ملاحظات

الفصل الأول: الاختيار السليم للموظفين: أحد مواردك المهمة

(1)
Matt Ridley, Nature Via Nurture: Genes, Experience, and What Makes Us Human (HarperCollins, 2003).
(2)
A good discussion about the effect of size findings of different human resources management interventions on performance can be found in The Emotionally Intelligent Workplace, edited by Cary Cherniss and Daniel Goleman, specifically in Chapter 4 by Lyle M. Spencer, “The Economic Value of Emotional Intelligence Competencies and EIC Based HR Programs” (Jossey-Bass, 2001), p. 45.
(3)
Monica C. Higgins, Career Imprints: Creating Leaders Across an Industry (Jossey-Bass, 2005).
(4)
I should clarify here that Zehnder is now retired, and no longer exerts any influence over my own career—even if he were inclined to do so.
(5)
“The Awards for Alumni Achievement” (Harvard Business School, 2002).
(6)
James M. Kouzes and Barry Z. Posner, The Leadership Challenge (Jossey-Bass, 2002), pp. 62, 256-257, 397.
(7)
Egon Zehnder, “A Simpler Way to Pay,” Harvard Business Review, April 2001: 53–61.
(8)
See “Strategic Review at Egon Zehnder International,” Cases A, B and C (Harvard Business School, August 2, 2004). Zehnder completed his job by pointing toward an outstanding successor, Dan Meiland, who in turn later appointed John Grumbar as his CEO. Meiland and Grumbar projected the firm to even higher levels of professional client services and success, following Zehnder’s retirement.
(9)
Valerie I. Sessa and Jodi J. Taylor, Executive Selection, Strategies for Success (Jossey-Bass, 2000), pp. 19–26.
(10)
Marcus Buckingham and Curt Coffman, First Break All The Rules: What the World’s Greatest Managers Do Differently (Simon & Schuster, 1999), p. 57.
(11)
Marcus Buckingham, The One Thing You Need to Know … About Great Managing, Great Leading, and Sustained Individual Success (Free Press, 2005), pp. 73, 83.
(12)
See, for example, “Drivers Rate Themselves Above Average,” at www.ambulancedriving.com/research/WP65-rateaboveav.html, accessed September 15, 2005.
(13)
T.R. Zenger, “Why Do Employers Only Reward Extreme Performance? Examining the Relationships among Performance, Pay, and Turnover,” Administrative Science Quarterly 37, 1992: 198–219.
(14)
B.M. DePaulo, K. Charlton, H. Cooper, J.J. Lindsay, and L. Muhlenbruck, “The Accuracy-Confidence Correlation in the Detection of Deception,” Personality and Social Psychology Review 1, 1997: 346–357.
(15)
Robert W. Eder and Michael M. Harris, The Employment Interview Handbook (Sage Publications, 1999), Chapter 14, “Are Some Interviewers Better Than Others?,” Laura M. Graves and Ronald J. Karren, pp. 243–258.
(16)
Malcolm Gladwell, Blink: The Power of Thinking Without Thinking (Little, Brown, January 2005), pp. 21-22.
(17)
Larry Bossidy and Ram Charan, Execution, The Discipline of Getting Things Done (Crown Business, 2002), Chapter 5, p. 109.
(18)
Malcolm Gladwell, Blink: The Power of Thinking Without Thinking (Little, Brown, January 2005), pp. 134–136.
(19)
Ibid., p. 182.
(20)
Ibid., p. 47.
(21)
Jack Welch and Suzy Welch, Winning (HarperCollins, 2005), p. 95.
(22)
“Strategic Review at Egon Zehnder International,” Cases A, B and C (Harvard Business School, August 2, 2004).
(23)
Daniel Goleman, Working with Emotional Intelligence: A Discussion about Egon Zehnder International and Its Hiring Criteria (Bloomsbury, 1998), pp. 303–311.
(24)
Linda A. Hill, Becoming a Manager: Mastery of a New Identity (Harvard Business School Press, 1992), p. 93.
(25)
P.A. Mabe, III and S.G. West, “Validity of Self-Evaluation of Ability: A Review and Meta-Analysis,” Journal of Applied Psychology 67, 1982: 280–286.
(26)
Professor Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi; see, for example, the book Good Business: Leadership, Flow, and the Making of Meaning (Coronet Books, Hodder & Stoughton, 2003), or his classic best-selling Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience (Harper & Row, 1990).
(27)
Dan Baker and Cameron Stauth, What Happy People Know: How the New Science of Happiness Can Change Your Life for the Better (St. Martin’s Griffin, 2003).
(28)
Martin E.P. Seligman, Authentic Happiness: Using the New Positive Psychology to Realize Your Potential for Lasting Fulfillment (Free Press, 2002).

