ملاحظات

المقدمة

(1)
Nahin, R.L. et al. National Health Statistics Reports, no. 18, July 2009. Available at: https://nccih.nih.gov/sites/nccam.nih.gov/files/nhsrn18.pdf.
This report gives figures for use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in 2007. It does not give figures for prayer. The previous report for 2002 did ask about prayer specifically for health reasons—it found that overall, 62% of adults had used some form of CAM (36% if prayer was not included).
Barnes, P.M. et al. National Health Statistics Reports, no. 343, May 2004. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/ad/ad343.pdf.
A report giving figures for 2012 was released in 2015, but did not include any cost data. With narrower definition than previous surveys, it found that 34% of adults had used CAM in 2012.
Clarke, T.C. et al. National Health Statistics Reports, no. 79, 10 February 2015. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nhsr/nhsr079.pdf.
(2)
National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey: 2010 Summary Tables. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/ahcd/namcs_summary/2010_namcs_web_tables.pdf.
This figure is for 2010.
(3)
Silberman, S. The Journal of Mind–Body Regulation 2011; 1: 44–52 At the time of writing, homeopathy is still available on the NHS in some parts of the UK, see: http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/homeopathy/Pages/Introduction.aspx#available [accessed 30 April 2015].
(4)
Dunn, P.M. Archives of Disease in Childhood—Fetal and Neonatal Edition 2003; 88: F441–F443.

الفصل الأول: التظاهر

(1)
Horvath, K. et al.Journal of the Association for Academic Minority Physicians 1998; 9: 9–15.
Other sources for the story of secretin include ‘Secretin Trials: A drug that might help, or hurt, autistic children is widely prescribed but is just now being tested’ by Steve Bunk (The Scientist, 21 June 1999) and an open letter from Victoria Beck available at: https://groups.google.com/forum/#!topic/alt.support.autism/lnDCRgEwbJ4.
(2)
A transcript of the Dateline programme on secretin is available at: http://psydoc-fr.broca.inserm.fr/fora/aut_for1.html.
(3)
Telephone interview with Adrian Sandler, 7 February 2014.
(4)
Sandler, A.D. et al. New England Journal of Medicine 1999; 341: 1801–1806.
(5)
The children in the secretin group went from 59 to 50; there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups.
(6)
Telephone interview with Bonnie Anderson, 20 May 2014. Now in her eighties, Bonnie can’t remember the exact date, but she thinks it was in 2005.
(7)
Interview with Jerry Jarvik, University of Washington, Seattle, 7 May 2014.
(8)
Telephone interview with David Kallmes, 16 May 2014.
(9)
Kallmes, D.F. et al. New England Journal of Medicine 2009; 361: 569–79.
(10)
Anon. The Lancet 1954; ii: 321.
(11)
Sandler, A.D. et al. New England Journal of Medicine 1999; 341: 1801–1806.
(12)
Huedo-Medina, T.B. et al. British Medical Journal 2012; 345: e8343.
(13)
Hardy, J. et al. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2012; 30: 3611–3617.
(14)
Wartolowska, K. et al. British Medical Journal 2014; 348: g3253.
(15)
Rosanna spoke to me in Italian; her words were translated into English by Elisa Frisaldi.
(16)
De la Fuente-Fernandez, R. et al. Science 2001; 293: 1164–1166.
(17)
‘The Power of the Placebo’, Horizon BBC2, February 2014.
(18)
Benedetti, F. et al. Nature Neuroscience 2004; 7: 587-588.
(20)
Interviews with Fabrizio Benedetti, Breuil-Cervina, 21 March 2014, and Plateau Rosa, 22 March 2014.
(21)
Levine, J.D., Gordon, N.C. & Fields, H.L. The Lancet 1978; 312: 654–657.
(22)
Kirsch, I. Epidemiologia e psichiatria sociale 2009; 18: 318–322.
Kirsch, I. The Emperor’s New Drugs: Exploding the Antidepressant Myth (Basic Books, 2011).
(23)
Benedetti, F., Carlino, E. & Pollo, A. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics 2011; 90: 651–661.
(24)
Wechsler, M.E. et al. New England Journal of Medicine 2011; 365:119–126.
(25)
Chvetzoff, G. & Tannock, I.F. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2003; 95: 19–29.
(26)
Freed, C.R. et al. New England Journal of Medicine 2001; 344: 710–719.
(27)
McRae, E. et al. Archives of General Psychiatry 2004; 6: 412–420.

