المراجع

الفصل الأول

  • For an example of the term ‘Sumerian seed’, see the ‘Letter from Ibbi-Sin to Puzur-Numushda’ in Samuel Noah Kramer, The Sumerians (Chicago, 1963).
  • For the ancient Egyptian contrast to the Nubians and ‘Asiatics’, see A. Kirk Grayson and Donald B. Redford (eds.), Papyrus and Tablet (Englewood, NJ, 1973), p. 22; and John A. Wilson, The Burden of Egypt (Chicago, 1951), p. 164.
  • Herodotus, The History, tr. David Grene (Chicago, 1987), Bk. 8.144.
  • For the Chinese characterization of the Di and Rohn, see Michael Loewe and Edward L. Shaughnessy (eds.), The Cambridge History of Ancient China (Cambridge, 1999).
  • For the contempt implied by bárbaros, see Frank Walbank, ‘The Problem of Greek Nationality’, in Selected Papers (Cambridge, 1985).
  • Plato, The Republic, tr. Allan Bloom (New York, 1968), Bk. 5, 469a–471b; see also The Menexenus, tr. B. Jowett, The Collected Dialogues of Plato, ed. Edith Hamilton and Huntington Cairns (Princeton, 1961), 245d.
  • For the existence of pre-modern nations, see Steven Grosby, Biblical Ideas of Nationality: Ancient and Modern (Winona Lake, IN, 2002); Anthony D. Smith, The Antiquity of Nations (Cambridge, 2004).

الفصل الثاني

  • For vitality and the nation, see Steven Grosby, ‘Primordiality’ in Encyclopaedia of Nationalism, ed. Athena S. Leoussi (New Brunswick, 2001); Donald L. Horowitz, ‘The Primordialists’ in Ethnonationalism in the Contemporary World, ed. Daniele Conversi (London, 2002); Anthony D. Smith, Nationalism and Modernism (London, 1998).
  • Anthony D. Smith, The Ethnic Origin of Nations (Oxford, 1986).
  • Adam Smith, The Theory of Moral Sentiments, eds. D. D. Raphael and A. L. Macfie (Indianapolis, 1982), p. 192.
  • Aristotle, The Politics, tr. Carnes Lord (Chicago, 1984), 1252a1.
  • For civility as a mode of conduct, see The Virtue of Civility: Selected Essays of Edward Shils on Liberalism, Tradition, and Civil Society, ed. Steven Grosby (Indianapolis, 1997); Michael Oakeshott, On Human Conduct (Oxford, 1975).
  • For Cato the Elder, see Plutarch, The Lives of the Noble Grecians and Romans, tr. John Dryden (New York, nd).
  • On the nation as a medium between the empire and anarchy, see Yoram Hazony, ‘The Case for the National State’, Azure 12: 27–70.
  • Ernest Renan, ‘What is a Nation?’ in The Poetry of the Celtic Races and Other Studies (London, 1896).
  • On the dual nature of the nation, see Dominique Schnapper, Community of Citizens, tr. Séverine Rosée (New Brunswick, 1998).
  • For the defining characteristics of a nation, see Anthony D. Smith, ‘When is a Nation?’, Geopolitics 7/2 (2002): 5–32; The Antiquity of Nations (Cambridge, 2004), pp. 16–19.

الفصل الثالث

  • For the distinction between social relation and tool, see Hans Freyer, Theory of Objective Mind: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Culture, tr. Steven Grosby (Athens, 1998).
  • For the invention of tradition, see Eric Hobsbawm, ‘Introduction: Inventing Traditions’ in The Invention of Tradition, ed. Eric Hobsbawm and Terence Ranger (Cambridge, 1983).
  • For the history of the tartan kilt, see Hugh Trevor-Roper, ‘The Invention of Tradition: The Highland Tradition of Scotland’ in The Invention of Tradition, ed. Eric Hobsbawm and Terence Ranger (Cambridge, 1983).
  • On the relation of the Dutch to the Batavians, see Simon Schama, The Embarrassment of Riches: An Interpretation of Dutch Culture in the Golden Age (New York, 1987).
  • On emigration, immigration, and the civic-ethnic distinction, see Patrick Weil, ‘Access to Citizenship’ in Citizenship Today, ed. T. Alexander Aleinikoff and Douglas Klusmeyer (Washington, DC, 2001).
  • On the hiyal, see Joseph Schacht, ‘The Law’ in Unity and Variety in Muslim Civilization, ed. Gustave E. von Grunebaum (Chicago, 1955); Abraham L. Udovitch, Partnership and Profit in Medieval Islam (New Haven, 1979).
  • R. C. van Caenegem, Legal History (London, 1991), p. 119.
  • On the vassal and the ambiguities of the category feudalism, see Susan Reynolds, Fiefs and Vassals (Oxford, 1994).
  • On the legal developments in England during the 12th to 13th centuries, still indispensable are Frederick Pollock and Frederic William Maitland, The History of English Law before the Time of Edward I (Cambridge, 1923); Maitland’s The Constitutional History of England (Cambridge, 1920); and William Stubbs, The Constitutional History of England (Chicago, 1979).
  • For this definition of the jury, see Frederick Pollock and Frederic William Maitland, The History of English Law, vol. 1, p. 138.
  • On the contribution of the medieval army and the longbow to the development of the English nation, see Barnaby C. Keeney, ‘Military Service and the Development of Nationalism in England, 1272–1327’, Speculum XXII/4 (October 1947): 534–49.
  • Fritz Kern, Kingship and Law in the Middle Ages (Oxford, 1939).