الفصل الثاني: الاختيار السليم للموظفين المتميزين: أحد الموارد المهمة لمؤسستك

(1)
Julia Kirby, “Toward a Theory of High Performance,” Harvard Business Review, July-August 2005: 30–38.
(2)
James C. Collins and Jerry I. Porras, Built to Last: Successful Habits of Visionary Companies (HarperBusiness, 1994, 1997).
(3)
Jim Collins, Good to Great (HarperCollins, 2001).
(4)
THE FOCUS online (http://www.ezifocus.com/content/thefocus/issue/article.php/article/54300471), vol. X/1, 2006. Keynote topic by Jim Collins: “Filling the Seats: How People Decisions Help Build a Great Company.” This quote and several others in the book are an excerpt of some of Collins’s answers to a series of questions I prepared for him for this Question and Answer article in our firm’s institutional publication.
(5)
Ibid.
(6)
William Joyce, Nitin Nohria, and Bruce Roberson, What Really Works (HarperCollins, 2003), p. 200.
(7)
Ed Michaels, Helen Handfield-Jones, and Beth Axelrod, The War for Talent (Harvard Business School Press, 2001).
(8)
Tsun-yan Hsieh and Sara Yik, “Leadership as the Starting Point of Strategy,” McKinsey Quarterly 1, 2005: 66–73.
(9)
While he topped the list on most surveys while active, even after retiring, Jack Welch continued to be considered at the very top. In the November 2005 Financial Times Global Survey of Chief Executives, Jack Welch was still ranked as one of the two most respected business leaders, and one of the two most influential business writers or management gurus (in the august company of Peter Drucker).
(10)
Ram Charan and Geoffrey Colvin, “Why CEOs Fail,” Fortune, June 21, 1999.
(11)
Sydney Finkelstein, Why Smart Executives Fail, and What You Can Learn from Their Mistakes (Penguin Group, Portfolio, 2003).
(12)
Peter Drucker, “How to Make People Decisions,” Harvard Business Review, July-August 1985: 27.
(13)
Margarethe Wiersema, “Holes at the Top: Why CEO Firings Backfire,” Harvard Business Review, December 2002: 70–79.
(14)
Chuck Lucier, Rob Schuyt, and Edward Tse, “The World’s Most Prominent Temp Workers,” Booz Allen Hamilton, Strategy + Business, issue 39, summer 2005.
(15)
Claudio Fernández-Aráoz, “Managing CEO Succession,” Global Agenda 2005 (official publication of the World Economic Forum in Davos).
(16)
Ram Charan, “Ending the CEO Succession Crisis,” Harvard Business Review, February 2005: 72–81.
(17)
Claudio Fernández-Aráoz, “Getting the Right People at the Top,” MIT Sloan Management Review 46(4), summer 2005. For further discussion about this topic, refer to The Emotionally Intelligent Workplace, Cary Cherniss and Daniel Goleman (Jossey-Bass), Chapter 4 by Lyle M. Spencer.
(18)
N. Wasserman, N. Nohria, and B. Anand, “When Does Leadership Matter? The Contingent Opportunities View of CEO Leadership,” working paper no. 01–063 (Boston: Harvard Business School, April 2001).
(19)
Irwin Gross, “The Creative Aspects of Advertising,” Sloan Management Review 14(1), fall 1972: 83–109.
(20)
R.Y. Darmon, “Sales Force Management: Optimizing the Recruiting Process,” Sloan Management Review 20(1), fall 1978: 47–59.
(21)
For a further elaboration on the value of good people decisions, refer to my article, “Getting the Right People at the Top,” MIT Sloan Management Review 46(4), summer 2005: 67–72.
(22)
William A. Sahlman, “How to Write a Great Business Plan,” Harvard Business Review, July–August 1997: 98–108.
(23)
“Private Equity Gets Personal,” Financial Times Europe, June 20, 2005.
(24)
Sir Adrian Cadbury was Chairman of Cadbury Schweppes between 1974 and 1989, and Director of the Bank of England from 1970 to 1994. He was Chairman of the Committee on the Financial Aspects of Corporate Governance from 1991 to 1995, and is a member of the OECD Working Party on Corporate Governance and the Panel of Conciliators of the International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes. The Cadbury Report is considered one of the first and best codes of best practice in corporate governance. It can be found in several publications, including Keeping Good Company, a study of corporate governance in five major countries, by Jonathan Charkham, published by Oxford, 1994.
(25)
Jeffrey A. Sonnenfeld, “What Makes Great Boards Great,” Harvard Business Review, September 2002: 106–113.
(26)
Richard Leblanc and James Gillies, Inside the Boardroom (John Wiley & Sons, 2005).
(27)
Ram Charan, Boards that Deliver: Advancing Corporate Governance from Compliance to Competitive Advantage (Jossey-Bass, 2005), p. 184.
(28)
Colin B. Carter and Jay W. Lorsch, Back to the Drawing Board (Harvard Business School, 2004), p. 113.
(29)
Jeffrey Pfeffer, The Human Equation: Building Profits by Putting People First (Harvard Business School Press, 1998).
(30)
Jeffrey Pfeffer, Competitive Advantage Through People (Harvard Business School Press, 1994).
(31)
Steven C. Brandt, Entrepreneuring (Addison-Wesley, 1982), pp. 1, 52.
(32)
Alfred P. Sloan, My Years with General Motors (Doubleday, 1963).
(33)
Geoffrey Colvin, “What Makes GE Great,” Fortune (Europe edition) 153(4), March 13, 2006.
(34)
James C. Collins and Jerry I. Porras, Built to Last (HarperBusiness, 1997), Chapter 8 on “Home-Grown Management.”
(35)
Peter Drucker, “Managing Oneself,” Harvard Business Review, special issue, January 2005: 100–109.
(36)
Jon R. Katzenbach and Douglas K. Smith, The Wisdom of Teams: Creating the High-Performance Organization (Harvard Business School Press, 1993).
(37)
Henry Chesbrough, Open Innovation: The New Imperative for Creating and Profiting from Technology (Harvard Business School Press, 2003), Chapter 5, p. 93.

