قراءات إضافية

السيرة الذاتية

There have been five biographers of Keynes: Roy Harrod, The Life of John Maynard Keynes (1951); Charles Hession, John Maynard Keynes (1984); D. Moggridge, Maynard Keynes: An Economist’s Biography (1992); Paul Davidson, John Maynard Keynes (2007); and R. Skidelsky, John Maynard Keynes: Hopes Betrayed 1883–1920 (1983), and John Maynard Keynes: The Economist as Saviour 1920–1937 (1992), and John Maynard Keynes, Fighting for Britain 1937–1946 (2001). A single-volume abridgment, John Maynard Keynes: Economist, Philosopher Statesman 1883–1946, was published in 2003. Skidelsky’s Keynes: The Return of the Master (2009) was a plea for his relevance to understand, and prescribe for, the slump of 2008-9. Anand Chandavarkar, The Unexplored Keynes and Other Essays (2009) offers an engaging account of Keynes’s many-sided genius. Justyn Walsh, Keynes and the Market (2008) shows how Keynes’s varied experience as an investor influenced his economic theories.

النظرية

Only a tiny sample of a vast secondary literature can be given here. Paul Krugman, Introduction to Keynes’s The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money (2006) is a scintillating account of Keynes’s central theory from a ‘new Keynesian’ standpoint. Michael Stewart, Keynes and After (3rd edn. 1986), is the most accessible introductory text. E. Eshag, From Marshall to Keynes: An Essay on the Monetary Theory of the Cambridge School (1963), the classic account, needs to be supplemented by R. J. Bigg, Cambridge and the Monetary Theory of Production (1990). D. Patinkin, Keynes’s Monetary Thought: A Study of its Development (1977), as well as his essay on Keynes in the New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, ed. J. Eatwell, M. Milgate, and P. Newman (1987), are standard technical accounts. J. R. Hicks’s Critical Essays in Monetary Theory (1967) has an illuminating ‘Note on the Treatise (on Money)’. Richard Kahn, The Making of Keynes’s General Theory (1984), is important first-hand testimony; G. L. S. Shackle, The Years of High Theory: Invention and Tradition in Economic Thought 1926–39 (1967), is an excellent account of the ‘double revolution’ in Cambridge. Four stimulating interpretations of Keynes’s theory are Tim Congdon, Keynes, the Keynesians, and Monetarism (2007); Gilles Dostaler, Keynes and His Battles (2007); A. H. Meltzer, Keynes’s Monetary Theory: A Different Interpretation (1988); and Murray Milgate, Capital and Employment: A Study of Keynes’s Economics (1982). Victoria Chick, On Money, Method and Keynes: Selected Essays, ed. Philip Arestis and Sheila Dow (1992), and Hyman P. Minsky, John Maynard Keynes (1975) are important interpretations from the post-Keynesian standpoint. P. Clarke, The Keynesian Revolution in the Making 1924–1936 (1988) is essential reading; R. W. Dimand, The Origins of the Keynesian Revolution (1988) covers some of the same ground from a technical standpoint. P. V. Mini, Keynes, Bloomsbury and The General Theory (1991) is a stimulating, off-beat essay. John Williamson’s essay, ‘Keynes and the International Economic Order’, in D. Worswick and J. Trevithik (eds.), Keynes and the Modern World (1983) is exemplary. Indispensable introductions to Keynes’s epistemology are Anna M. Carabelli, On Keynes’s Method (1988) and R. M. O’Donnell, Keynes: Philosophy, Economics and Politics (1989). Terence Hutchison, On the Methodology of Economics and the Formalist Revolution (2000) is an excellent account of how economics came to be ‘mathematicized’. Taleb Nassim, The Black Swan: The Impact of the Highly Improbable (2007) shows up the fraudulence of most mathematical forecasting models.

ميراث كينز

D. Patinkin, Money, Interest and Prices: An Integration of Monetary and Value Theory (1956), and the Hicks-Patinkin exchange which followed it in the Economic Journal (June 1957 and September 1959), were key to establishing the ‘synthesis’ between the neo-classical theorists and the policy Keynesians; an accommodation challenged by A. Leijonhufvud, On Keynesian Economics and the Economics of Keynes (1966). (See also Leijonhufvud’s essay, Keynes and the Classics (Institute of Economic Affairs, 1969).) David Marquand, The Unprincipled Society (1988) offers a lively interpretation of ‘Keynesian social democracy’ in Britain; for the impact of Keynesian ideas in the United States, H. Stein, The Fiscal Revolution in America (1969) is the key text; for Keynes’s influence on other countries, see Peter A. Hall (ed.), The Political Power of Economic Ideas: Keynesianism Across Nations (1989). Eric Roll, The World After Keynes: An Examination of the Economic Order (1968) is a standard offering from the ‘golden age’. The crucial monetarist text is Milton Friedman’s Presidential address to the American Economic Association, 29 December 1967, on ‘The Role of Monetary Policy’, published in the American Economic Review (March 1968), 1–17. The main text of ‘new Keynesianism’ is N. G. Mankiw and D. Romer (eds.), New Keynesian Economics (1991). Paul Davidson’s Money and the Real World (2002 edition) is the statement of one of the leading ‘post-Keynesians’. Henry Hazlitt (ed.), The Critics of Keynesian Economics (1960, 1977) is a collection of anti-Keynesian and sceptical essays. Arjo Klamer, The New Classical Macroeconomics: Conversations with New Classical Economists and Their Opponents (1984) is an indispensable window into the mindset of the Chicago School. Brian Snowdon and Howard R. Vane, Modern Macroeconomics: Its Origins, Development and Current State (2005) charts the ‘decline and fall’ of the original Keynesian revolution, and the rise of ‘new Keynesianism’ and the ‘new classical economics’, with interviews with some of the leading participants.

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