Prehistory: Overpopulation and the Origins of Agriculture (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1977). For the “co-evolutionary” theory, see David Rindos, The Origins of Agriculture: An Evolutionary Perspective (Orlando, Florida: Academic Press, 1984). For the “competitive feasting” theory, see Brian Hayden, “Nimrods, Piscators, Pluckers, and Planters: The Emergence of Food Production,” Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 9, no. 1 (1990), 31–69. For the “hospitable climate” theory, see Peter J. Richerson, Robert Boyd, and Robert L. Bettinger, “Was Agriculture Impossible during the Pleistocene but Mandatory during the Holocene?,” American Antiquity 66, no. 3 (2001), 387–411.
(2)Graeme Barker, The Agricultural Revolution in Prehistory (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006), 383.
(3)The plump yellow grain that grows in large cobs on tall fleshy plants is known throughout most of the world as “maize” or “mealie” but is called “corn” in the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. By contrast, the word “corn” is used throughout most of the world for the cereal grains such as wheat, rye, and barley.
(4)The horse was domesticated about five thousand years ago in the steppes, or grasslands, of present-day Kazakhstan, nearly a thousand miles north and east of the Fertile Crescent, where it first became important as a means of transportation. The important story of the domesticated horse will be discussed at length in the next chapter, where we will see how, as one of the key elements in the technologies of interaction, the horse contributed significantly to the emergence of cities and the emergence of urban civilization.
(5)Andrew Sherratt, “Climatic Cycles and Behavioural Revolutions: The Emergence of Modern Humans and the Beginning of Farming,” Antiquity 71, 1997, 277.
(6)See R. Alexander Bentley et al., “Community Differentiation and Kinship Among Europe’s First Farmers,” Proceedings of the National Academic of Sciences of the United States of America 109, no. 24 (2012), 9326–9330.
(7)See Verrier Elwin, The Kingdom of the Young (London: Oxford University Press, 1968), 165–169; Clellan S. Ford and Frank A. Beach, Patterns of Sexual Behavior (New York: Harper Torchbooks, 1951), 268; William A. Lessa, Ulithi: A Micronesian Design for Living (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1966), 88; Bronislaw Malinowski, The Sexual Life of Savages in North-Western Melanesia (New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1929), 198–200; and Marjorie Shostak, Nisa: The Life and Words of a ¡Kung Woman (New York: Vintage Books, 1983), 150-151.
(8)See Melvin J. Konner, “Hunter-Gatherer Infancy and Childhood: The !Kung and Others,” in Barry S. Hewlett and Michael E. Lamb, eds., Hunter-Gatherer Childhoods: Evolutionary, Developmental and Cultural Perspectives (Piscataway, NJ: Aldine Transaction, 2006), 19–64.
(9)The purpose of these arrangements was mainly to obtain the allegiance—and often the services—of the prospective son-in-law. However, when these girls reached adulthood, they were usually free to leave their “assigned” husband in favor of some other man who was more to their liking. See Victoria K. Burbank, “Premarital Sex norms: Cultural interpretations in an Australian Aboriginal Community,” Ethos 15, no. 2 (1987), 226–234.
(10)See Napoleon Chagnon, Yanomamö: The Fierce People, 2nd ed. (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1977), 119–124. See also Kenneth Good, Into the Heart: One Man’s Pursuit of Love and Knowledge among the Yanomama (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1991), 72–74 and 194–204.
الفصل السابع: تقنيات التفاعل
(1)Jared Diamond, The World until Yesterday (New York: Viking, 2012), 4-5.
(2)In deference to the sensitivities of atheists, agnostics, and non-Christians, scientists and scholars have recently begun using the term “BCE,” meaning “Before the Common (or Current) Era,” in preference to the traditional “BC” or “Before Christ.” For the same reason, they have also begun using the corresponding term “CE,” meaning “Common (or Current) Era,” instead of the more traditional “AD” or “Anno Domini” (“the year of our Lord”). While not meaning to take issue with the logic of this change—but for the convenience of readers who are not be familiar with these terms—I have continued using the more traditional “BC” and “AD” in this book for dates before and after the birth of Christ.
(3)These were the Warring States period (476–221 BC), the Sixteen Kingdoms period (304–439 AD), the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period (907–960 AD), and the Song, Liao, Jin, and Western Xia dynasties period (960–1234 AD).
(4)See Robert G. Bednarik, “Seafaring in the Pleistocene,” Cambridge Archaeological Journal 13, no. 1 (2003), 41–66.
(5)Although three hundred miles of open sea separate Timor from the Australian coast today, sea levels during the ice ages were three hundred feet lower than they are now, and large areas of the continental shelves on both sides of the Timor Strait were exposed. The distance between Australia and Timor sixty thousand years ago was approximately fifty miles of open sea.