الفصل الثالث: صعوبة الاختيار السليم للموظفين المتميزين

(1)
Claudio Fernández-Aráoz, “Hiring Without Firing,” Harvard Business Review, July-August 1999: 109–120. This chapter reproduces several concepts and examples from that article.
(2)
Claudio Fernández-Aráoz, “Getting the Right People at the Top,” MIT Sloan Management Review, summer 2005: 67–72. This chapter reproduces several concepts and examples from that article.
(3)
William Poundstone, How Would You Move Mount Fuji? (Boston: Little, Brown, 2003).
(4)
Nathan Bennett and Stephen A. Miles, “Second in Command: The Misunderstood Role of the Chief Operating Officer,” Harvard Business Review, May 2006: 70–78.
(5)
David Dunning, Chip Heath, and Jerry M. Suls, “Flawed Self Assessment: Implications for Health, Education, and the Workplace,” American Psychological Society 5(3), 2004.
(6)
Nigel Nicholson, Managing the Human Animal (Texere Publishing, 2000).
(7)
Peter L. Bernstein, Against the Gods (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1996); and Hersh Shefrin, Beyond Greed and Fear (Harvard Business School Press, 1996).
(8)
Timothy D. Wilson, Strangers to Ourselves (Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2002), p. 17.
(9)
Chuck Lucier, Rob Schuyt, and Eric Spiegel, “CEO Succession 2002: Deliver or Depart,” Strategy + Business 31, 2003.
(10)
Claudio Fernández-Aráoz, “Managing CEO Succession,” Global Agenda 2005, pp. 182–184.
(11)
David Dunning, Chip Heath, and Jerry M. Suls, “Flawed Self-Assessment: Implications for Health, Education, and the Workplace,” American Psychological Society 5(3), 2004.
(12)
Private conversation with Jack Welch, Boston, February 2006.
(13)
Boris Groysberg, Andrew N. McLean, and Nitin Nohria, “Are Leaders Portable?,” Harvard Business Review, May 2006: 92–100.
(14)
Max H. Bazerman, Judgment in Managerial Decision Making (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2002).
(15)
Chris Argyris, Teaching Smart People How to Learn (Harvard Business School Press, 2004).
(16)
Paul Ekman, Telling Lies (W.W. Norton, 2001, 1992, 1985), pp. 329-330.
(17)
David Callahan, The Cheating Culture (Harcourt Books, A Harvest Book, 2004), p. 220.
(18)
Malcolm Gladwell, The Tipping Point (Little, Brown, 2002, 2000), p. 155.
(19)
Timothy D. Wilson, Strangers to Ourselves (Harvard University Press/Belknap Press, 2002), p. 137.
(20)
Jack Welch, “How to Win: An Exclusive Excerpt from the New Book by the Legendary CEO,” Newsweek, April 4, 2005: 41.
(21)
THE FOCUS online (http://www.ezifocus.com/content/thefocus/issue/article.php/article/54300471), vol. X/1, 2006. Keynote topic by Jim Collins: “Filling the Seats: How People Decisions Help Build a Great Company.”

