المراجع

الجزء الأول: النظرية

الفصل الأول: الجينات والمدارس والتعلُّم

  • OECD (2010). The High Cost of Low Educational Performance: The Long-run Economic Impact of Improving PISA Outcomes. Paris: OECD. DOI: 10.1787/9789264077485-en.
  • Walker, S. O. and Plomin, R. (2005). The Nature-Nurture question: Teachers’ perceptions of how genes and the environment influence educationally relevant behavior. Educational Psychology, 25, 509–516. DOI: 10.1080/01443410500046697.

الفصل الثاني: كيف نعرف ما نعرف

  • Collins, Francis (2010). The Language of Life: DNA and the Revolution in Personalized Medicine. New York: HarperCollins Publishers.
  • Harris, J. R. (1999). The Nurture Assumption: Why Children Turn Out the Way they Do. New York: Touchstone.
  • Hirschhorn, J. N. and Daly, M. J. (2005). Genome-wide association studies for common diseases and complex traits. Nature Reviews Genetics, 6, 95–108.
  • Watson, J. D. and Crick, F. H. C. (1953). Genetical implications of the structure of deoxyribonucleic acid. Nature, 171, 964–967.

الفصل الثالث: المهارات الأساسية الثلاث المهارتان الأولى والثانية: القراءة والكتابة

  • Chow, B. W.-Y., Ho, C. S.-H., Wong, S. W.-L., Waye, M. M. Y., and Bishop, D. V. M. (2011). Genetic and environmental influences on Chinese language and reading abilities. PLoS One, 6: e16640.
  • DeFries, J. C., Vogler, G. P., and LaBuda, M. C. (1986). Colorado Family Reading Study: An overview. In J. L. Fuller and E. C. Simnel (eds), Perspectives in Behavior Genetics (pp. 29–56). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Fisher, S. E. and DeFries, J. C. (2002). Developmental dyslexia: Genetic dissection of a complex cognitive trait. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 3, 767–780.
  • Friend, A., DeFries, J. C., Olson, R. K., Pennington, B., Harlaar, N., Byrne, B., Samuelsson, S., Willcutt, E. G., Wadsworth, S. J., Corley, R., and Keenan, J. M. (2009). Heritability of high reading ability and its interaction with parental education. Behavior Genetics, 39, 427–436.
  • Hayiou-Thomas, M. E., Harlaar, N., Dale, P. S., and Plomin, R. (2006). Genetic and environmental mediation of the prediction from preschool language and nonverbal ability to 7-year reading. Journal of Research in Reading, 29(1), 50–74.
  • Hensler, B. S., Schatschneider, C., Taylor, J., and Wagner, R. K. (2010). Behavioral genetic approach to the study of dyslexia. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 31, 525–532.
  • Kovas, Y., Haworth, C. M. A., Dale, P. S., and Plomin, R. (2007). The genetic and environmental origins of learning abilities and disabilities in the early school years. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 72, 1–144.
  • Laranjo, I. and Bernier, A. (2012). Children’s expressive language in early toddlerhood: links to prior maternal mind-mindedness. Early Child Development and Care, 72, 748–767.
  • Mol, S. E. and Bus, A. G. (2011). To read or not to read: A meta-analysis of print exposure from infancy to early adulthood. Psychological Bulletin, 137(2), 267–296.
  • Oliver, B. R., Dale, P. S., and Plomin, R. (2007). Writing and reading skills as assessed by teachers in 7-year-olds: A behavioural genetic approach. Cognitive Development, 22 (1), 77–95.
  • Olson, R. K. (2007). Introduction to the special issue on genes, environment and reading. Reading and Writing, 20, 1–11.
  • Paracchini, S., Thomas, A., Castro, S., Lai, C., Paramasivam, M., Wang, Y., and Monaco, A. P. (2006). The chromosome 6p22 haplotype associated with dyslexia reduces the expression of KIAA 0319, a novel gene involved in neuronal migration. Human Molecular Genetics, 15(10), 1659–1666.
  • Paracchini, S., Steer, C. D., Buckingham, L. L., Morris, A. P., Ring, S., Scerri, T., Stein, J., Pembrey, M. E., Ragoussis, J., Golding, J., and Monaco, A. P. (2008). Association of the KIAA0319 dyslexia susceptibility gene with reading skills in the general population. American Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 1576–1584.
  • Samuelsson, S., Byrne, B., Olson, R. K., Hulslander, J., Wadsworth, S., Corley, R., Willcutt, E. G. and DeFries, J. C. (2008). Response to early literacy instruction in the United States, Australia and Scandinavia: A behavioural-genetic analysis. Learning and Individual Differences, 18 (3), 289–295.
  • Scerri, T. S., Morris, A. P., Buckingham, L. L., Newbury, D. F., Miller, L. L., Monaco, A. P., Bishop, D. V. M., and Paracchini, S. (2011). DCDC2, KIAA0319 and CMIP are associated with reading-related traits. Biological Psychiatry, 70, 237–245.
  • Scheffner-Hammer, C., Farkas, G., and Maczuga, S. (2010). The language and literacy development of Head Start children: A study using the Family and Child Experiences Survey Database. Language, Speech and Hearing Services in Schools, 41, 70–83.
  • Taylor, J., Roehrig, A. D., Hensler, B. S., Connor, C. M., and Schatschneider, C. (2010). Teacher quality moderates the genetic effects on early reading. Science, 328 (5977), 512–514.
  • Wilcutt, E. G., Pennington, B. F., Duncan, L., Smith, S. D., Keenan, J. M., Wadsworth, S., DeFries, J. C., and Olson, R. K. (2010). Understanding the complex etiologies of developmental disorders: Behavioral and molecular genetic approaches. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 31, 533–544.