الفصل الرابع

  • For these ancient Near Eastern tribes, see M. B. Rowton, ‘Enclosed Nomadism’, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 17 (1974): 1–30; ‘Dimorphic Structure and the Parasocial Element’, Journal of Near Eastern Studies 36 (1977): 181–98.
  • On the historical ubiquity of the territorial tie, see Robert Lowie, The State (New York, 1927).
  • On gayum, see Abraham Malamat, Mari and the Early Israelite Experience (Oxford, 1989).
  • Plato, The Menexenus, tr. B. Jowett, The Collected Dialogues of Plato, ed. Edith Hamilton and Huntington Cairns (Princeton, 1961), 237b-238b.
  • On the influence of the ancient Israelite conception of the promised land for the formation of nations in European history, see Adrian Hastings, The Construction of Nationhood (Cambridge, 1997).
  • Lyndon Baines Johnson, A Time for Action (New York, 1964).
  • For temples as boundary markers for the ancient Greek city-states, see François de Polignac, Cults, Territory and the Origins of the Greek City-State (Chicago, 1995).
  • John Locke, Second Treatise of Government, ed. Peter Laslett (Cambridge, 1960), ch. v.
  • Ernest Renan, ‘What is a Nation?’ in The Poetry of the Celtic Races and Other Studies (London, 1896).

الفصل الخامس

  • For analyses of nationality as exclusively modern, see, for example, Ernest Gellner, Nations and Nationalism (Ithaca, 1983); E. J. Hobsbawm, Nations and Nationalism since 1780 (Cambridge, 1990); Liah Greenfeld, Nationalism: Five Roads to Modernity (Cambridge 1992).
  • On early Sinhalese history, see Bardwell L. Smith (ed.), Religion and Legitimation of Power in Sri Lanka (Chambersburg, 1978); K. M. de Silva, A History of Sri Lanka (Berkeley, 1981).
  • On nationality in ancient Israelite history, see Steven Grosby, Biblical Ideas of Nationality; Ancient and Modern (Winona Lake, IN, 2002).
  • On early Japanese history, see Delmer M. Brown (ed.), The Cambridge History of Japan, vol. 1 (Cambridge, 1993); Joseph Kitagawa, ‘The Japanese Kokutai (National Community): History and Myth’, History of Religions 13/3 (1974): 209–26.
  • On medieval Polish history, see Paul W. Knoll, The Rise of the Polish Monarchy (Chicago, 1972); Norman Davies, God’s Playground, vol. 1 (New York, 1982).
  • Delmer M. Brown, ‘The Early Evolution of Historical Consciousness’ in The Cambridge History of Japan, vol. 1, p. 506.
  • On European trans-national institutions and human rights, see David Jacobson, Rights Across Borders (Baltimore, 1996).
  • On the possibility of Levites as government officials, see G. W. Ahlström, Royal Administration and National Religion in Ancient Palestine (Leiden, 1982).
  • On these samurai’s slogans and an overview of Tokugawa Japan, see E. H. Norman, Origins of the Modern Japanese State (New York, 1975); W. G. Beasley, The Japanese Experience (Berkeley, 1999).
  • On the account of the pronunciation of Polish words, see Paul W. Knoll, The Rise of the Polish Monarchy, p. 33; Norman Davies, God’s Playground, p. 94.
  • Josephus, The Antiquities of the Jews, in The Works of Josephus, tr. William Whiston (Peabody, MA, 1987), 13.9.1.
  • For these characteristics of nationality, see Anthony D. Smith, ‘When is a Nation?’, Geopolitics 7/2 (2002): 5–32; The Antiquity of Nations (Cambridge, 2004), pp. 16–19.
  • For the percentages of voting population in 1832, see Andrzej Walicki, The Enlightenment and the Birth of Modern Nationhood (Notre Dame, 1989), p. 6.
  • Edward Shils, ‘Center and Periphery’ in Center and Periphery (Chicago, 1975); S. N. Eisenstadt, Comparative Civilizations and Multiple Modernities (Leiden, 2003).
  • Marc Bloch, The Royal Touch, tr. J. E. Anderson (London, 1973).
  • On the Hermannsdenkmal, see George L. Mosse, The Nationalization of the Masses (Ithaca, 1975).
  • For the different interpretations of the Battle of Kosovo, see Vjekoslav Perica, Balkan Idols (Oxford, 2002).
  • On disputes over self-rule in the interpretation of the American Constitution, see Steven D. Ealy, ‘The Federalist Papers and the Meaning of the Constitution’, Inquiries 4/2-3 (Winter/Spring 2004): 1–10.
  • On the American conception of manifest destiny, see Albert K. Weinberg, Manifest Destiny (Baltimore, 1935).