(6)See Robert G. Bednarik, “Crossing the Timor Sea by Middle Palaeolithic Raft,” Anthropos 95 (2000): 37–47, and Robert G. Bednarik, “Seafaring,” in Helaine Selin Springer, ed. , Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures, 2nd ed., 2008.
(7)With apologies to David W. Anthony, whose exhaustive study The Horse, the Wheel, and Language has illuminated the pivotal role played by the domesticated horse in the histories of both ancient and modern civilizations.
(8)See David W. Anthony, The Horse, the Wheel, and Language: How Bronze-Age Riders from the Eurasian Steppes Shaped the Modern World (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007).
(9)See Robin I. M. Dunbar, “Neocortex Size as a Constraint on Group Size in Primates,” Journal of Human Evolution 20 (1992), 469–493.
الفصل الثامن: تقنية الآلات الدقيقة
(1)Daniel J. Boorstin, The Discoverers: A History of Man’s Search to Know His World and Himself (New York: Vintage Books, 1985), 62-63.
(2)Peter Hutchinson, “Magazine Growth in the Nineteenth Century,” A Publisher’s History of American Magazines (2008), 1. Available on line at: http://www.themagazinist.com/Magazine_History.html.
(3)J. V. Thirgood, “The Historical Significance of Oak,” in Oak Symposium Proceedings: 1971 August 16–20 (Upper Darby, PA: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station), 9.
(5)Nicéphore Niépce is better known as one of the first inventors of photography. His “View from the Window at Le Gras,” taken in 1827, is the world’s oldest surviving photograph.
(6)Kenneth Chase, Firearms: A Global History to 1700. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), 25.
(7)Warren D. Devine, “From Shafts to Wires: Historical Perspective on Electrification,” The Journal of Economic History 43 (1983), 349.
(8)Perhaps this is why many behavioral scientists in the twentieth century embraced the preposterous idea that humans are the only animals capable of reason and emotion—as if such mental activities had emerged full-blown for the first time in the history of life on Earth with the appearance of Homo sapiens. Such views—which were never supported by credible scientific evidence—could only have been taken seriously by someone who had never lived with an intelligent animal such as a dog, cat, horse, pig, monkey, or parrot. People who have lived intimately with such animals are well aware that they are capable of both reason and a wide range of emotions.
(9)In 1935, there were nearly seven million farms in the United States. By the year 2007, the number of farms had declined to 2.2 million. In that year, the largest 188000 farms accounted for 63 percent of all agricultural products sold, while the smallest 2012000 farms accounted for only 37 percent of all agricultural products sold (see US Department of Agriculture, “2007 Census of Agriculture”).
الفصل التاسع: تقنية المعلومات الرقمية
(1)See Jonathan Fildes, “Campaign builds to construct Babbage Analytical Engine,” BBC News, October 14, 2010, and John Graham-Cumming, “Let’s Build Babbage’s Ultimate Mechanical Computer,” New Scientist 2791, December 23, 2010.
(2)See M. H. Weik, “Computers with Names Starting with E through H,” A Survey of Domestic Electronic Digital Computing Systems, 1955.
(3)Moore’s exact words in 1965 were as follows: “The complexity for minimum component costs has increased at a rate of roughly a factor of two per year (see graph). Certainly over the short term this rate can be expected to continue, if not to increase. Over the longer term, the rate of increase is a bit more uncertain, although there is no reason to believe it will not remain nearly constant for at least ten years. That means by 1975, the number of components per integrated circuit for minimum cost will be 65000.” Gordon E. Moore, “Cramming More Components onto Integrated Circuits.” Electronics 38, no. 8 (1965), 114–117.
(4)ENIAC contained 17468 vacuum tubes, each of which was equivalent to a modern transistor. Since the 15-Core Xeon E7 V2 microprocessor contains 4.31 billion transistors, it would require the equivalent of 4310000000 divided by 17468 or 246737 ENIACs to equal the processing power of one 15-Core Xeon E7 V2 microprocessor. Each ENIAC was 100 feet long, thus 246737 ENIACs laid end to end would measure 24673700 feet or 4673 miles in length. The weight of each ENIAC was thirty tons or 60000 pounds. Thus, 246737 ENIACs would weigh 7402110 tons—equal to the weight of sixty-six Nimitz-class supercarriers weighing 112000 tons each. The ENIAC cost $500000 to construct, which in 2014 dollars amounts to approximately $6 million. Thus, 246737 ENIACs would have cost $1480422000000 to build in 2014.
(5)Since the best vacuum tube computers of the 1950s averaged a maximum consecutive running time of ten hours (or thirty-six thousand seconds) before experiencing a vacuum tube failure, a computer as large as 246737 ENIACs would probably run for only thirty-six thousand seconds divided by 246737, or one-seventh of a second, before one of its 4310000000 vacuum tubes would fail.