الفصل الثاني: فكرةٌ مُخالِفة

(1)
Interview with Ted Kaptchuk, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 28 May 2014.
(2)
Kaptchuk, T.J., et al. British Medical Journal 2006; 332: 391.
(3)
Moerman, D.J. Medical Anthropology Quarterly 2000; 14: 51–72.
According to Moerman, one of the major arguments for meaning as the source of placebo effects comes from the evidence for such cultural differences. Moerman has carried out extensive research on this topic, with many of the findings summarised in Chapter 6 of his 2002 book, Meaning, Medicine and the Placebo Effect.
(4)
Amanzio, M., Pollo, A., Maggi, G. & Benedetti, F. Pain 2001; 90: 205–215.
(5)
Telephone interview with Dan Moerman, 20 April 2011, confirmed via email May 2015.
(6)
Walsh, B.T., Seidman, S.N., Sysko, R. & Gould, M. Journal of the American Medical Association 2002; 287: 1840–7.
(7)
Kaptchuk, T.J. et al. PLoS ONE 2010; 5: e15591.
(8)
Kelley, J.M., et al. Psychotherapy & Psychosomatics 2012; 81: 312–314.
(9)
Kam-Hansen S. et al. Science Translational Medicine 2014;6:218ra5.
(11)
Moerman, D. Pain Practice 2006; 6: 233–236.
(12)
Email interviews with Edzard Ernst, 4 February 2014 and 13 April 2015.
(14)
World Health Organization Weekly Epidemiological Monitor vol 5, issue 22: Sunday 27 May 2012.
(15)
Lorber, W., Mazzoni, G. & Kirsch, I. Annals of Behavioral Medicine 2007; 33: 112–116.
Witthöft, M. & Rubin, G.J. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 2013; 74: 206–212.
(16)
Reeves, R.R., Ladner, M.E., Hart, R.H. & Burke, R.S. General Hospital Psychiatry 2007; 29: 275–277.
(17)
Silvestri, A. et al. European Heart Journal 2003; 24: 1928–1932.
(18)
Humphrey postulates the existence of a ‘health governor’ in the brain, which acts like a hospital administrator, forecasting the body’s future needs and allocating costly resources (from immune responses to self-generated symptoms, such as pain or fever) appropriately.
These ideas are discussed in ‘Great Expectations: The evolutionary psychology of faith healing and the placebo effect’, an essay in Humphrey’s 2002 book The Mind Made Flesh (pp. 255–285). A more recent review is Humphrey, N. & Skoyles, J. Current Biology 2012; 22: R1–R4.
(19)
Benedetti, F., Durando, J. & Vighetti, S. Pain 2014; 155: 921–928.
(20)
This quote originally appeared in the article ‘Heal Thyself’ by Jo Marchant, New Scientist, 27 August 2011, pp. 30–34.
(21)
Walach advocates the use of alternative medicine, a view that in 2012 helped to win him a German sceptics’ award for pseudoscience called the ‘Goldene Brett’.
(22)
Walach, H. & Jonas, W.B. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 2004; 10: S–103-S–112.
(23)
Telephone interview with Irving Kirsch 20 April 2011, confirmed via email May 2015.
(24)
Kaptchuk, T.J. et al. British Medical Journal 2008; 336: 999.
(25)
Gracely, R.H. et al. The Lancet 1985; 1: 43.
(26)
McMillan, F.D. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 1999; 215: 992–999.
(27)
Jensen, K.B. et al. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2012; 109: 15959–15964.

الفصل الثالث: قوة بافلوف

(1)
Someone with a transplanted kidney is two to three times more likely to develop cancer compared to a person of the same age and sex in the general population, mainly because the drugs that prevent their body from rejecting the organ also suppress immune responses that would normally protect them from cancer.
Wong, G. et al. Kidney International 2014; 85: 1262–1264
(2)
Interview with Fabrizio Benedetti, Breuil-Cervina, 21 March 2014, and email interview 13 February 2014.
(3)
Telephone interview with Adrian Sandler, 7 February 2014.
(4)
Sandler, A.D. et al. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics 2010; 31: 369–375.
(5)
Ader, R. & Cohen, N. Psychosomatic Medicine 1975; 37: 333–340.
(6)
Interview with Manfred Schedlowski, University of Essen, 27 March 2014.
(7)
Vitello, P. New York Times 29 December 2011, p. B8.
(8)
Healing and the Mind with Bill Moyers 1993, Ambrose Video Publishing, Vol 2: The Mind Body Connection.
(9)
Williams, J.M. et al. Brain Research Bulletin 1981; 6: 83–94.
(10)
The Rochester Review, 1997; vol 59, no 3. Available at: http://www.rochester.edu/pr/Review/V59N3/feature2.html.
(11)
Healing and the Mind with Bill Moyers 1993, Ambrose Video Publishing, Vol 2: The Mind Body Connection.
(12)
Ader, R. & Cohen, N. Science 1982; 215: 1534–1536.
(13)
Healing and the Mind with Bill Moyers 1993, Ambrose Video Publishing, Vol 2: The Mind Body Connection.
(14)
Olness, K. & Ader, R. Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics 1992; 13: 124-125.
(15)
Giang, G.W. et al. The Journal of Psychiatry & Clinical Neurosciences 1996; 8: 194–201.
(16)
Telephone interview with Karen Olness, 27 February 2014.
(17)
Exton, M.S. et al. Transplantation Proceedings 1998; 30: 2033.
(18)
Exton, M.S. et al. American Journal of Physiology—Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 1999; 276: 710–717.
(19)
Vits, S. et al. Brain, Behavior & Immunity 2013; 29: S17.
(20)
Goebel, M.U. et al. Psychotherapy & Psychosomatics 2008; 77: 227–234.
(21)
This statistic comes from Witzke. For more detailed statistics, see: http://srtr.transplant.hrsa.gov/annual_reports/2012.
(22)
Interview with Oliver Witzke, University of Essen, 27 March 2014.
(23)
Ghanta, V.K. et al. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1987; 496: 637–646.
Ghanta, V.K. et al. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1988; 521: 29–42.
Ghanta, V.K. et al. Cancer Research 1990; 50: 4295–4299.
Ghanta, V.K. et al. International Journal of Neuroscience 1993; 71: 251–265.
(24)
Ader, R. et al. Psychosomatic Medicine 2010; 72: 192–197.
(25)
Doering, B.K. & Rief, W. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 2012; 33: 165–172.

