ملاحظات

تمهيد

(1)
Owen Gingerich, ‘Foreword’, in G. J. Toomer (trans.), Ptolemy, Ptolemy’s Almagest (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1998), p. ix.

الفصل الأول: الاختفاء الكبير

(1)
Robert Graves (trans.), Suetonius, The Twelve Caesars (London: Penguin Books, 1957), Dom. 20.
(2)
Stephen Greenblatt, The Swerve: How the Renaissance Began (London: Bodley Head, 2011), p. 106.
(3)
Choricius, Laudatio Marciani Secunda 9, quoted in Averil Cameron, Bryan Ward-perkins & Michael Whitby (eds), The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume XIV (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001), p. 867.
(4)
Horace Leonard Jones (trans.), Strabo, Geography (London: Heinemann, 1932 (Loeb Edition)), 13.1.54.
(5)
Helmut Koester, Pergamon: Citadel of the Gods (Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: Trinity Press International, 1998), p. 346.
(6)
Baynard Dodge (ed.), The Fihrist of al-Nadim: A Tenth-Century Survey of Muslim Culture (New York: Columbia University Press, 1970), p. 585.

الفصل الثاني: الإسكندرية

(1)
Horace Leonard Jones (trans.), Strabo, Geography (London: Heinemann, 1932 (Loeb Edition)), 17. 793-4.
(2)
Timon of Phlius, quoted in Roy Macleod (ed.), The Library of Alexandria: Centre of Learning in the Ancient World (London: I. B. Tauris, 2000), p. 62.
(3)
P. M. Fraser, Ptolemaic Alexandria (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1972), p. 133.
(4)
R. Netz, ‘Greek Mathematicians: A Group Picture’, in C. J. Tuplin & T. E. Rihll (eds), Science and Mathematics in Ancient Greek Culture (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), p. 204.
(5)
Ivor Bulmer-Thomas, ‘Euclid’, Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography (Detroit: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 2008), p. 415. Hereafter referred to as DSB.
(6)
Ibid.
(7)
The first two definitions in Book I, Sir Thomas L. Heath (trans.), Euclid, The Thirteen Books of The Elements (New York: Dover Publications, 1956), p. 153.
(8)
Reviel Netz, ‘The Exact Sciences’, in Barbara Graziosi, Vasunia Phiroze & G. R. Boys-Stones (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Hellenic Studies (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009), p. 584.
(9)
Gerd Grasshoff, The History of Ptolemy’s Star Catalogue (London: Springer Verlag, 1990), p. 7.
(10)
G. J. Toomer (trans.), Ptolemy, Ptolemy’s Almagest (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1998), p. 37.
(11)
Vivian Nutton, ‘The Fortunes of Galen’, in R. J. Hankinson (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Galen (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008), p. 360.
(12)
Fridolf Kudlien, ‘Galen’, DSB, p. 229.
(13)
‘He constructed a systematic and coherent medical synthesis, unparalleled in antiquity in its scope, learning, intellectual aspirations and codification.’ Christopher Gill, Tim Whitmarsh & John Wilkins, Galen and the World of Knowledge (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009), p. 3.
(14)
Vivian Nutton, ‘Medicine’, in David C. Lindberg & Michael H. Shank (eds), The Cambridge History of Science, Volume 2: Medieval Science (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013), p. 956.
(15)
Gill, Whitmarsh & Wilkins, Galen and the World of Knowledge (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009), p. 4. A modern historian put it more succinctly: ‘The Roman Empire can, with only slight unfairness, be described as overwhelmingly lowbrow in its attitude towards mathematics.’ A. George Molland, ‘Mathematics’, in David C. Lindberg & Michael H. Shank (eds), The Cambridge History of Science, Volume 2: Medieval Science, p. 513.
(16)
Vivian Nutton, ‘The Fortunes of Galen’, in R. J. Hankinson (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Galen, p. 363.
(17)
Catherine Nixey, The Darkening Age: The Christian Destruction of the Classical World (London: Macmillan, 2017), p. 88.
(18)
Martin Ryle (trans.), Luciano Canfora, The Vanished Library: A Wonder of the Ancient World (London: Vintage, 1991), p. 192.