الفصل الرابع: المهارات الأساسية الثلاث، المهارة الثالثة: الحساب

  • Freeman, H. (2006). Inside story: dyscalculia. The Times, 10 June 2006.
  • Gladwell, M. (2008). Outliers: The Story of Success. New York: Little, Brown and Company.
  • Schilpp, P. A. (Ed.) (1949). Albert Einstein, Philosopher-Scientist. Evanston, IL: Open Court.

الفصل الخامس: التربية البدنية: أسئلة مطروحة

  • Audrain-McGovern, J., Rodriguez, D., Wileyto, P., Schmitz, K. H., and Shields, P. G. (2006). Effect of team sport participation on genetic predisposition to adolescent smoking progression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 63 (4), 433–441.
  • Bouchard, C., An, P., Rice, T., Skinner, J. S., Wilmore, J. H., Gagnon, J., and Rao, D. C. (1999). Familial aggregation of VO2max response to exercise training: results from the HERITAGE Family Study. Journal of Applied Physiology, 87(3), 1003–1008.
  • Dubois, L., Ohm Kyvik, K., Girard, M., Tatone-Takuda, F., Perusse, D., Hjelmborg, J., Wright, M. J., Lichtenstein, P., and Martin, N. G. (2012). Genetic and environmental contributions to weight, height, and BMI from birth to 19 years of age: An international study of over 12,000 twin pairs. PLoS One, 7:e30153.
  • Fisher, A., van Jaarsveld, C. H. M., Llewellyn, C. H., and Wardle, J. (2010). Environmental influences on children’s physical activity: Quantitative estimates using a twin design. PLoS ONE 5 (4): e10110.
  • Grilo, C. M. and Pogue-Geile, M. F. (1991). The nature of environmental influences on weight and obesity: A behaviour genetic analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 10, 520–537.
  • Kelly, T., Yang, W., Chen, C. S., Reynolds, K., and He, J. (2008). Global burden of obesity in 2005 and projections to 2030. International Journal of Obesity, 32, 1431–1437.
  • Franklyn-Miller, A. (2011). Missed Olympic opportunity to get children exercising. BBC News, 21 November.
  • Maia, J. A. R., Thomis, M., and Beunen, G. (2002). Genetic Factors in physical activity levels: a twin study. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 23 (2) (Supp 1) 87–91.
  • Skelton, J. A., Irby, M. B., Grzywacz, J. G., and Miller, G. (2011). Etiologies of obesity in children: Nature and nurture. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 58, 1333–1354.
  • Van der Aa, N., De Geus, E. J. C., van Beijsterveldt, T. C. E. M., Boomsma, D. I., and Bartels, M. (2010). Genetic influences on individual differences in exercise behavior during adolescence. International Journal of Pediatrics, 138345.
  • Wardle, J., Carnell, S., Haworth, C. M. A., and Plomin, R. (2008). Evidence for a strong genetic influence on childhood adiposity despite the force of the obesogenic environment. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 87, 398–404.
  • Yang, N., MacArthur, D. G., Gulbin, J. P., Hahn, A. G., Beggs, A. H., Easteal, S., and North, K. (2003). ACTN3 genotype is associated with human elite athletic performance. The American Journal of Human Genetics, 73(3), 627–631.

