المراجع

الاختصارات المستخدمة في المراجع

Keynes’s economic writings, including all his books, many of his published essays and articles, and a large proportion of his hitherto unpublished correspondence, have been published in thirty volumes by Macmillan in conjunction with the Royal Economic Society as The Collected Writings of John Maynard Keynes (1971–89), ed. Elizabeth Johnson and Donald Moggridge. Most of his private papers remain unpublished and, together with the originals of the published materials in the Collected Writings, are deposited at King’s College, Cambridge. The following abbreviations are used for Keynes’s work:
  • CW: The Collected Writings of John Maynard Keynes.
  • GT: The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money.
  • KP: Keynes Papers.
  • Rymes: Keynes’s Lectures, 1932–35: notes of a representative student, transcribed, edited, and constructed by Thomas K. Rymes (1989).

مقدمة

  • CW vii. 235.
  • CW xxi. 244.
  • KP, PP/57, JMK to Sterling P. Lamprecht, 19 June 1940.
  • CW x. 447.
  • CW x. 173-4.
  • CW xx. 83-4.
  • CW x. 108.
  • CW xiv. 296-7.
  • CW x. 365.
  • CW xvii. 392-3.
  • CW xxix. 166-7.
  • The Diary of Beatrice Webb, ed. N. and J. McKenzie, iv (1985), 19 June 1936, 371.
  • Russell Leffingwell: Lamont Papers, Harvard University, File 103–15, Russell Leffingwell to Thomas Lamont, 29 August 1931.
  • J. Meade: in D. Worswick and J. Trevithick (eds.), Keynes and the Modern World (1983), 266.
  • D. Bensusan-Butt, On Economic Knowledge (1980), 35.
  • L. Tarshis, ‘The Keynesian Revolution: What it Meant in the 1930s’, unpublished.
  • O. T. Falk, ‘The Tuesday Club’, 23 May 1950, unpublished.
  • The Diary of Virginia Woolf, ed. A. O. Bell, iv (1982), 19 April 1934, 208.
  • B. Russell, Autobiography (1967), i. 72.
  • K. Clark, The Other Half: A Self-Portrait (1977), 27.
  • K. Martin, in New Statesman and Nation (28 October 1933).
  • K. Singer, ‘Recollections of Keynes’, Australian Quarterly (June 1949), 50-1.
  • Diary of Virginia Woolf, ed. Bell, iv, 12 August 1934, 236-7; iii, 21 April 1928, 181.
  • Walter Stewart: Clay Papers, Nuffield College, Oxford, Box 62, W. Stewart to J. Marshall, 16 May 1949.
  • H. Stein, The Fiscal Revolution in America (1969), 147-8.
  • Singer, ‘Recollections of Keynes’, 50.
  • N. Davenport, Memoirs of a City Radical (1974), 50.
  • Pigou and Schumpeter: see J. Cunningham Wood (ed.), John Maynard Keynes: Critical Assessments, ii (1983), 22, 125, respectively.
  • A. Marshall, Principles of Economics (8th edn. 1920), 85.
  • Singer, ‘Recollections of Keynes’, 55-6.

الفصل الأول

  • CW ii. 6.
  • CW x. 436-7.
  • CW ii. 186.
  • CW ix. 267.
  • CW xxi. 233–46.
  • CW xxi. 384–95.
  • KP, W/1, JMK to Sheppard, 14 August 1940.
  • Singer, ‘Recollections of Keynes’, 52.
  • H. M. Robertson, ‘J. M. Keynes and Cambridge in the 1920s’, South African Journal of Economics (September 1983), 407.
  • F. A. Hayek, ‘A Rejoinder’, Economica (November 1931), 401.
  • Letter from A. C. Gilpin to author, 22 May 1993.

