قراءات إضافية

كتب عامة

All the topics in this book are covered in more detail in S. J. Blackmore, Consciousness: An Introduction (London: Hodder & Stoughton; New York: Oxford University Press, 2003), along with exercises, demonstrations, and an extensive list of references.
D. C. Dennett, Consciousness Explained (Boston, MA, and London: Little, Brown and Co., 1991) provides a deep and fascinating philosophical approach. For opposing views, see D. Chalmers, The Conscious Mind (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996) and J. Searle, The Mystery of Consciousness (London and New York: Granta Books, 1998).
For psychology and neuroscience, try F. Crick, The Astonishing Hypothesis (New York: Scribner’s, 1994) (a strong reductionist view), and G. M. Edelman and G. Tononi, Consciousness: How Matter Becomes Imagination (London: Penguin, 2000). (In the USA, this is published as A Universe of Consciousness: How Matter Becomes Imagination, by Basic Books.) A. Zeman, Consciousness: A User’s Guide (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2002) is a good overview.
William James’s two-volume classic is The Principles of Psychology (London: MacMillan, 1890), and for some fun reading try D. R. Hofstadter and D. C. Dennett (eds), The Mind’s I: Fantasies and Reflections on Self and Soul (London: Penguin, 1981).

صحف

The two main print journals are the Journal of Consciousness Studies and Consciousness and Cognition.

مصادر ويب

Journal of Consciousness Studies online, http://www.imprint.co.uk/jcs.html .
Online papers on consciousness: this is an excellent source of many classic and contemporary papers, all available in full online, provided by David Chalmers, http://www.u.arizona.edu/˜chalmers/online.html.
Psyche, an electronic journal, http://psyche.cs.monash.edu.au/.
Science and Consciousness Review, an electronic journal, http://www.sci-con.org/links.html.
My website, with other links and online articles, http://www.susanblackmore.co.uk/.

الفصل الأول

For readings on the hard problem, see J. Shear (ed.), Explaining Consciousness—The ‘Hard Problem’ (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1997), pp. 9–30, and more generally on philosophy of mind, D. Chalmers, (ed.), Philosophy of Mind: Classical and Contemporary Readings (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002). Nagel’s original paper on the bat is T. Nagel, ‘What is it like to be a bat?’, Philosophical Review (1974), 83: 435–50. It is widely reprinted, including in Chalmers’s anthology, where you can also find Block’s paper on concepts of consciousness, and Dennett on qualia.
Zombies are discussed in D. Chalmers, The Conscious Mind (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996) and D. C. Dennett, Consciousness Explained (Boston, MA, and London: Little, Brown and Co., 1991). The Journal of Consciousness Studies devoted a special issue to zombies, vol. 2, part 4 (1995).

الفصل الثاني

For readings on NCCs, see T. Metzinger (ed.), Neural Correlates of Consciousness (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2000). For books on neuropsychology, including brain damage and blindsight, see A. Damasio, The Feeling of What Happens: Body, Emotion and the Making of Consciousness (London: Heinemann, 1999); A. D. Milner and M. A. Goodale, The Visual Brain in Action (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995); V. S. Ramachandran and S. Blakeslee, Phantoms in the Brain (London: Fourth Estate, 1998); and L. Weiskrantz, Consciousness Lost and Found (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997). For synaesthesia, see R. E. Cytowic, The Man Who Tasted Shapes (New York: Putnams, 1993).

الفصل الثالث

Libet’s delay is discussed in most general books on consciousness, including those above and J. McCrone, Going Inside (London: Faber & Faber, 1999) and in his own book, B. Libet, Mind Time: The Temporal Factor in Consciousness (Cambridge, MA, and London: Harvard University Press, 2004). Critical discussions of timing, the cutaneous rabbit, and other experiments are in D. C. Dennett, Consciousness Explained (Boston, MA, and London: Little, Brown and Co., 1991).
For the various theories discussed here, see B. J. Baars, A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988), which describes global workspace theory and supporting evidence; G. M. Edelman Wider than the Sky: The Phenomenal Gift of Consciousness, London, Allen Lane (2004); R. Penrose, Shadows of the Mind (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994); and K. R. Popper and C. Eccles, The Self and its Brain (New York: Springer, 1977).