الفصل السادس: العلوم: أسلوب تفكير مختلف

  • Haworth, C. M. A., Dale, P., and Plomin, R. (2008). A twin study into the genetic and environmental influences on academic performance on science in nine-year-old boys and girls. International Journal of Science Education, 30 (8), 1003–1025.
  • Haworth, C. M. A., Dale, P., and Plomin, R. (2009). The etiology of science performance: Decreasing heritability and increasing importance of the shared environment from 9 to 12 years of age. Child Development, 80(3), 662–673.
  • Haworth, C. M. A., Dale, P., and Plomin, R. (2010). Sex differences in school science performance from middle childhood to early adolescence. International Journal of Educational Research, 49(2), 92–101.
  • Haworth, C., Davis, O. S., Hanscombe, K. B., Kovas, Y., Dale, P. S., and Plomin, R. (2013). Understanding the science-learning environment: A genetically sensitive approach. Learning and Individual Differences, 23, 145–150.
  • Jenkins, E. W. and Nelson, N. W. (2005). Important but not for me: Students’ attitudes towards secondary school science in England. Research in Science and Technological Education, 23, 41–57.
  • Osborne, J., Simon, S., and Collins, S. (2003). Attitudes towards science: A review of the literature and its implications. International Journal of Science Education, 25, 1049–1079.
  • Wang, M. T., Eccles, J. S., and Kenny, S. (2013). Not lack of ability but more choice: Individual and gender differences in choice of careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Psychological Science, 24(5), 770–775.

الفصل السابع: كيف يتوافق معدل الذكاء مع الدافعية؟

  • Blackwell, L. S., Trzesniewski, K. H., and Dweck, C. S. (2007). Implicit theories of intelligence predict achievement across an adolescent transition: A longitudinal study and an intervention. Child Development, 78, 246–263.
  • Gottfredson, L. S. and Deary, I. J. (2004). Intelligence predicts health and longevity, but why? Current Directions in Psychological Science, 13 (1), 1–4.
  • Gunderson, E. A., Gripshover, S. J., Romero, C., Dweck, C. S., Goldin- Meadow, S., and Levine, S. C. (2013). Parent praise to 1- to 3-yearolds predicts children’s motivational frameworks 5 years later. Child Development, in press.
  • Haworth, C. M. A., Asbury, K., Dale, P. S., and Plomin, R. (2011). Added value measures in education show genetic as well as environmental influence. PloS one 6 (2), e16006.
  • Haworth, C. M. A., Wright, M. J., Luciano, M., Martin, N. G., De Geus, E. J. C., Van Beijsterveldt, C. E. M., … and Plomin, R. (2009). The heritability of general cognitive ability increases linearly from childhood to young adulthood. Molecular Psychiatry, 15 (11), 1112–1120.
  • Sternberg, R., Grigorenko, E., and Bundy, D. A. (2001). The predictive value of IQ. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 47 (1), 1–41.