الفصل الرابع: إدراك متى يكون التغيير ضرورة

(1)
Valerie I. Sessa and Jodi J. Taylor, Executive Selection: Strategies for Success (Jossey-Bass: Center for Creative Leadership, 2000), p. 47.
(2)
The numbers add up to more than 100 percent because multiple people were consulted in most cases.
(3)
Valerie I. Sessa, Robert Kaiser, Jodi J. Taylor, and Richard J. Campbell, “Executive Selection: A Research Report on What Works and What Doesn’t” (Center for Creative Leadership, 1998), p. 42. Again, the numbers add up to more than 100 percent due to multiple inputs into the decisions being scrutinized.
(4)
Annita Florou and Martin J. Conyon, Top Executive Dismissal, Ownership and Corporate Performance (The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, and London Business School, February 2002), revised.
(5)
Rachel M. Hayes, Paul Oyer, and Scott Schaefer, “Co-Worker Complementarity and the Stability of Top Management Teams,” research paper no. 1846 (R) (Stanford Graduate School of Business, January 2005).
(6)
McKinsey & Co., Egon Zehnder International Talent Management Survey, 2004.
(7)
Jack Welch with Suzy Welch, Winning (HarperCollins, 2005), p. 65.
(8)
Jeffrey Pfeffer and Robert I. Sutton, Hard Facts, Dangerous Half- Truths and Total Nonsense (Harvard Business School Press, 2006), p. 191.
(9)
Michael Y. Yoshino and Karin-Isabel Knoop, “Argentina’s YPF Sociedad Anónima,” Cases A to E (Harvard Business School Publishing, 1995, 1998, 1999).
(10)
“The Toughest Jobs in Business,” Fortune, February 20, 2006: 54.
(11)
Noam Wasserman, Bharat Anand, and Nitin Nohria, “When Does Leadership Matter? The Contingent Opportunities View of CEO Leadership,” working paper no. 01–063 (Harvard Business School, 2001).
(12)
Private conversation with Jack Welch, Boston, February 2006.
(13)
Boris Groysberg, Andrew N. McLean, and Nitin Nohria, “Are Leaders Portable?,” Harvard Business Review, May 2006: 92.
(14)
David A. Light, “Who Goes, Who Stays?,” Harvard Business Review, January 2001: 35–44.
(15)
Michael Beer and Nitin Nohria, Breaking the Code of Change (Harvard Business School Press, 2000).
(16)
Marc Gerstein and Heather Reisman, “Strategic Selection: Matching Executives to Business Conditions,” from The Art of Managing Human Resources, edited by Edgar H. Schein, Sloan Management Review 24(2), winter 1983.
(17)
Charles O’Reilly, David F. Caldwell, and Jennifer A. Chatman, How Leadership Matters: The Effects of Leadership Alignment on Strategic Execution (Stanford University, Santa Clara University, and the University of California, June 2005).
(18)
Neal Schmitt and Walter C. Borman and Associates, Personnel Selection in Organizations (Jossey-Bass, 1993), Chapter 14.
(19)
Jim Collins, Good to Great (HarperCollins, 2001), p. 41.
(20)
Kathleen A. Farrell (University of Nebraska) and David A. Whidbee (Washington State University), “The Impact of Firm Performance Expectations on CEO Turnover and Replacement Decisions” (May 2003). JAE Boston Conference, October 2002. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=318968.
(21)
Rakesh Khurana and Nitin Nohria, “The Performance Consequences of CEO Turnover” (March 15, 2000). Available at SSRN (http://ssrn.com/abstract=219129) or DOI (10.2139/ssrn.219129).
(22)
Noam Wasserman, “Founder-CEO Succession and the Paradox of Entrepreneurial Success,” Organization Science 14(2), March-April 2003: 149–172 (winner of the 2003 Aage Sorensen Memorial Award for sociological research).
(23)
George S. Day and Paul J.H. Schoemaker, Peripheral Vision: Detecting the Weak Signals That Will Make or Break Our Company (Harvard Business School Press, 2006), pp. 22-23.
(24)
David Maister, “Strategy and the Fat Smoker” (this article can be accessed at David Maister’s web site: http://davidmaister.com).
(25)
Keith Epstein, “Crisis Mentality,” Stanford Social Innovation Review 4(1), spring 2006.
(26)
Jack Welch and Suzy Welch, Winning (HarperCollins, 2005), pp. 72-73.
(27)
Ibid., p. 35.
(28)
Frederick F. Reichheld, Loyalty Rules: How Today’s Leaders Build Lasting Relationships (Bain & Company, 2001), p. 7.
(29)
Frederick F. Reichheld, ed. The Quest for Loyalty: Creating Value through Partnership (Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1990), Part II, Chapter 3, pp. 67–72.
(30)
James M. Kouzes and Barry Z. Posner, The Leadership Challenge, 3rd ed. (Jossey-Bass, 2002), p. 25.
(31)
John T. Horn, Dan P. Lovallo, and S. Patrick Viguerie, “Learning to Let Go: Making Better Exit Decisions,” The McKinsey Quarterly 2, 2006: 64–75.
(32)
THE FOCUS online (http://www.ezifocus.com/content/thefocus/issue/article.php/article/54300471), vol. X/1, 2006. Keynote topic by Jim Collins: “Filling the Seats: How People Decisions Help Build a Great Company.”