الفصل السادس

  • For the war camp as the origin of ancient Israel, see Julius Wellhausen, Israelitische und Jüdische Geschichte (Berlin, 1905), p. 24. See also Alexander Joffe, ‘The Rise of Secondary States in the Iron Age Levant’, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 45/4 (2002): 425–67. For religion and ancient Israelite nationality, see Steven Grosby, Biblical Ideas of Nationality: Ancient and Modern (Winona Lake, IN, 2002).
  • For religion in early Japan, Joseph Kitagawa, ‘The Japanese Kokutai (National Community): History and Myth’; Matsumae Takeshi, ‘Early Kami Worship’ in The Cambridge History of Japan, ed. Delmer Brown (Cambridge, 1993), vol. I.
  • For the worship of the Sinhalese ‘Four Warrant Gods’, see Richard Gombrich and Gananath Obeyesekere, Buddhism Transformed: Religious Change in Sri Lanka (Princeton, 1988).
  • For the Virgin Mary at Blachernae, see N. Baynes, ‘The Supernatural Defenders of Constantinople’ in Byzantine Studies (London, 1955); Averil Cameron, ‘The Theotokos in Sixth-Century Constantinople’, Journal of Theological Studies, n.s., 29 (April 1978): 79–108; and Vasiliki Limberis, Divine Heiress: The Virgin Mary and the Creation of Christian Constantinople (London, 1994).
  • For the Virgin Mary at Częstochowa, see Norman Davies, God’s Playground: A History of Poland, vol. 1.
  • For the tomb of the unknown soldier and other monuments to fallen soldiers, see George Mosse, Fallen Soldiers: Reshaping the Memory of the World Wars (New York, 1990); Jay Winter, Sites of Memory, Sites of Mourning (Cambridge, 1995).
  • For the conceptual distinction between nation and religion, see Steven Grosby, ‘Nationality and Religion’ in Understanding Nationalism, ed. M. Guibernau and J. Hutchinson (Cambridge, 2001), pp. 97–119. For the distinction between the other-worldly axial religions of the book and the this-worldly primordial religions, see Max Weber, ‘The Sociology of Religion’ in Economy and Society (Berkeley, 1978); Karl Jaspers, The Origin and Goal of History (New Haven, 1953); and S. N. Eisenstadt (ed.), The Origins and Diversity of the Axial Age Civilizations (Albany, 1986).
  • For the pagan elevation of the human to the divine, see E. Bickerman, ‘Die Römische Kaiserapotheose’, Archiv für Religionswissenschaft 27 (1929): 1–34; Arnaldo Momigliano, ‘How Roman Emperors Became Gods’, in On Pagans, Jews, and Christians (Middletown, Conn., 1987).
  • On the Greek hero, see Arthur Darby Nock, ‘The Cult of the Heroes’ in Essays on Religion and the Ancient World, ed. Zeph Stewart (Oxford, 1972).
  • On the cult of the saints, see Peter Brown, The Cult of the Saints (Chicago, 1981).
  • On the cult of Louis, see Elizabeth M. Hallam, ‘Philip the Fair and the Cult of Saint Louis’, in Religion and National Identity, ed. Stewart Mews (Oxford, 1982).
  • For Symmachus’ statement, see Prefect and Emperor: The Relationes of Symmachus A. D. 384, tr. R. H. Barrow (Oxford, 1973), no. 3.
  • Herodotus, The History, tr. David Grene (Chicago, 1987), Bk. 1.172.
  • On pagan monotheism, see Polymnia Athanassiadi and Michael Frede, Pagan Monotheism in Late Antiquity (Oxford, 1999).
  • On Marcion, still necessary is Adolph Harnack, History of Dogma (London, 1894).
  • For a succinct overview of the relation between religion and nation in Iranian history, see Charles F. Gallagher, ‘The Plateau of Particularism: Problems of Religion and Nationalism in Iran’, in Churches and States, ed. Kalman H. Silvert (New York, 1967).
  • For ‘asabiyya, see the Encyclopedia of Islam (Brill, 1960).
  • On the cult of Idris and the sharifs, see Jamil M. Abun-Nasr, A History of the Maghrib (Cambridge, 1975); Abdallah Laroui, The History of the Maghrib (Princeton, 1977).