الفصل الثالث: بغداد

(1)
Quoted in Jacob Lassner, The Topography of Baghdad in the Early Middle Ages: Text and Studies (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1970), pp. 87–91.
(2)
Michael Cooperson, Al-Ma’mun (Oxford: Oneworld, 2006), pp. 88-9.
(3)
Baynard Dodge (ed.), The Fihrist of al-Nadim: A Tenth-Century Survey of Muslim Culture (New York: Columbia University Press, 1970), pp. 1-2.
(4)
David C. Lindberg, The Beginnings of Western Science: The European Scientific Tradition in Philosophical, Religious, and Institutional Context, 600 B.C. to A.D. 1450 (Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1992), p. 165.
(5)
John Alden Williams (trans.), al-Tabari, The Early Abbasi Empire, Volume I (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988), p. 143.
(6)
Ibid., p.144.
(7)
Paul Lunde & Caroline Stone (trans. & eds), Mas’udi, The Meadows of Gold: The Abbasids (London: Kegan Paul International, 1989), p. 33.
(8)
S. E. al-Djazairi, The Golden Age and Decline of Islamic Civilization (Bayt Al-Hikma Press, 2006), p.165.
(9)
O. Pinto, ‘The Libraries of the Arabs during the time of the Abbasids’, in Islamic Culture 3, 1929, p. 211.
(10)
Paul Lunde & Caroline Stone (trans. & eds), Mas’udi, The Meadows of Gold, p. 67.
(11)
Baynard Dodge (ed.), The Fihrist of al-Nadim, p. 584.
(12)
Robert Kaplan, on In Our Time: Zero, BBC Radio 4, 13 May 2004.
(13)
Al-Mas‘udi, Murug ad-dahab, quoted in Dimitri Gutas, Greek Thought, Arabic Culture: The Graeco-Arabic Translation Movement in Baghdad and Early Abbasid Society (2nd–4th/8th–10th centuries) (Oxford: Routledge, 1998), p. 78.
(14)
Dimitri Gutas, Greek Thought, p. 138.
(15)
Hugh Kennedy, When Baghdad Ruled the Muslim World: The Rise and Fall of Islam’s Greatest Dynasty (Boston: Da Capo Press, 2005), p. 255.
(16)
Baynard Dodge (ed.), The Fihrist of al-Nadim, p. 693.
(17)
Dimitri Gutas, Greek Thought, p. 138.
(18)
Introduction to Hunayn’s translation of Galen’s treatise On Sects, quoted in Franz Rosenthal, The Classical Heritage in Islam (London: Routledge, 1994), p. 20.
(19)
G. C. Anawati, ‘Hunayn ibn Ishaq’, DSB, p. 230.
(20)
Jim al-Khalili, The House of Wisdom: How Arabic Science Saved Ancient Knowledge and Gave Us the Renaissance (London: Penguin, 2010), p. 75.
(21)
Baynard Dodge (ed.), The Fihrist of al-Nadim, pp. 701-2.
(22)
Colin Thubron, The Shadow of the Silk Road (London: Vintage, 2007), p. 316.

الفصل الرابع: قرطبة

(1)
Pascual de Gayangos (trans.), Ahmed ibn Mohammed al-Makkari, The History of the Mohammedan Dynasties in Spain, Volume I (London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2002), pp. 17-18.
(2)
Ibid., p. 210.
(3)
Ibid.
(4)
Pascual de Gayangos (trans.), Ahmed ibn Mohammed al-Makkari, The History of the Mohammedan Dynasties in Spain, Volume II (London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2002), p. 81.
(5)
Pascual de Gayangos (trans.), Ahmed ibn Mohammed al-Makkari, The History of the Mohammedan Dynasties in Spain, Volume I, p. 121.
(6)
Ibid., p. 140.
(7)
Jim al-Khalili, The House of Wisdom: How Arabic Science Saved Ancient Knowledge and Gave Us the Renaissance (London: Penguin, 2010), p. 196.
(8)
Sema‘an I. Salem & Alok Kumar (trans. & eds), Sa‘id al-Andalusi, Science in the Medieval World: ‘Book of the Categories of Nations’ (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1996), p. 64.
(9)
Leon Poliakov, The History of Anti-Semitism, Volume 2: From Mohammed to the Marranos (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2003), p. 92.
(10)
Sema‘an I. Salem & Alok Kumar (trans. & eds), Sa‘id al-Andalusi, Science in the Medieval World, p. 72.
(11)
M. S. Spink & G. L. Lewis (trans. & commentary), Albucasis, On Surgery and Instruments: A Definitive Edition of the Arabic Text with English Translation and Commentary (London: Wellcome Institute of the History of Medicine, 1973), p. 2.
(12)
Sami Hamarneh, ‘al-Zahrawi’, Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography (Detroit: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 2008), p. 585.
(13)
Sema‘an I. Salem & Alok Kumar (trans. & eds), Sa‘id al-Andalusi, Science in the Medieval World, p. 61.
(14)
Ibid.
(15)
Pascual de Gayangos (trans.), Ahmed ibn Mohammed al-Makkari, The History of the Mohammedan Dynasties in Spain, Volume I, p. 42.
(16)
Quoted in ibid., pp. 139-40.
(17)
Sema‘an I. Salem & Alok Kumar (trans. & eds), Sa‘id al-Andalusi, Science in the Medieval World, p. 61.
(18)
Ibid., p. 62.
(19)
Stephan Roman, The Development of Islamic Library Collections in Western Europe and North America (London: Mansell, 1990), p. 192.
(20)
Ibid.