الفصل الرابع: مقاومة الإجهاد

(1)
West, J.B. High Life: A History of High-Altitude Physiology and Medicine (1998), Oxford University Press, p. 281.
(2)
West, J.B. High Life: A History of High-Altitude Physiology and Medicine (1998), Oxford University Press, p. 282.
(3)
Grocott, M.P.W. et al. New England Journal of Medicine 2009; 360: 140–149.
(4)
The oxygen content of the air we breathe in falls as we climb, of course, but up to 7,100 metres—in these experienced, acclimatised climbers at least—the body was able to compensate for this by increasing the amount of haemoglobin (the molecule that transports oxygen) in the blood.
(5)
Email interview with Dan Martin, 11 May 2015.
(6)
Noakes, T.D. Journal of Applied Physiology 2009; 106: 737–738.
(7)
This is known in the field as ‘the lactate paradox’. For a discussion of the evidence for this effect, see:
West, J.B. Journal of Applied Physiology 2007; 102: 2398-2399.
Van Hall, G. Journal of Applied Physiology 2007; 102: 2399–2401.
West, J.B. Journal of Applied Physiology 2007; 102: 2401.
(8)
BBC London 2012 coverage; clip available at:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/sport/0/olympics/18912882.
(9)
BBC London 2012 coverage; article available at:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/sport/0/athletics/19230671.
(10)
Nathan, M. et al. South African Medical Journal 1983; 64: 132–137.
Kew, T. et al. South African Medical Journal 1991; 80: 127–133.
Noakes, T. et al. British Medical Journal 1995; 310: 1345-1346.
(11)
Noakes, T.D. South African Medical Journal 2012; 102: 430–432.
(12)
Email interview with Tim Noakes, 22 April 2014.
(13)
St Clair Gibson, A. et al. American Journal of Physiology – Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 2001; 281: R187–R196.
Kay, D. et al. European Journal of Applied Physiology 2001; 84: 115–121.
For more discussion of the evidence for Noakes’ central governor, see the article ‘Running on Empty’ by Rick Lovett, New Scientist, 20 March 2004, pp. 42–45.
(14)
Noakes, T.D. et al. The Journal of Experimental Biology 2001; 204: 3225–3234.
Noakes, T.D. Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism 2011; 36: 23–35.
(15)
Email interview with Dan Martin, 18 May 2015.
(16)
Swart, J. et al. British Journal of Sports Medicine 2009; 43: 782–788.
(17)
Okano, A.H. et al. British Journal of Sports Medicine 2013; doi:10.1136/bjsports-2012-091658.
(18)
Beedie, C.J. & Foad, A. Sports Medicine 2009; 39; 313–329.
(19)
Interview with Chris Beedie, London, 10 April 2014.
(20)
Pollo, A. et al. European Journal of Neuroscience 2008; 28: 379–388.
(21)
Cairns, R. & Hotopf, M. Occupational Medicine 2005; 55: 20–31.
(22)
This might be about to change, however. A 2015 study that analysed blood samples from nearly 650 people found that those who had been ill for less than three years had higher levels of chemicals that induce inflammation in the body compared to healthy controls, while those who had been sick for longer had lower-than-normal levels.
Hornig, M. et al. Science Advances 2015; 1: e1400121.
(23)
White, P.D. et al. The British Journal of Psychiatry 1998; 173: 475–481.
(24)
For information about the trials, see:
Edmonds, M. et al. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2004; 3: CD003200.
Bagnall, A.-M. et al. ‘The Treatment and Management of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS)/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME) in Adults and Children: Update of CRD Report 22’. Available at: http://www.york.ac.uk/media/crd/crdreport35.pdf.
Malouff, J.M. et al. Clinical Psychology Review 2008; 28: 736–45.
Price, J.R. et al. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2008; 3: CD001027.
(25)
Telephone interview with Peter White, 2 May 2014.
(26)
White, P.D. et al. The Lancet 2011; 377: 823–836.
(27)
The Lancet 2011; 377: 1808.
(28)
Collings, A.D. & Newton, D. Response to White, P.D. British Medical Journal 2004; 329: 928. Available at: http://www.bmj.com/content/329/7472/928/rr/702549.
(29)
Blackmore, S.J. Response to White, P.D.British Medical Journal 2004; 329: 928. Available at: http://www.bmj.com/content/329/7472/928/rr/759419.
(30)
For more information on Samantha’s art, please see: http://www.samantha-miller.co.uk.