الفصل الثاني

  • KP, UA/26, ‘Egoism’, 1906.
  • KP, UA/21, ‘Miscellanea Ethica’, 1905.
  • KP, UA/35, ‘On the Principle of Organic Unity’, 1910, 1921.
  • CW xxi. 242.
  • CW x. 445.
  • KP, UA/19, ‘Ethics in Relation to Conduct’, 1904.
  • CW viii. 32.
  • CW viii. 356.
  • CW viii. 348.
  • CW x. 338-9.
  • KP, UA/20, ‘The Political Doctrines of Edmund Burke’.
  • KP, PS/6, 1925/6.
  • CW ix. 272–94.
  • CW ix. 296-7.
  • KP, PS/4.
  • CW ix. 297.
  • KP, PS/4.
  • CW ix. 295-6.
  • CW ix. 321–32.
  • G. E. Moore, Principia Ethica (1903; paperback edn. 1959), 188. Ibid. 189.
  • Keynes’s paper read to the Apostles, 23 January 1904: date supplied from the record of meetings of the Apostles by Geoffrey Lloyd, then Fellow and Tutor of King’s College, Cambridge; subsequently confirmed by Dr Roderick O’Donnell.
  • See R. M. O’Donnell, Keynes: Philosophy, Economics, and Politics (1989); A. M. Carabelli, On Keynes’s Method (1988). A. Fitzgibbons, Keynes’s Vision (1988).
  • P. Clarke, ‘The Politics of Keynesian Economics 1924–1931’, in M. Bentley and J. Stevenson (eds.), High and Low Politics in Modern Britain (1983), 177–9.
  • M. Freeden, Liberalism Divided (1986), 166–71.
  • Keynes on Baldwin: The Diary of Beatrice Webb, ed. N. and J. McKenzie (1985), 19 June 1936, 370-1; see also.
  • A. L. Rowse, Mr Keynes and the Labour Movement (1936).
  • Cannan Papers, London School of Economics, Box 20c.
  • Bank of England spokesman: Macmillan Committee on Finance and Industry, Minutes of Evidence, Cmd. 2897, vol. 2, Qs. 7690–7847.
  • Ibid. Qs. 5565, 5650, 5654, 5684–6, 6500–24.

الفصل الثالث

  • CW xii. 701-2, 730-1.
  • CW xii. 760.
  • CW xii. 696.
  • CW xii. 715–7, 730-1, 761.
  • CW xi. 377.
  • CW xii. 706-7.
  • CW xii. 764.
  • CW i. 71, 51.
  • CW xiii. 2–14.
  • CW ii. 148.
  • CW iv. 36.
  • CW iv. 126.
  • CW iv. 139-40.
  • CW iv. 147.
  • CW iv. 158–60.
  • CW iv. 146, 148.
  • CW iv. 65.
  • CW iv. 68.
  • CW iv. 144.
  • CW iv. 69.
  • CW xix. 762.
  • CW xiii. 273.
  • CW ix. 115–25.
  • CW vi. 132.
  • CW v. 121.
  • CW v, ch. 18.
  • CW vi, ‘Historical Illustrations’.
  • CW v. 158–60.
  • CW vi. 299.
  • CW vi. 304.
  • CW xx. 99–132.
  • CW xiii. 178.
  • Hawtrey Papers, Churchill College, Cambridge, 11/3, para. 22.
  • D. H. Robertson, Economic Journal (September 1931), 407.

الفصل الرابع

  • CW vii. 30.
  • CW vi, p. xxii.
  • CW xxi. 59-60.
  • CW xiii. 146.
  • CW xiii. 275-6.
  • CW xxix. 40.
  • Rymes, 50–3, 85–93.
  • Rymes, 126.
  • Rymes, 66-7, 70.
  • CW xiii. 405.
  • Rymes, 123–7.
  • Rymes, 78.
  • Rymes, 122.
  • Rymes, 112-13.
  • CW xxix. 57, 395-6.
  • CW ix. 347.
  • Rymes, 102.
  • CW xxix. 82; Rymes, 92.
  • CW vii. 27.
  • CW vii. 210.
  • CW vii. 149.
  • CW vii. 150, 161–3.
  • CW vii. 163-4.
  • CW xiv. 116.
  • CW vii. 168, 201.
  • CW vii. 202, 203, 207-8.
  • CW vii. 268.
  • CW vii. 15.
  • CW vii. 300.
  • CW vii. 394–412.
  • CW vii. 180.
  • CW vii. 181.
  • CW vii. 263.
  • CW xxix. 179, 180.
  • CW vii. 307.
  • CW xxix. 87.
  • Jens Warming: N. Cain, ‘Cambridge and its Revolution’, Economic Record (1979), 113.
  • D. Champernowne, in R. Lekachman (ed.), Keynes’s General Theory: A Report of Three Decades (1964), 55–60.
  • D. H. Robertson, ‘Some Notes on Mr. Keynes’ General Theory of Employment’, Quarterly Journal of Economics (November 1936); reprinted in J. Cunningham Wood (ed.), John Maynard Keynes: Critical Assessments (1983), 99–111.
  • J. R. Hicks, ‘Mr. Keynes and the “Classics”: A Suggested Interpretation’, Econometrica (April 1937); reprinted in Cunningham Wood (ed.), Keynes: Critical Assessments, 162–72.