الفصل الخامس: طليطلة

(1)
The preface to Gerard’s translation of Galen’s Tegni, written by his students, translated and quoted in Charles Burnett, ‘The Coherence of the Arabic-Latin Translation Program in Toledo in the Twelfth Century’, in Science in Context 14 (1/2) (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001), pp. 249–88.
(2)
Ibid., p. 255.
(3)
Footnote to Letter 15, Harriet Pratt Lattin (trans. & intro.), The Letters of Gerbert: With His Papal Privileges as Sylvester II (New York: Columbia University Press, 1961), p. 54.
(4)
Ibid.
(5)
Ibid., Letter 138, p. 168.
(6)
The preface to Gerard’s translation of Galen’s Tegni, pp. 249–88.
(7)
Salma Khadra Jayyusi, The Legacy of Muslim Spain, Volume 2 (Leiden: Brill, 1992), p. 1042.
(8)
The preface to Gerard’s translation of Galen’s Tegni, pp. 249–88 and pp. 255-6.
(9)
Charles Homer Haskins, The Renaissance of the Twelfth Century (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1927), p. 279.
(10)
Sema‘an I. Salem & Alok Kumar (trans. & eds), Sa‘id al-Andalusi, Science in the Medieval World: ‘Book of the Categories of Nations’ (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1996), p. 76.
(11)
Charles Burnett, ‘The Institutional Context of Arabic-Latin Translations of the Middle Ages: A Reassessment of the School of Toledo’, in Olga Weijers (ed.), Vocabulary of Teaching and Research Between Middle Ages and Renaissance: Proceedings of the Colloquium, London, Warburg Institute, 11-12 March 1994 (Turnhout: Brepols, 1995), p. 226.
(12)
Vivian Nutton, ‘The Fortunes of Galen’, in R. J. Hankinson (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Galen (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008), p. 364.
(13)
Angus Mackay, Spain in the Middle Ages: From Frontier to Empire, 1000–1500 (London: Macmillan, 1977), p. 88.
(14)
Charles Homer Haskins, The Renaissance of the Twelfth Century, p. 287.
(15)
Taken from an alternative translation of the preface to Gerard’s translation of Galen’s Tegni, in Edward Grant, A Source Book in Medieval Science (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1974), p. 255.
(16)
The preface to Gerard’s translation of Galen’s Tegni, pp. 249–88.
(17)
Peter Dronke, The History of Twelfth-Century Western Philosophy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988), p. 159.
(18)
Charles Burnett, ‘The Institutional Context of Arabic-Latin Translations of the Middle Ages’, p. 225.
(19)
Charles Burnett, ‘The Coherence of the Arabic-Latin Translation Program in Toledo in the Twelfth Century’, pp. 249–88.
(20)
Richard Southern, The Making of the Middle Ages (London: Hutchinson, 1959), p. 39.
(21)
Peter Dronke (ed.), The History of Twelfth-Century Western Philosophy, p. 113.
(22)
Charles Burnett, Hermann of Carinthia, De Essentiis (Leiden: Brill, 1982), p. 6.
(23)
David Juste, ‘MS Madrid, Biblioteca Nacional, 10113 (olim Toledo 98–15)’ (update: 01.03.2017), Ptolemaeus Arabus et Latinus. Manuscripts, http://ptolemaeus.badw.de/ms/70.
(24)
Charles Burnett, The Panizzi Lectures 1996: The Introduction of Arabic Learning into England (London: The British Library, 1997), p. 62.
(25)
Ibid.
(26)
Ibid.
(27)
Charles Burnett, ‘The Twelfth-Century Renaissance’, in David C. Lindberg & Michael H. Shank (eds), The Cambridge History of Science, Volume 2: Medieval Science (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013), p. 380.