الفصل الرابع

A. Damasio, Descartes’ Error: Emotion, Reason and the Human Brain (New York: Putnams, 1994). For the power of unconscious processing, see G. Claxton, Hare Brain, Tortoise Mind: Why Intelligence Increases When You Think Less (London: Fourth Estate, 1997). For filling-in, see D. C. Dennett, Consciousness Explained (Boston, MA, and London: Little, Brown and Co., 1991) and V. S. Ramachandran and S. Blakeslee, Phantoms in the Brain (London: Fourth Estate, 1998).
Change blindness and the grand illusion theory of vision are discussed in A. Noë (ed.), Is the Visual World a Grand Illusion?, a special issue of the Journal of Consciousness Studies (2002), 9 (5-6), and reprinted as a book by Imprint Academic of Thorverton, Devon. Also see A. Mack and I. Rock, Inattentional Blindness (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1998). Demonstrations can be viewed at http://viscog.beckman.uiuc.edu/djs_lab/demos.html and http://www.psych.ubc.ca/˜rensink/flicker/download/.

الفصل الخامس

For a simple introduction to ego and bundle theories, as well as the teletransporter thought experiment, see D. Parfit, ‘Divided minds and the nature of persons’, in C. Blakemore and S. Greenfield (eds), Mindwaves (Oxford: Blackwell, 1987), pp. 19–26. Opposing views on self are aired in a special issue of the Journal of Consciousness Studies reprinted as S. Gallagher and J. Shear (eds), Models of the Self (Thorverton, Devon: Imprint Academic, 1999).
Good introductions to Buddhism are S. Batchelor, Buddhism Without Beliefs: A Contemporary Guide to Awakening (London: Bloomsbury, 1997) and W. Rahula, What the Buddha Taught (London: Gordon Fraser; New York: Grove Press, 1959).
Split brain cases are described in M. S. Gazzaniga, Nature’s Mind (London: Basic Books, 1992) and dissociation in E. R. Hilgard, Divided Consciousness: Multiple Controls in Human Thought and Action (New York: Wiley, 1986). Early cases, and James’s own theory of self, are in W. James, The Principles of Psychology (London: MacMillan, 1890).

الفصل السادس

For the debate on Libet’s experiment, see B. Libet, ‘Unconscious cerebral initiative and the role of conscious will in voluntary action’, The Behavioral and Brain Sciences (1985), 8: 529–39, with commentaries in the same issue, 539–66, and 10, 318–21. The experiment is widely discussed, most critically in D. C. Dennett, Consciousness Explained (Boston, MA, and London: Little, Brown and Co., 1991).
The first table tipping experiment is in M. Faraday, ‘Experimental investigations of table moving’, The Athenaeum (1853), N°1340: 801–3; and for further examples and Wegner’s theory, see D. M. Wegner, The Illusion of Conscious Will (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2002).

الفصل السابع

Overviews of the topics discussed here can be found in J. A. Hobson, Dreaming: An Introduction to the Science of Sleep (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002); M. Jay (ed.), Artificial Paradises: A Drugs Reader (London: Penguin, 1999); R. M. Julien, A Primer of Drug Action: A Concise, Nontechnical Guide to the Actions, Uses, and Side Effects of Psychoactive Drugs, revised edn. (New York: Henry Holt, 2001); and M. Earleywine, Understanding Marijuana: A New Look at the Scientific Evidence (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002).
For OBEs and NDEs, see S. J. Blackmore, Dying to Live: Science and the Near Death Experience (London: Grafton, 1993) and H. J. Irwin, Flight of Mind: A Psychological Study of the Out-of-Body Experience (Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1985).
For a practical guide to meditation, see M. Batchelor, Meditation for Life (London: Frances Lincoln, 2001); and for research, see M. A. West (ed.), The Psychology of Meditation (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1987).

الفصل الثامن

The evolution of consciousness is discussed in most general books on consciousness, but see also N. Humphrey, A History of the Mind (London: Chatto & Windus, 1992); N. Humphrey, The Mind Made Flesh: Frontiers of Psychology and Evolution (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002); and E. M. Macphail, The Evolution of Consciousness (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998).
Research on animal minds is reviewed in M. D. Hauser, Wild Minds: What Animals Really Think (New York: Henry Holt and Co.; London: Penguin, 2000).
For memes, see R. A. Aunger (ed.), Darwinizing Culture: The Status of Memetics as a Science (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000) and S. J. Blackmore, The Meme Machine (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999).

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