الفصل الخامس

  • CW ix. 379-80.
  • CW xxii. 218.
  • CW xxii. 122-3.
  • CW xxii. 155.
  • CW xxi. 17.
  • CW xxi. 236.
  • KP, L/36.
  • CW xxv. 2.
  • CW xxv. 15.
  • CW xxv. 17.
  • CW xxv. 21–40.
  • CW xxv. 55–7.
  • CW xxv. 156.
  • CW xxvi. 9–21.
  • CW xxv. 69-70.
  • CW xxiv. 330.
  • CW xxiv. 620, 624.
  • D. Moggridge, Maynard Keynes: An Economist’s Biography (1992), 631.
  • J. Tomlinson, Employment Policy: The Crucial Years 1939–1955 (1987), 24.
  • C. H. Rolph, Kingsley: The Life, Letters, and Diaries of Kingsley Martin (1973), 203.
  • Frankfurter Papers, Library of Congress, Reel 66.
  • W. Carr, ‘Keynes and the Treaty of Versailles’, in A. P. Thirlwall (ed.), Keynes as a Policy Adviser (1982), 103–6.
  • For details of Walther Funk, see A. van Dormael, Bretton Woods: The Birth of a Monetary System (1978), 6-7.
  • Keynes’s visit to USA: see E. Playfair to S. G. Waley, 16 May 1941, in Moggridge, Keynes, 657.
  • James Meade: S. Howson and D. Moggridge (eds.), The Wartime Diaries of Leonel Robbins and James Meade 1943–1945 (1990), 106, 159, 133.
  • H. Dalton, High Tide and After (1960), 73-4.

الفصل السادس

  • CW xxvii. 384.
  • CW vii. 307.
  • CW ix. 350.
  • CW vii. 378.
  • CW vii. 129.
  • CW iv. 37.
  • CW vii. 6.
  • CW xxvii. 3.
  • CW ii. 235-6.
  • CW xvii. 184-5.
  • CW vii. 296.
  • CW vii. 302.
  • CW xxvi. 38.
  • CW xxvii. 385.
  • CW vii, p. xxvi.
  • CW xxvii. 387-8.
  • CW xviii. 394.
  • CW xiv. 296.
  • CW xiv. 122.
  • ‘Students in the 1960s’; D. Worswick and J. Trevithick (eds.), Keynes and the Modern World (1983), 127.
  • Callaghan at the Labour Party Conference: see W. Grant and S. Nath, The Politics of Economic Policy Making (1984), 144.
  • Christopher Allsopp: in D. Helm (ed.), The Economic Borders of the State (1989), 182.
  • Tomlinson, Employment Policy, 108.
  • R. C. O. Matthews, ‘Why Has Britain Had Full Employment since the War?’, Economic Journal (September 1968); reprinted in Charles Feinstein (ed.), The Managed Economy (1983), 119.
  • N. F. R. Crafts and N. Woodward (eds.), The British Economy since 1945 (1991), 7-8.
  • J. R. Hicks, The Crisis in Keynesian Economics (1974), 3.
  • J. Tobin, ‘The Intellectual Revolution in US Economic Policy-Making’, University of Essex Noel Buxton Lecture (1966).
  • Richard Kahn: in D. Worswick (ed.), The Concept and Measurement of Involuntary Unemployment (1976), 23, 27.
  • A. Coddington, Keynesian Economics: The Search for First Principles (1983), 42.
  • J. C. R. Dow, The Management of the British Economy 1945–1960 (1970), 384.
  • T. Hutchison, Economics and Economics Policy in Britain 1946–1966 (1968), 121-2.

خاتمة

  • CW xiv. 109–23.
  • CW vi. 322–4.
  • CW xiv. 112.
  • CW vii. 293.
  • CW vii. 194, 293-4.
  • CW xiv. 113.
  • CW xiv. 300.
  • CW vii. 152-3.
  • CW xiv. 114-15.
  • CW vii. 15.
  • CW xiv. 207–10.
  • CW vi. 332–5.
  • CW vii. 167–9.
  • CW vii. 201.
  • CW vii. 207-8.
  • CW vii. 337.
  • CW xxv. 28.
  • CW ix. 220.
  • CW xi. 241.
  • CW xiii. 71-2.
  • CW vii. 164.
  • CW vii. 202.
  • CW vii. 204.
  • CW vii. 203.
  • CW vii. 164.
  • CW vii. 378.
  • CW vii. 378.
  • CW vii. 373.
  • CW vii. 164.
  • CW xxi. 60.
  • Axel Leijonhufvud, Keynes and the Classics (1969).
  • John Cochrane, ‘Fiscal Stimulus, Fiscal Inflation, or Fiscal Fallacies?’, 27 February 2009: (http://faculty.chicagobooth.edu/john.cochrane/research/Papers/fiscal2.htm), accessed 20 April 2010.
  • Robert Skidelsky, The Economist as Saviour (1992, chapters 7 and 8).
  • Marriner Eccles, quoted in Sam Whister (ed.), Reforming the City (2009), p. 98.

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