الفصل السادس: ساليرنو

(1)
Edward Grant, Physical Science in the Middle Ages (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1971), p. 4.
(2)
Cassiodorus, Institutiones, Book II, in Leslie Webber Jones (trans. & ed.), Cassiodorus, Senator, ca. 487–ca. 580, An Introduction to Divine and Human Readings (New York: W. W. Norton, 1969), p. 136.
(3)
Michael Frampton, Embodiments of Will: Anatomical and Physiological Theories of Voluntary Animal Motion from Greek Antiquity to the Latin Middle Ages, 400 B.C.–1300 A.D. (Saarbrücken: VDM Verlag Dr Müller, 2008), p. 277.
(4)
Ibid., p. 304.
(5)
Ibid.
(6)
Marcus Nathan Adler (trans.), The Itinerary of Benjamin of Tudela (New York: Philipp Feldheim, 1907), p. 6.
(7)
Al-Idrisi, The Book of Roger, quoted in Graham Loud, Roger II and the Creation of the Kingdom of Sicily (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2012), p. 363.
(8)
Lynn Thorndike, History of Magic and Experimental Science, Volume I (New York: Macmillan, 1923), p. 751.
(9)
E. R. A. Sewter (trans.), The Alexiad of Anna Comnena (London: Penguin Books, 1969), p. 54.
(10)
Doctor Pietro Capparoni, ‘Magistri Salernitani Nondum Cogniti’: A Contribution to the History of the Medical School of Salerno (London: John Bale, 1923), p. 51.
(11)
Plinio Prioreschi, A History of Medicine, Volume 5: Medieval Medicine (Omaha, Nebraska: Horatius Press, 2005), p. 232.
(12)
Faith Wallis, Medieval Medicine: A Reader (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2010), pp. 176-7.

الفصل السابع: باليرمو

(1)
Charles Homer Haskins, Studies in the History of Mediaeval Science (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1924), p. 159, p. 191.
(2)
Prescott N. Dunbar & G. A. Loud (trans.), Amato di Montecassino, The History of the Normans (Rochester, New York: Boydell Press, 2004), p. 46.
(3)
Cicero, In Verrem, II.2.5., quoted in Dirk Booms & Peter Higgs, Sicily: Culture and Conquest (London: The British Museum Press, 2016), p. 134.
(4)
Hugo Falcandus, quoted in Hubert Houben, Roger II of Sicily: A Ruler between East and West (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002), p. 75.
(5)
St Clement of Casauria, Chronicon Casauriense, 889, quoted in ibid., p. 75.
(6)
Hugo Falcandus, quoted in ibid., p. 75.
(7)
Al-Idrisi, The Book of Roger, quoted in Graham A. Loud, Roger II and the Creation of the Kingdom of Sicily (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2012), p. 348.
(8)
Hubert Houben, Roger II of Sicily, p. 121.
(9)
As described by an anonymous writer in around 1190, quoted in ibid., p. 128.
(10)
Alexander of Telese, History of King Roger, quoted in Graham A. Loud, Roger II and the Creation of the Kingdom of Sicily, p. 79.
(11)
Jerry Brotton, A History of the World in Twelve Maps (London: Allen Lane, 2012), p. 73.
(12)
Al-Idrisi, The Book of Roger, quoted in Graham A. Loud, Roger II and the Creation of the Kingdom of Sicily, p. 357.
(13)
Hubert Houben, Roger II of Sicily, p. 98.
(14)
Quaestiones Naturales, quoted in Charles Burnett, Adelard of Bath: An English Scientist and Arabist of the Early Twelfth Century (London: Warburg Institute, 1987), p. 10.
(15)
Quaestiones Naturales, quoted in Louise Cochrane, Adelard of Bath: The First English Scientist (London: British Museum Press, 1994), p. 29.
(16)
Charles Burnett, Adelard of Bath, p. 12.
(17)
Louise Cochrane, Adelard of Bath, p. 33.
(18)
Jaqueline Hamesse & Marta Fattori, Rencontres des Cultures dans la Philosophie Médiévale (Louvain-la-Neuve: Cassino, 1990), p. 94.
(19)
Charles Burnett, Arabic into Latin in the Middle Ages: The Translators and their Intellectual and Social Context (Farnham: Ashgate, 2009), p. 3.
(20)
R. J. C. Broadhurst, Travels of Ibn Jubayr (London: Jonathan Cape, 1952), pp. 339–42.
(21)
Norbert Ohler, The Medieval Traveller (Martlesham, Suffolk: Boydell Press, 1989), p. 224.
(22)
Ibid., p. 225.