(6)See Jaxton Van Derbeken, Demian Bulwa, and Erin Allday, “SF Plane Crash: Crew Tried to Abort Landing.” San Francisco Chronicle, July 8, 2013.
(7)See International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors, 2010, Overall Technology Roadmap Characteristics. 2010 Update, 8–14.
(8)See John Hultsman and William Harper, “The Problem of Leisure Reconsidered,” in Journal of American Culture 16, issue 1 (2004), 47–54.
(9)See Edgardo Sica, “International Tourism: A Driving Force for Economic Growth of Commonwealth Countries,” The Commonwealth Finance Ministers Meeting 2007.
(10)United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, International Migration Report 2013, 11–17.
(11)See Lewis et al., eds., Ethnologue: Languages of the World, 17th ed., 2014.
الفصل العاشر: عالمنا على حافة الهاوية
(1)Frank Borman, Countdown: An Autobiography (New York: Silver Arrow Books, 1988), 212.
(2)Nancy Atkinson, “A Conversation with Jim Lovell, Part 2: Looking Back,” UniverseToday.com, September 27, 2010. Available at: http://www.universetoday.com/74396/a-conversation-with-jim-lovell-part-2-looking-back/. Accessed 6/12/14.
(3)Due to their small size and immense distance from Earth, no planet outside of our own solar system has ever been observed directly. Instead, their existence is inferred from “wobbles” in the stars themselves, caused by the gravitational pull of the planets revolving around them.
(4)Light travels at the speed of 670616629 miles per hour. Multiplied by 24 hours in a day, this is 16094799096 miles per day. Multiplied by 365 days in a year, this is 5874601670040 miles per year. Sixteen light-years is thus 93993626720640 miles. At 450000 miles per hour, it would require 208874726 hours, which equals 8703114 days or 23844 years to cover the distance from the earth to Gliese 832 c.
(5)The term “biosphere” was coined by the Austrian geologist and paleontologist Eduard Suess in 1875 to describe the total mass of living things that inhabit the surface of the earth. Since the environments that support life are all found only on the earth’s surface, the physical mass of living organisms on our planet takes the shape of a sphere—hence the term “biosphere.” The same logic was used in the 1600s, when the Greek word atmos, meaning “vapor,” was combined with the earth’s spherical shape to create the word “atmosphere.”
(6)Biosphere 1 was not an earlier version of this experiment but was actually the Biospherians’ name for the earth’s natural ecosystem, or biosphere.
(7)Paratrechina longicornus, the “longhorn crazy ant,” is one of the most common species of ants and is found in human habitations throughout the world. Its name is derived from its long antennae and its habit of running erratically at high speeds in all directions.
(8)Joel E. Cohen and David Tilman, “Biosphere 2 and Biodiversity: The Lessons So Far,” Science 274, no. 5290, November 15, 1996, 1151.
(9)Although Israel has never publicly acknowledged the existence of its nuclear weapons program, it has never denied its existence either. In 2002, Robert S. Norris and his colleagues described the Israeli nuclear program as follows:
After Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser closed the Straits of Tiran in 1953, Israeli Prime Minister David Ben Gurion began development of nuclear weapons and other unconventional munitions. His protégé, Shimon Peres, played a central role in securing an agreement with France in 1956 for a nuclear research reactor. Physicist Ernst David Bergmann, director of the Israeli Atomic Energy Commission, provided early scientific direction … With French assistance, Israel built a nuclear weapons facility at Dimona in the Negev desert. The Dimona site has a plutonium/tritium production reactor, an underground chemical separation plant, and nuclear component fabrication facilities.
(10)A summary of world nuclear weapons stockpiles is available at: http://www.ploughshares.org/world-nuclear-stockpile-report. Accessed 6/3/14.
(11)In 1976, there were 102 Stage 1 smog alerts in the Los Angeles Basin, while in 1998 there were only twelve Stage 1 alerts. See “Pollution in Los Angeles County,” RabbitAir, 2014. Available at: http://www.rabbitair.com/pages/pollution-in-los-angeles-county. Accessed 6/18/2014.
(12)See William Laurance, “China’s Appetite for Wood Takes a Heavy Toll on Forests,” Yale Environment 360, November 17, 2011.
(13)Huang Wenbin and Sun Xiufang, “Tropical Hardwood Flows in China: Case Studies of Rosewood and Okoumé, Forest Trends, December 2013, 5.
(14)For an eloquent description of the Białowieża Puszcza (pronounced “bialoVIESKa PUSHta”), see chapter 1, “A Lingering Scent of Eden,” in The World Without Us by Alan Weisman, 9–16.