الفصل الخامس: المواصفات التي ينبغي البحث عنها

(1)
Frank L. Schmidt and John E. Hunter, “The Validity and Utility of Selection Methods in Personnel Psychology: Practical and Theoretical Implications of 85 Years of Research Findings,” Psychological Bulletin 124(2), 1998: 262–274.
(2)
Boris Groysberg, Andrew N. McLean, and Nitin Nohria, “Are Leaders Portable?,” Harvard Business Review, May 2006: 92–100.
(3)
Neil Anderson and Vivian Shackleton, Successful Selection Interviewing (Blackwell Publishers, 1993), p. 30.
(4)
“Conscientiousness” has a very low validity coefficient (close to 0.20). To understand the implications of this validity score, one needs to raise the validity coefficient to the square power to determine the percentage of variance in performance explained by this measure. Raising 0.20 to the square power produces 0.04, which means that only about 4 percent of the variance in performance on the job can be explained by this predictor. In other words, it is of extremely limited utility.
(5)
This case is well argued by Annie Murphy Paul in The Cult of Personality (Free Press/Simon & Schuster, 2004).
(6)
Daniel Goleman, Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More Than IQ (Bantam Books, October 1995).
(7)
David C. McClelland, “Testing for Competence Rather Than for ‘Intelligence,’” American Psychologist, January 1973.
(8)
Richard E. Boyatzis, The Competent Manager: A Model for Effective Performance (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1982).
(9)
Lyle M. Spencer, Jr. and Signe M. Spencer, Competence at Work (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1993).
(10)
Cary Cherniss and Daniel Goleman, The Emotionally Intelligent Workplace: How to Select for, Measure, and Improve Emotional Intelligence in Individuals, Groups and Organizations (Jossey-Bass, 2001), pp. 182–206.
(11)
The CREIO web site (http://www.eiconsortium.org/) presents a rich list of references that support this point, as well as its “Emotional Competence Framework” and several relevant papers and pieces of research that can be accessed and downloaded.
(12)
Richard E. Boyatzis, Elizabeth D. Stubbs, and Scott N. Taylor, “Learning Cognitive and Emotional Intelligence Competencies through Graduate Management Education” (Case Western Reserve University, Academy of Management Learning and Education, 2002), vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 150–162.
(13)
Richard E. Boyatzis, “Competencies Can Be Developed, But Not in the Way We Thought,” HEC Journal, Capability volume 2(2), 1996.
(14)
Daniel Goleman, Richard Boyatzis, and Annie McKee, Primal Leadership: Realizing the Power of Emotional Intelligence (Harvard Business School Press, 2002), pp. 111-112.
(15)
David C. McClelland and David H. Burnham, “Power Is the Great Motivator,” Harvard Business Review, January 2003: 117–126.
(16)
See, for example, Gretchen M. Spreizer, Morgan W. McCall, Jr., and Joan D. Mahoney, “Early Identification of International Executive Potential,” Journal of Applied Psychology 82(1), 1997: 6–29.
(17)
Jack Welch and Suzy Welch, Winning (HarperCollins, 2005), p. 83.
(18)
THE FOCUS online (http://www.ezifocus.com/content/thefocus/issue/article.php/article/54300471), vol. X/1, 2006. Keynote topic by Jim Collins: “Filling the Seats: How People Decisions Help Build a Great Company.”
(19)
Boris Groysberg, Ashish Nanda, and Nitin Nohria, “The Risky Business of Hiring Stars,” Harvard Business Review, May 2004: 92–100.
(20)
R. Meredith Belbin, Management Teams (Butterworth Heinemann, 1996), pp. 9–18.
(21)
Boris Groysberg, Jeffrey T. Polzer, and Hillary Anger Elfenbein, “Too Many Cooks Spoil the Broth: How Too Many High Status Individuals Decrease Group Effectiveness,” Harvard Business School Working Paper Series No. 06–002, 2005.
(22)
Boris Groysberg, Andrew N. McLean, and Nitin Nohria, “Are Leaders Portable?,” Harvard Business Review, May 2006: 93–100.
(23)
For a more detailed discussion about the process of confirming the key competencies relevant for a search, see my “Hiring Without Firing” in the July-August 1999 issue of Harvard Business Review, pp. 109–120.