الفصل الثامن: احتياجات تعليمية خاصة: أفكار ورؤى

  • Hodapp, R. M. and Dykens, E. M. (2009). Intellectual disabilities and child psychiatry: looking to the future. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 50, 99–107.

الفصل التاسع: «مُستنسَخون» في حجرة الدراسة

  • Asbury, K., Almeida, D., Hibel, J., Harlaar, N., and Plomin, R. (2008). Clones in the Classroom: A daily diary study of the nonshared environmental relationship between monozygotic twin differences in school experience and achievement. Twin Research and Human Genetics: The Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies, 11 (6), 586.
  • Csikszentmihalyi, M. and Csikszentmihalyi, I. S. (1988). Optimal Experience: Psychological Studies of Flow in Consciousness. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Rutter, M., Maughan, B., Mortimore, P., and Ouston, J. (1979). Fifteen Thousand Hours. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

الفصل العاشر: الفجوة بين المكانة الاجتماعية وجودة المدرسة

  • Brown, E. D., and Low, C. M. (2008). Chaotic living conditions and sleep problems associated with children’s responses to academic challenge. Journal of Family Psychology, 22, 920–923.
  • Evans, G. W., Ricciuti, H. N., Hope, S., Schoon, I., Bradley, R. H., Corwyn, R. F., and Hazan, C. (2010). Crowding and cognitive development: The mediating role of maternal responsiveness among 36-monthold children. Environment and Behavior, 42(1), 135–148.
  • Goldthorpe, J.H. (2012). Understanding—and Misunderstanding—Social Mobility in Britain: The Entry of the Economists, the Confusion of the Politicians and the Limits of Educational Policy. Oxford: Barnett Papers in Social Research. http://www.spi.ox.ac.uk/fileadmin/documents/pdf/Goldthorpe_Social_Mob_paper.pdf (accessed 25 June 2013).
  • Hanushek, E. A. (2010). The Economic Value of Higher Teacher Quality. NBER Working Paper Series, Working Paper 16606 http://www.nber.org/papers/w16606.
  • Heckman, J. J. (2006). Investing in disadvantaged young children is an economically efficient policy. Presented at the Committee for Economic Development/The Pew Charitable Trusts/PNC Financial Services Group Forum on “Building the Economic Case for Investments in Preschool” New York, January 10, 2006.
  • Melki, I. S., Beydoun, H. A., Khogali, M., Tamim, H., and Yunis, K. A. (2004). Household crowding index: a correlate of socioeconomic status and inter-pregnancy spacing in an urban setting. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 58(6), 476–480.
  • Purcell-Gates, V., McIntyre, E., and Freppon, P. A. (1995). Learning written storybook language in school: A comparison of low-SES children in skills-based and whole-language classrooms. American Educational Research Journal, 32(3), 659–685.
  • Reynolds A. J., Temple J. A., Ou S., et al. (2007). Effects of a schoolbased, early childhood intervention on adult health and well-being: A 19-year follow-up of low-income families. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 161(8), 730–739.
  • Schoon, I., Jones, E., Cheng, H., and Maughan, B. (2012). Family hardship, family instability and cognitive development. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 66(8), 716–722.
  • Schweinhart, L. J., Montie, J., Xiang, Z., Barnett, W. S., Belfield, C. R., and Nores, M. (2005). Lifetime Effects: The HighScope Perry Preschool Study Through Age 40. Monographs of the HighScope Educational Research Foundation, 14. Ypsilanti, MI: HighScope Press.
  • Walker, S. O., Petrill, S. A., and Plomin, R. (2005). A genetically sensitive investigation of the effects of the school environment and socio-economic status on academic achievement in seven-year olds. Educational Psychology, 25(1), 55–73.

الجزء الثاني: التطبيق العملي

الفصل الثاني عشر: التطبيق العملي لتخصيص التعليم

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