(15)See Edward O. Wilson, The Diversity of Life and Niles Eldredge, Life in the Balance: Humanity and the Biodiversity Crisis. For an excellent article explaining the difficulty of accurately estimating the rates of extinction, see Vânia Proença and Henrique Miguel Pereira, “Comparing Extinction Rates: Past, Present, and Future,” in Encyclopedia of Biodiversity, vol. 2, 167–176.
(16)The epidemic of infestation in frog populations has been caused by several strains of the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis or “BD,” and is especially troubling since it has affected frogs on every continent and has already been linked to the extinction of dozens of species. Nevertheless, biologists have reported limited success in helping some species of frogs to develop an immunity to BD. See Carl Zimmer, “Hope for Frogs in Face of a Deadly Fungus,” New York Times July 9, 2014.
(17)The annual extent of global carbon emissions have been painstakingly compiled by the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. For details on how this information is compiled, see G. Marland, T. A. Boden, and R. J. Andres, “Global, Regional, and National Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions,” in Trends: A Compendium of Data on Global Change (Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, US Department of Energy). Available at: http://cdiac.ornl.gov/trends/emis/overview. Detailed annual emissions data since 1751 is available at: http://cdiac.ornl.gov/trends/emis/tre_glob.html.
(18)Marine isotope stages (MIS), also known as “oxygen isotope stages (OIS),” refer to periods in the earth’s geological history when global temperatures became either warmer or cooler than they had been during the preceding time period. These stages are determined by measuring the ratio of two isotopes of oxygen—oxygen-16 and oxygen-18—in the shells of marine organisms that were buried at different geologic times in the sea floor. As the oceans become warmer, the proportion of oxygen-18 in the shells decreases; as the oceans become cooler, the proportion of oxygen-18 increases. There have been twenty-two of these stages during the past million years, reflecting the alternating states of global warming and global cooling as the ice ages have advanced and retreated. Odd numbered stages, including MIS 1 (the past eleven thousand years) and MIS 11 represent the warm periods, while even numbered stages represent cold periods, including all of the major ice ages that have occurred over the past million years.
(19)See William R. Howard, “Palaeoclimatology: A Warm Future in the Past,” in Nature 388 (1997), 418-419, and Alberto V. Reyes, Anders E. Carlson, Brian L. Beard, Robert G. Hatfield, Joseph S. Stoner, Kelsey Winsor, Bethany Welke, and David J. Ullman, “South Greenland Ice-Sheet Collapse during Marine Isotope Stage 11,” Nature 510 (2014), 525–528.
(20)Climate scientists are still struggling to understand exactly why the several most recent ice ages have begun with uncanny regularity every one hundred thousand years, but the prevailing consensus is that this phenomenon is related to irregularities in the earth’s orbit around the sun. See John Imbrie, A. Berger, E. A. Boyle, S. C. Clemens, A. Duffy, W. R. Howard, G. Kukla, J. Kutzbach, D. G. Martinson, A. Mcintyre et al., “On the Structure and Origin of Major Glaciation Cycles: 2. The 100000-Year Cycle,” Paleoceanography 8, no. 6 (1993), 699–735.
(21)See Toby Tyrrell, John G. Shepherd, and Stephanie Castle, “The Long-Term Legacy of Fossil Fuels,” in Tellus B, vol. 59 (2007), 664672, and also Fred Hoyle and Chandra Wickramasinghe, “On the Cause of Ice-Ages,” Cambridge-Conference Network, July 1999. Available at: http://abob.libs.uga.edu/bobk/ccc/ce120799.html.
(22)See United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, World Population Prospects: The 2012 Revision (New York: United Nations, 2014).
(23)The exact number of nation-states is not only frequently changing but is also subject to interpretation. For example, thirty new nations came into being in the seven years between 1956 and 1963, when the colonies of Africa achieved independence from Europe and became independent nations. And the total number of nation-states increased again by five during the 1990s, when a single nation-state, the former Republic of Yugoslavia, fissioned into six independent nations: Serbia, Croatia, Slovenia, Macedonia, Montenegro, and Bosnia-Herzegovina. Moreover, it can sometimes be difficult to determine whether a given political and geographical entity is in fact a nation-state in its own right. For example, is Palestine a nation—as the Palestinians themselves asserted in their Declaration of Independence in 1988—or is it a United Nations mandate without any status as an independent nation, as the Israeli government currently maintains? There is no consensus on this point.
(24)Between 1901 and 2000, no less than 177 new nation states were created. See Philip G. Roeder, Where Nation-States Come From: Institutional Change in the Age of Nationalism (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007), 10.
(25)Of the 150 Nobel Prizes awarded in physics, chemistry, and medicine during the fifty years beginning in 1964 and ending in 2013, eighty-two, or 55 percent, were awarded to international teams. See Wikipedia, List of Nobel Laureates, 2014.