الفصل السادس: أين تبحث: داخل المؤسسة وخارجها

(1)
The story about Kepler is told in Gerd Gigerenzer and Peter M. Todd, Simple Heuristics That Make Us Smart (Oxford University Press, 2000). See the chapter entitled “From Pride and Prejudice to Persuasion,” p. 287.
(2)
Valerie I. Sessa, and Jodi J. Taylor, The Executive Selection: Strategies for Success (Center for Creative Leadership, Jossey-Bass/Wiley, 2000), p. 65.
(3)
“The War for Talent,” The McKinsey Quarterly 3, 1998: 47.
(4)
This is not self-serving: Our fees are independent of whether the candidate who is finally nominated for a position is an internal or an external one.
(5)
“The Performance Impact of New CEOs,” MIT Sloan Management Review, winter 2001, p. 14.
(6)
Ibid.
(7)
“Leadership and Change,” Knowledge Wharton, March 23–April 5, 2006.
(8)
This story is derived from Robert Iger’s entry in Wikipedia, accessed August 2006.
(9)
Valerie I. Sessa and Jodi J. Taylor, The Executive Selection: Strategies for Success (Center for Creative Leadership, Jossey-Bass,2000), pp. 73–74.
(10)
Barry Jaruzelski, Ken Dehoff, and Rakesh Bordia, “Money Isn’t Everything,” Booz Allen Hamilton Inc, Resilience Report, 2005: 3.
(11)
Alexander Kandybin and Martin Kihn, “Raising Your Return on Innovation Investment,” Strategy + Business, May 11, 2004, 35.
(12)
Henry Chesbrough, Open Innovation: The New Imperative for Creating and Profiting from Technology (Harvard Business School Press, 2003).
(13)
Keld Laursen and Ammon Salter, “Open for Innovation: The Role of Openness in Explaining Innovation Performance among UK Manufacturing Firms,” Strategic Management Journal 27(2), 2006, 131–150.
(14)
John S. Hammond, Ralph L. Keeney, and Howard Raiffa, Smart Choices: A Practical Guide to Making Better Decisions (Harvard Business School Press, 1999), p. 47.
(15)
Rakesh Khurana, “Finding the Right CEO: Why Boards Often Make Poor Choices,” MIT Sloan Management Review, fall 2001.
(16)
Gerd Gigerenzer and Peter M. Todd, Simple Heuristics That Make Us Smart (Oxford University Press, 2000). See the chapter entitled “From Pride and Prejudice to Persuasion,” pp. 287–308.
(17)
Ibid.
(18)
Valerie I. Sessa, Robert Kaiser, Jodi J. Taylor, and Richard J. Campbell, “Executive Selection: A Research Report on What Works and What Doesn’t” (Center for Creative Leadership, 1998), p. 42.
(19)
Allen I. Kraut, “A Powerful and Simple Way to Predict Executive Success: Results from a 25-Year Study of Peer Evaluations,” presented at the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology’s Leading Edge Consortium, St. Louis, Missouri, October 28, 2005 (http://www.siop.org/lec/kraut.htm).
(20)
Mark Granovetter, Getting a Job: A Study of Contacts and Careers (University of Chicago Press, 1995, 1974), pp. 11–16.
(21)
Regarding traditional recruitment sources, those interested in the relative advantages and disadvantages can take a look at Chapter 2 of Diane Arthur’s Recruiting, Interviewing, Selecting and Orienting New Employees (American Management Association) to find a list of basic qualitative advantages and disadvantages of a large number of traditional sources, including advertising.
(22)
Patricia Nakache, “Finding Talent on the Internet,” Harvard Business Review, April 1997.
(23)
Theodore Levitt, The Marketing Imagination (Free Press, 1986, 1983), p. 129.
(24)
Duncan J. Watts, Six Degrees: The Science of a Connected Age (W.W. Norton, 2003), pp. 37–39.
(25)
Ibid., p. 95.
(26)
Rakesh Khurana, “Market Triads: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis of Market Intermediation,” Journal for the Theory of Social Behavior 32(2), June 2002: p. 253.