الفصل الثامن: فينيسيا

(1)
Joanne M. Ferraro, Venice: History of the Floating City (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012), p. 19.
(2)
‘Poggius Bracciolini to Nicolaus de Niccolis, Letter III’, in Phyllis Gordon & Walter Goodhart (trans.), Two Renaissance Book Hunters: The Letters of Poggius Bracciolini to Nicolaus de Niccolis (New York: Columbia University Press, 1974), p. 26.
(3)
Stephen Greenblatt, The Swerve: How the Renaissance Began (London: Bodley Head, 2011), pp. 185–200.
(4)
Romeo and Juliet, I:4.
(5)
Konstantinos Sp. Staikos, The History of the Library in Western Civilization, Volume V (New Castle, Delaware: Oak Knoll Press, 2012), p. 83.
(6)
C. Doris Hellman & Noel M. Swerdlow, ‘Peurbach (or Peuerbach)’, in Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography (Detroit: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 2008), p. 477.
(7)
Paul Lawrence Rose, The Italian Renaissance of Mathematics: Studies on Humanists and Mathematicians from Petrarch to Galileo (Geneva: Librairie Droz, 1975), p. 48.
(8)
Bessarion’s letter to Doge Cristoforo Moro, quoted in Deno John Geanakoplos, Greek Scholars in Venice: Studies in the Dissemination of Greek Learning from Byzantium to Western Europe (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1962), p. 35.
(9)
Lottie Labowsky, Bessarion’s Library and the Biblioteca Marciana (Rome: Edizioni di Storia e Letteratura, 1979), p. 27.
(10)
Ibid., p. 32.
(11)
Peter Ackroyd, Venice: Pure City (London: Vintage, 2010), p. 130.
(12)
Ibid., p. 268.
(13)
Martin Lowry, The World of Aldus Manutius: Business and Scholarship in Renaissance Venice (Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1979), p. 191.
(14)
Ibid.
(15)
Ibid., p. 165.
(16)
David S. Zeidberg (ed.), Aldus Manutius and Renaissance Culture: Essays in Memory of Franklin D. Murphy (Florence: Leo S. Olschki, 1994), p. 32.
(17)
Vivian Nutton, ‘The Fortunes of Galen’, in R. J. Hankinson (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Galen (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008), pp. 367-8.
(18)
Ibid., p. 370.
(19)
William Eamon, ‘Science and Medicine in Early Modern Venice’, in Eric Dursteler (ed.), A Companion to Venetian History 1400–1797 (Leiden: Brill, 2013), p. 701.

عام ١٥٠٠ وما بعده

(1)
Neil Rhodes & Jonathan Sawday, The Renaissance Computer: Knowledge Technology in the First Age of Print (London: Routledge, 2000), p. I.
(2)
George Sarton, Six Wings: Men of Science in the Renaissance (London: Bodley Head, 1958), p. 6.
(3)
Anthony Grafton, ‘Libraries and Lecture Halls’, in Katherine Park & Lorraine Daston (eds), The Cambridge History of Science, Volume 3: Early Modern Science (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016), p. 240.
(4)
Elizabeth L. Eisenstein, The Printing Press as an Agent of Change: Communications and Cultural Transformations in Early Modern Europe (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979), pp. 567-8.
(5)
Owen Gingerich, ‘Copernicus’ De revolutionibus: An Example of Scientific Renaissance Printing’, in Gerald P. Tyson & Sylivia S. Wagonheim (eds), Print and Culture in the Renaissance: Essays on the Advent of Printing in Europe (Newark: University of Delaware Press, 1986), p. 55.
(6)
Thomas Khun, The Copernican Revolution (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1957), p. 191.

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