المراجع

الفصل الثاني

Thomas de Quincey, ‘Modern Greece’, Collected Works (2nd ed., Edinburgh, 1863), vol.13, 288; Byron, ‘John Keats, who was kill’d off by one critique’: Don Juan, Canto XI, stanza LX; Byron, ‘But who, of all the plunderers …’: Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage, Canto II, stanza XI; Horace and Greek conquest: Epistles II.1, verse 156.

الفصل الثالث

H. D. F. Kitto, In the Mountains of Greece (London, 1933), 60, 92. Simon Raven, Come Like Shadows (London, 1972), 180–3. Tour guides: Essential Mainland Greece (Basingstoke, 1994); Thomas Cook’s Travellers’ Mainland Greece, including Athens (Basingstoke, 1995); Visitor’s Guide. Greece (Ashbourne, 1994); Greece. The Rough Guide (London, 1995). Virgil, ‘uarium et mutabile semper femina’, Aeneid, Book IV, line 569.

الفصل الرابع

Pausanias’ description of Bassae: Guidebook to Greece, Book VIII, chapter 41 §§7-8—translated in J. G. Frazer, Pausanias’ Description of Greece (London, 1898), i. 427-8; commentary, iv. 393–405. DESCRIPTIONS OF PLAGUE: Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War, Book II, chapters 47–54; Lucretius, On the Nature of Things, Book VI, verses 1138–1286. Gallus fragment: papyrus found at Qasr Ibrîm, 78–3–11/1, see R. D. Anderson, Peter J. Parsons, and Robin G. M. Nisbet, ‘Elegiacs by Gallus from Qasr Ibrîm’, in Journal of Roman Studies, 69 (1979), 125–55. Juvenal: ‘What street isn’t awash …’, Satire II, lines 8–13. Robert Graves, I, Claudius, and Claudius the God (London, 1934). Umberto Eco, The Name of the Rose (London, 1980).

الفصل الخامس

TRANSPORT ESTIMATES: M. I. Finley, The Ancient Economy (London, 1973), 126. Varro, ‘instrumenti genus uocale’, On Farming, Book I, chapter 17, §1. Estimates of slaves: Paul Cartledge, The Greeks (Oxford, 1993), 135ff.; P. A. Brunt, Italian Manpower (Oxford, 1971), 124ff.

الفصل السادس

Tacitus, Britain shaped as ‘scapula’: Life of Agricola, Chapter 10, §3, ed. R. M. Ogilvie and I. A. Richmond (Oxford, 1967), 168–70. Virgil, Aeneas, and the golden bough, Aeneid, Book VI, lines 146-7.

الفصل السابع

REACTIONS TO THE FRIEZE: Edward Dodwell, A Classical and Topographical Tour through Greece (London, 1819), 387; M. Robertson, A History of Greek Art (Cambridge, 1975); Benjamin Robert Haydon, quoted by J. G. Frazer, Pausanias’ Description of Greece (London, 1898), iv. 401.

الفصل الثامن

Charles Segal, description of Bassae, Tragedy and Civilisation. An Interpretation of Sophocles (Harvard, 1981), 1. E. R. Dodds, The Greeks and the Irrational (Berkeley, 1951). Aristotle’s analysis of tragedy, The Poetics. Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War, Book II, chapters 63 and 62. Mary Renault, The Last of the Wine (London, 1956). Plato’s Socrates on the tyrant, The Republic, Book VIII, p. 565d. Edgar Allan Poe, ‘To Helen’, in Collected Works (ed. T. O. Mabbott, Cambridge, Mass., 1969), I, 163–71.

الفصل التاسع

Herodotus, how Pan assisted the Athenians, Histories, Book VI, chapters 105-6; Lucian, later Greek version of story with details about Marathon, On a Slip in a Greeting (Opus 65) §3. Polybius, History, IV, Chapters 20-1. Louis MacNeice, ‘An Eclogue for Christmas’, in Collected Poems ed. E. R. Dodds (London, 1966), 33. Horace, Pan and his Arcadian haunts, Odes, Book I, poem 17. Fiona Pitt-Kethley, The Pan Principle (London, 1994), 28. Jacopo Sannazaro, Arcadia and Piscatorial Eclogues, trans. R. Nash (Detroit, 1966). Sir Philip Sidney, The Countess of Pembroke’s Arcadia, ed. Maurice Evans (Harmondsworth, 1977). Hermann Broch, The Death of Virgil (New York, 1945). Lew Wallace, Ben-Hur. A Tale of the Christ (London, 1880). Mary Renault, The King Must Die (London, 1958), The Bull from the Sea (London, 1962). R. Goscinny and A. Uderzo, Asterix the Gladiator (Paris, 1964; trans. Leicester, 1973). Geoffrey Willans and Ronald Searle, Down with Skool! (London, 1958) and How to be Topp (London, 1954). Louis MacNeice, ‘Autumn Journal, XIII’, in Collected Poems, 125.

الفصل العاشر

Virgil, epitaph for Daphnis, Eclogue V, verses 43-4. J. Wolfgang von Goethe, Römische Elegien (1795), Italienische Reisen (1816-17), see Humphry Trevelyan, Goethe and the Greeks (Cambridge, 1981). Evelyn Waugh, Brideshead Revisited (Harmondsworth, 1945), 43 and 34. T. S. Eliot, The Waste Land (London, 1940). Nicolas Poussin, The Arcadian Shepherds, illustrated in A. Blunt, Art and Architecture in France 1500–1700 (Harmondsworth, 1953), pl. 131(B). Reynolds, Johnson, and George III anecdote: C. R. Leslie and Tom Taylor, Life and Times of Sir Joshua Reynolds (London, 1865), i. 325; retold by Erwin Panofsky, ‘“Et in Arcadia Ego”: Poussin and the Elegiac Tradition’, in Meaning in the Visual Arts (New York, 1955), 295–320. Anthony Blunt, ‘Poussin’s “Et in Arcadia Ego”’, in Art Bulletin, 20 (1938), 96ff. Louis MacNeice, ‘Pindar is Dead’, ‘Poussin’, ‘Eclogue by a five-barred gate (Death and Two Shepherds)’, in Collected Poems, 79, 4, and 37.

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