الفصل السابع: كيفية تقييم المرشحين

(1)
Valerie I. Sessa, Robert Kaiser, Jodi J. Taylor, and Richard J. Campbell. “Executive Selection: A Research Report on What Works and What Doesn’t” (Center for Creative Leadership, 1998), p. 42.
(2)
Allen I. Huffcutt, Philip L. Roth, and Michael A. McDaniel, “A Meta-Analytic Investigation of Cognitive Ability in Employment Interview Evaluations: Moderating Characteristics and Implications for Incremental Validity,” Journal of Applied Psychology 81(5), 1996: 459–473.
(3)
James Tapper, “Is This Britain’s Most Brazen Conwoman?,” The Mail on Sunday, November 27, 2005.
(4)
James B. Mintz, “Résumé Fraud Starts at the Top,” Across the Board, July-August 2006: 45–47.
(5)
T.W. Dougherty and D.B. Turban, “Behavioral Confirmation of Interviewer Expectations,” in The Employment Interview Handbook, edited by R.W. Eder and M.M. Harris (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1999).
(6)
Malcolm Gladwell, Blink: The Power of Thinking Without Thinking. (Little, Brown, January 2005), pp. 73-74.
(7)
Ibid., p. 64.
(8)
Daniel Goleman, Social Intelligence: The New Science of Human Relationships (Bantam Books, 2006), p. 67.
(9)
T.W. Dougherty, D.B. Turban, and J.C. Callender, “Confirming First Impressions in the Employment Interview: A Field Study of Interviewer Behavior,” Journal of Applied Psychology 79, 1994: 659–665.
(10)
David C. McClelland, “Identifying Competencies with Behavioral-Event Interviews,” Psychological Science 9(5), September 1998.
(11)
Richard E. Boyatzis, “Using Tipping Points of Emotional Intelligence and Cognitive Competencies to Predict Financial Performance of Leaders” (Case Western Reserve University, Psicothema 2006), vol. 18, suppl., pp. 124–131.
(12)
Frank L. Schmidt and John E. Hunter, “The Validity and Utility of Selection Methods in Personnel Psychology: Practical and Theoretical Implications of 85 Years of Research Findings,” Psychological Bulletin 124(2), 1998: 262–274.
(13)
Claudio Fernández-Aráoz, “Hiring Without Firing,” Harvard Business Review, July-August 1999: 109–120.
(14)
Allen I. Huffcutt and David J. Woehr, I “Further Analysis of Employment Interview Validity: A Quantitative Evaluation of Interviewer-Related Structuring Methods,” Journal of Organizational Behavior 20(4), 1999: 549–560.
(15)
Daniel Goleman, Social Intelligence: The New Science of Human Relationships (Bantam Books, 2006), p. 98.
(16)
Robert W. Eder and Michael M. Harris, The Employment Interview Handbook (Sage Publications, 1999). See Chapter 14, “Are Some Interviewers Better Than Others?,” by Laura M. Graves and Ronald J. Karren, pp. 243–258.
(17)
E.D. Pulakos, N. Schmitt, D. Whitney, and M. Smith, “Individual Differences in Interviewer Ratings: The Impact of Standardization, Consensus Discussion, and Sampling Error on the Validity of a Structured Interview,” Personnel Psychology 49, 1996: 85–102.
(18)
Robert L. Dipboye and Kenneth E. Podratz, “Estimating Validity at the Level of the Interviewer: The Case for Individual Differences,” Rice University, PowerPoint presentation accessed through Google, August 2006.
(19)
R. Taft, “The Ability to Judge People,” Psychological Bulletin 52, 1955.
(20)
P.M. Rowe, “Unfavorable Information and Interviewer Decisions,” in The Employment Interview: Theory, Research and Practice, edited by R.W. Eder and G.R. Ferris (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1989).
(21)
Valerie I. Sessa and Jodi J. Taylor, Executive Selection: Strategies for Success (Center for Creative Leadership, Jossey-Bass/Wiley, 2000), p. 88.
(22)
R.W. Eder and M.R. Buckley, “The Employment Interview: An Interactionist Perspective,” in Research in Personnel and Human Resource Management, 6th ed., edited by G.R. Ferris and K.M. Rowland (Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1988).
(23)
THE FOCUS online (http://www.ezifocus.com/content/thefocus/issue/article.php/article/54300471), vol. X/1, 2006. Keynote topic by Jim Collins: “Filling the Seats: How People Decisions Help Build a Great Company.”