الفصل السابع

  • Arthur de Gobineau, The Inequality of the Human Races, tr. Adrian Collins (London, 1915).
  • Olaus Magnus, A Compendius History of the Goths, Swedes and Vandals (London, 1658).
  • Richard Verstegan, A Restitution of Decayed Intelligence (Antwerp, 1605).
  • H. S. Chamberlain, Foundations of the Nineteenth Century (New York, 1968).
  • Heinrich von Treitschke, Politics, tr. Blanche Dugdale and Torben de Bille (London, 1916).
  • For Herder’s view of the nation, see Steven Grosby, ‘Herder’s Theory of the Nation’ in Encyclopaedia of Nationalism, ed. A. Leoussi (New Brunswick, 2001).
  • Georges Dumézil, L’idéologie tripartite des Indo-Européens (Brussels, 1958); also by the same author, The Destiny of the Warrior (Chicago, 1970) and The Destiny of a King (Chicago, 1973), both translated into English by Alf Hiltebeitel.
  • For the ‘clash of civilizations’, see S. Huntington, The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order (New York, 1996).
  • For criticisms of Dumézil’s argument, see Colin Renfrew, Archaeology and Language (Cambridge 1988); Arnaldo Momigliano, ‘Georges Dumézil and the Trifunctional Approach to Roman Civilization’ in On Pagans, Jews, and Christians (Middletown, Conn., 1987).
  • Thomas Hobbes, The Leviathan, ed. Michael Oakeshott (London, 1962).
  • The literature of neo-Darwinism, evolutionary biology, and cognitive psychology is extensive. Useful overviews are John Cartwright, Evolution and Human Behavior (Cambridge, 2000); Peter J. Wilson, Man, the Promising Primate (New Haven, 1980); Paul R. Ehrlich, Human Natures (Washington, DC, 2000); J. H. Barkow, L. Cosmides, and J. Tooby (eds.), The Adapted Mind (Oxford, 1992); Dan Sperber, Explaining Culture (Oxford, 1996).
  • For the statistics on self-imposed female infertility, see ‘Women Graduates Find Cost of Having Children Too Great’, The Times (London), 25 April 2003; Michael S. Rendall and Steve Smallwood, ‘Higher Qualifications, First Birth Timing, and Further Childbearing in England and Wales’, Population Trends 111 (Spring 2003): 18–26.
  • On the ‘openness of the mind’, see the literature of ‘philosophical anthropology’, for example Max Scheler, Man’s Place in Nature, tr. Hans Meyerhoff (Boston, 1961); Arnold Gehlen, Man: His Nature and Place in the World, tr. Clare McMillan and Karl Pillemer (New York, 1988); Helmuth Plessner, Die Frage nach der Conditio humana (Appl, 1976); Mit anderen Augen (Stuttgart, 1982).
  • Aristotle, The Politics, tr. Carnes Lord (Chicago, 1984), 1252a1.
  • Adam Smith, The Theory of Moral Sentiments, ed. D. D. Raphael and A. L. Macfie (Indianapolis, 1982), p. 117.
  • Frank Knight, ‘Economic Theory and Nationalism’ in The Ethics of Competition (New York, 1935), pp. 325, 282.

الفصل الثامن

  • For the account of the Sirens, see Homer, The Odyssey, tr. Richard Lattimore (New York, 1975), Book XII, lines 39–200.
  • The noteworthy works on the emergence of the nation as a result of modernization are Karl W. Deutsch, Nationalism and Social Communication (Cambridge, 1953); John Breuilly, Nationalism and the State (Chicago, 1982); Ernest Gellner, Nations and Nationalism (Ithaca, 1983); Benedict Anderson, Imagined Communities (London, 1983); and Liah Greenfeld, Nationalism: Five Roads to Modernity (Cambridge, 1992).
  • For the prediction that nations would soon disappear, see E. J. Hobsbawm, Nations and Nationalism since 1780 (Cambridge, 1990).
  • For an example of a socialist modifying his views on the nation, see Tom Nairn, The Break-up of Britain (London, 1977).

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