الفصل الأول: مقدِّمة إلى سلسلة الكتل:شبكة السكك الحديدية المرتقبة
(1)Christensen, Clayton M. 1997. The Innovator’s Dilemma: When New Technologies Cause Great Firms to Fail. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
(2)Shah, Rahul, et al. 2019. The Digital Banking and Tech Revolution in EM. Tellimer. https://insights. tellimer.com/article/the-digital-banking-and-tech-revolution-inem. Accessed 1 April 2020.
(3)Mbele, Lerato. 2016. Why M-Pesa Failed in South Africa. BBC Africa Business Report, 11 May. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-36260348. Accessed 26 December 2018.
(4)Chan, Connie. 2015. When One App Rules Them All: The Case of WeChat and Mobile in China. Andreessen Horowitz, 6 August. https://a16z.com/2015/08/06/wechat-china-mobile-first/. Accessed 12 February 2019.
(5)For more details on the usage of mobile phones in the Indian fishing industry, see https://www.ictworks.org/surprise-fishermen-using-mobile-phones-for-market-prices-is-the-largest-lie-in-ict4d and Steyn, Jacques. 2016. A Critique of the Claims about Mobile Phones and Kerala Fisherman: The Importance of the Context of Complex Social Systems. The Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries 74(3): 1–31.
(6)International Finance Corporation. 2018. Digital Access: The Future of Financial Inclusion in Africa. https://www.ifc.org/wps/wcm/connect/region__ext_content/ifc_external_corporate_site/sub-saharan+africa/resources/201805_report_digital-access-africa.
الفصل الثاني: الثقة هي الأهم
(1)It should be noted that Rwanda, which has focused for many years on improving its business environment, scores 28.5, tying for best in the world with the Netherlands, Taiwan, Singapore and Lithuania.
الفصل الثالث: ما المشكلات التي تحلُّها سلسلة الكتل؟
(1)Eha, Brian Patrick. 2016. You Don’t Really Own Your Securities: Can Blockchain Fix That? American Banker, 27 July. https://www.americanbanker.com/news/you-dont-really-own-your-securities-can-blockchains-fix-that. Accessed 12 February 2019.
(2)Levine, Matt. 2017. Dole Foods Had Too Many Shares. Bloomberg, 17 February. https://www.bloomberg.com/opinion/articles/2017-02-17/dole-food-had-too-many-shares. Accessed 22 February 2019.
(3)For an overview of the theory of risk homeostasis, see: Wilde, G.J.S. 1998. Risk Homeostasis Theory: An Overview. Injury Prevention, 4.
(4)Reason, J. 2016. Managing the Risks of Organizational Accidents. Routledge.
(5)Wargo, D.T., N.A. Baglini, and K.A. Nelson. 2010. The New Millennium’s First Global Financial Crisis: The Neuroeconomics of Greed, Self-Interest, Deception, False Trust, Overconfidence and Risk Perception. Neuroeconomics and the Firm, 78–98.
(6)Greg Satell and Peter Hinssen discuss the differing pace of fundamental and application layer innovation in “The End of the Digital Revolution,” an episode of the London Business School Review podcast: https://soundcloud.com/londonbusinessschool/the-end-of-the-digital-revolution-peter-hinssen.
(7)To add further perspective, in 1993 when Paul worked on developing an early shopping website just figuring out how to get the site to remember what the person wanted to buy from the beginning to end of the transaction was a challenge.
الفصل الرابع: مَن المتحكِّم فعليًّا في سلسلة الكتل؟
(3)A more detailed discussion of who controls Bitcoin Core can be found here: https://blog.lopp.net/who-controls-bitcoin-core-/.
(4)Even within the US, energy costs vary widely, from US$0.10 per kilowatt hour in the northern Midwest to over US$0.27 per kilowatt hour in Alaska and Hawaii; https://www.eia.gov/electricity/monthly/epm_table_grapher.php?t=epmt_5_6_a. Accessed 12 April 2019.
(5)One of the more famous stories of lost bitcoin is that of James Howells. He lost 7500 bitcoin (now worth over US$ 200 million) when he threw away the hard drive he used to mine bitcoin back in 2009: https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2013/nov/27/hard-drive-bitcoin-landfill-site.
(6)One of the more notable analyses of circulating supply of bitcoin was done by Dhruv Bansal of Unchained Capital: https://blog.unchained-capital.com/bitcoin-data-science-pt-1-hodl-waves-7f3501d53f63.
(7)This follows years of negative comments by the bank’s CEO, Jamie Dimon: “In 2017 JPMorgan CEO Jamie Dimon described bitcoin as a ‘fraud,’ ‘stupid’ and ‘far too dangerous’ to people who traded it.” https://www.cnn.com/2019/02/14/investing/jpmorgan-jpm-coin-cryptocurrency/index.html. Accessed 8 April 2019.
الفصل الخامس: جَني المال
(1)For a brief overview of currency crises in emerging markets, see Currency Crises in Emerging Markets. 2015. Council on Foreign Relations. https://www.cfr.org/backgrounder/currency-crisesemerging-markets.