الفصل الثامن: كيفية جذب أفضل المرشحين وتحفيزهم

(1)
Private conversation with Howard Stevenson, Buenos Aires, June 2006.
(2)
Private conversation with Jack Welch, Boston, February 2006.
(3)
Jerry Useem, “Have They No Shame?,” Fortune, April 14, 2003: 57.
(4)
Laura Nash and Howard Stevenson, Just Enough (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2004), p. 45.
(5)
“CEO Pay: A Window into Corporate Governance,” Knowledge@ Wharton, February 8, 2006 (http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article.cfm?articleid=1481).
(6)
“SEC’s Spotlight on Executive Pay: Will It Make a Difference?” Knowledge@Wharton, May 17, 2006. (http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article.cfm?articleid=1481).
(7)
James Surowiecki, The Wisdom of Crowds (Doubleday, June 2004), pp. 113-114.
(8)
Jeffrey Pfeffer and Robert I. Sutton, Hard Facts, Dangerous Half- Truths, and Total Nonsense (Harvard Business School Press, 2006), p. 133.
(9)
Daniel Goleman, Social Intelligence. The New Science of Human Relationships (New York: Bantam/Dell, September 2006), p. 271.
(10)
Dan Baker, Cathy Greenberg, and Collins Hemingway, What Happy Companies Know (Pearson Prentice Hall, 2006), p. 62.
(11)
The description of the potential benefits of a lockstep compensation system appears in “A Simpler Way to Pay,” Harvard Business Review, April 2001: 53–61.
(12)
Marshall W. Van Alstyne, “Create Colleagues, Not Competitors,” Harvard Business Review, September 2005: 24.
(13)
Valerie I. Sessa and Jodi J. Taylor, Executive Selection: Strategies for Success (Center for Creative Leadership, Jossey-Bass/Wiley, 2000), p. 48.
(14)
Jeffrey Pfeffer and Robert I. Sutton, Hard Facts, Dangerous Half-Truths, and Total Nonsense (Harvard Business School Press, 2006), p. 123.
(15)
THE FOCUS online (http://www.ezifocus.com/content/thefocus/issue/article.php/article/54300471), vol. X/1, 2006. Keynote topic by Jim Collins: “Filling the Seats: How People Decisions Help Build a Great Company.”
(16)
Private conversation with Jack Welch, Boston, February 2006.
(17)
Marshall W. Van Alstyne, “Create Colleagues, Not Competitors,” Harvard Business Review, September 2005: 28–30.
(18)
Jeffrey Pfeffer and Robert I. Sutton, Hard Facts, Dangerous Half-Truths and Total Nonsense (Harvard Business School Press, 2006), p. 196.

الفصل التاسع: كيفية دمج أفضل الموظفين

(1)
The Apollo 13 mission was later celebrated in Ron Howard’s 1995 movie of the same name.
(2)
Valerie I. Sessa and Jodi J. Taylor, Executive Selection: Strategies for Success (Center for Creative Leadership, Jossey-Bass/Wiley, 2000), p. 94.
(3)
John J. Gabarro, The Dynamics of Taking Charge (Harvard Business School Press, 1987), Chapter 1, Introduction, p. 1.
(4)
“Bio-Tech CEO Survey 2005: The First 100 Days,” Egon Zehnder International.
(5)
“That Tricky First 100 Days: Executive Onboarding,” The Economist, July 15, 2006.
(6)
Daniel Goleman, Social Intelligence: The New Science of Human Relationships (Bantam Books, September 2006), p. 271.
(7)
H. Mintzberg, “Managerial Work: Analysis from Observation,” Management Science 18(2), 1971: B97–B110.
(8)
John J. Gabarro, The Dynamics of Taking Charge (Harvard Business School Press, 1987), p. 57.
(9)
Valerie I. Sessa and Jodi J. Taylor, Executive Selection: Strategies for Success (Center for Creative Leadership, Jossey-Bass/Wiley, 2000), Preface, p. xiv.
(10)
Jay A. Conger and David A. Nadler, “When CEOs Step Up to Fail,” MIT Sloan Management Review 45(3), spring 2004.
(11)
Kevin P. Coyne and Bobby S.Y. Rao, “A Guide for the CEO-Elect,” The McKinsey Quarterly 3, 2005: 47–53.
(12)
“Financial Services 2005 Survey: The First Three Months of CEOs,” Egon Zehnder International, unpublished work.
(13)
Tsun-Yan Hsieh and Stephen Beat, “Managing CEO Transitions,” The McKinsey Quarterly 2, 1994.
(14)
Daniel Goleman, Social Intelligence: The New Science of Human Relationships (Bantam Books, September 2006), p. 43.
(15)
bid., p. 63.
(16)
Ibid., p. 64.
(17)
Stephen J. Dorgan, John J. Dowdy, and Thomas M. Rippin, “Who Should and Shouldn’t Run the Family Business,” The McKinsey Quarterly 3, summer 2006: 13–15.

الفصل العاشر: الصورة الكاملة

(1)
Bill Frymire, “The Search for Talent (Why It’s Getting Harder to Find),” The Economist, October 7, 2006.
(2)
Maybe this sounds like so much hyperbole, but actually it’s not. Living under constant tension excessively stimulates our right prefrontal brain cortex, which (through a series of complex mechanisms) prompts our sympathetic nervous system to promote high blood pressure and the excessive secretion of cortisol and adrenaline, weakening our immune system and increasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and even cancer.
(3)
Jack Welch and Suzy Welch, “Ideas—The Welch Way: The Real Verdict on Business,” BusinessWeek, June 12, 2006.
(4)
Dr. Seuss [Theodor Seuss Geisel], Oh, the Places You’ll Go! (New York: Random House, 1990).

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