(2)Jones, Claire, and James Shotter. 2016. Banks Look for Cheap Way to Store Cash Piles as Rates Go Negative. Financial Times. https://www.ft.com/content/e979d096-5fe3-11e6-b38c-7b39cbb1138a.
(3)“Iceland Bank Failure: Which Councils are Affected?” 2008. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2008/oct/10/localgovernment-iceland.
الفصل السادس: أكثر من المال
(1)Kagen, Matt, CEO of Epigraph, Author Interview, 1 October 2019.
(2)“The Economist versus the terrorist.” 2003. The Economist, 20 January.
(3)An example from the developed world shows how important system design and security is in property registration: Strava, a popular app to share sports activity, allows cyclists to post pictures of their bicycles and share details of their rides. Given that many of the rides start from the cyclist’s front door, high-end bicycle thieves realized that they could combine the pictures and the starting points of shared routes to create a database of high-end bicycles and their locations ready to be stolen. See: https://news.sky.com/story/cyclists-warned-to-beware-sharing-data-on-ride-tracking-apps-11273754.
(5)Moon, S., and T. Williamson. 2010. Greater Aid Transparency: Crucial for Aid Effectiveness. ODI Project Brief No. 35. London: ODI. https://www.odi.org/sites/odi.org.uk/files/odi-assets/publicationsopinion-files/5722.pdf and Ramkumar, V., and P. De Renzio. 2009. Improving Budget Transparency and Accountability in Aid Dependent Countries: How Can Donors Help. Washington, DC: International Budget Partnership.
(6)See Kenny, C. Results Not Receipts: Counting the Right Things in Corruption for an interesting discussion of the relative importance of corruption in aid.
(8)Hawkins, Robert, Senior Education & Technology Policy Specialist and Global Lead for Technology and Innovation in Education at The World Bank, Author Interview, 22 October 2019.
(10)Hawkins, Robert, Senior Education & Technology Policy Specialist and Global Lead for Technology and Innovation in Education at The World Bank, Author Interview, 22 October 2019.
(11)For a discussion of the problem of aid coordination, see Bourguignon, F., and J.P. Platteau. 2015. The Hard Challenge of Aid Coordination. World Development, 69, May.
(12)This paraphrases a discussion had under the Chatham House Rule.
(13)Quadri, Aman, CEO of Amchart, author interview 8 October 2019.
(14)For an example of how Saddam Hussein used division to maintain his power base in Iraq, see Quinlivan, J. 1999. Coup-proofing: Its Practices and Consequences. International Security 24 (2, Fall).
(16)World Economic Outlook. 2019. IMF. April.
(17)STR survey, cited at https://www.iol.co.za/travel/africa/addis-ababa-has-the-most-expensivehotel-rooms-in-africa-survey-reveals-30485954.
(18)For a review of this literate, see Locke, Anna. 2013. Property Rights and Development Briefing: Property Rights and Economic Growth. London: ODI. Accessed 19 August 2019.
(19)“The Economist Versus the Terrorist.” 2003. The Economist, 20 January.
(20)“India Economy Profile.” 2020. Doing Business in 2020. World Bank. https://www.doingbusiness.org/en/data/exploreeconomies/india#.
الفصل السابع: الانفتاح التجاري
(1)Ramjiawan, Bram, Angela Ramjiawan, Paramjit Tappia, and Grant Pierce. 2012. Public Health Risks and Economic Impact of Counterfeit Medicines. NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C: Environmental Security 122: 203–212. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-2953-7_18.
(2)Information is based on WHO data and interviews with Adham Yehia and Chibuzo Opara by the authors and journalist Amy Fallon.
(4)Kacungira, N. 2018. Fighting the Vanilla Thieves of Madagascar. London: BBC News. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/resources/idt-sh/madagascar_vanillla.
(5)See, for example, Bernhardt, T. 2016. South-South Trade and South-North Trade: Which Contributes More to Development in Asia and South America? Insights from Estimating Income Elasticities of Import Demand. CEPAL Review 118 (118): 97–114, April 2016 and Athukorala, P. 2011. South-South Trade: An Asian Perspective. Asian Development Bank Economics Working Paper Series, No. 265. Manila: Asian Development Bank.
(6)World Bank. 2019. Doing Business 2019. https://www.doingbusiness.org/en/data/exploretopics/trading-across-borders.
(7)XL Catlin. Global Credit Insurance Monitor 2017.
الفصل الثامن: سيناريو الرهان الكبير في مقابل سيناريو الشيطان الذي تعرفه
(1)While smartphone penetration is growing rapidly in sub-Saharan Africa, it still stood at only 33% in 2018, with much lower levels in some countries (http://www.itwebafrica.com/mobilex/320-south-africa/244990-sub-saharan-africas-smartphone-penetration-at-33). Levels in South Asia can be even lower, at 34% in Pakistan ( https://www.statista.com/statistics/671542/smartphone-penetration-as-shareof-connections-in-pakistan/) and 24% in India (https://venturebeat.com/2019/02/05/pew-south-korea-has-the-worlds-highest-smartphone-ownership-rate/).
(2)World Bank data, LocalBitcoins.com and author analysis.