الفصل الخامس: في غشية

(1)
Interview with Peter Whorwell, Withington Community Hospital, Manchester, 14-15 May 2014.
(2)
Herr, H.W. Urologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations 2005; 23: 346–351.
(3)
Interview with David Spiegel, Curie Institute, Paris, 23 October 2013.
(4)
We vary in how hypnotisable we are. The classic scale of hypnotisability involves giving people a series of test suggestions that they pass or fail, for example that their arm will rise by itself, or that they’ll see their best friend in the room. It’s generally said that around 80% of the population score in the medium range, with 10% of people highly hypnotisable and 10% barely hypnotisable at all (for example, see hypnosis.tools/measurement-of-hypnosis.html). How people score on this test varies slightly in different studies and in different populations tested, however (for example, see Bongartz, W. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis 1985; 33: 131–139).
(5)
Kosslyn, S.M. et al. The American Journal of Psychiatry 2000; 157: 1279–1284
(6)
Dikel, W. & Olness, K. Pediatrics 1980; 66: 335–340.
(7)
Telephone interview with Karen Olness, 27 February 2014.
(8)
Casiglia, E. et al. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis 1997; 40: 368–375.
(9)
Casiglia, E. et al. International Journal of Psychophysiology 2006; 62: 60–65.
(10)
Casiglia, E. et al. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis 2007; 49: 255–266.
(11)
Email interview with Edoardo Casiglia, 4 March 2014.
(12)
For example:
Kiecolt-Glaser, J.K. et al. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2001; 69: 674–682.
Naito, A. et al. Brain Research Bulletin 2003; 62: 241–253.
(13)
For example:
Hewson-Bower, B. & Drummond, P.D. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 2000; 51: 369–377 (upper respiratory infections).
Spanos, N.P. et al. Psychosomatic Medicine 1990; 52: 109–114 (warts).
Results are mixed, however. Karen Olness carried out a trial of 61 children with warts, who received either hypnotherapy, standard treatment or no treatment. There was no significant difference between the three groups.
Felt, B.T. et al. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis 1998; 41: 130–137.
(14)
Whorwell, P.J. et al. The Lancet 1984; 324: 1232–1234.
(15)
Miller, V. & Whorwell, P.W. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis 2009; 57: 279–292.
(16)
Calvert, E.L. et al. Gastroenterology 2002; 123: 1778–1785.
Miller, V. & Whorwell, P.W. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis 2009; 57: 279–292.
(17)
Miller, V. & Whorwell, P.J. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis 2008; 56: 306–317.
Mawdsley, J.E. et al. The American Journal of Gastroenterology 2008; 103: 1460–1469.
Keefer, L. et al. Alimentary Pharmacological Therapy 2013; 38: 761–71.
(18)
Gonsalkorale, W.M. et al. Gut 2003; 52: 1623–1629.
(19)
Lea, R. et al. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 2003; 17: 635–642.
(20)
Chiarioni, G., Vantini, I., de Iorio, F. & Benini, L. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 2006; 23: 1241–1249.
(21)
Whorwell, P.J. et al. The Lancet 1992; 340: 69–72.
(22)
For example, see:
Lindfors, P. et al. American Journal of Gastroenterology 2012; 107: 276–285.
Moser, G. et al. American Journal of Gastroenterology 2013; 108: 602–609.
(23)
Peters, S.L. et al. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 2015; doi: 10.1111/apt. 13202.
(25)
Interview with Jeremy Howick, Oxford, 20 April 2015.
(26)
According to the NIH’s online search tool, projectreporter. nih.gov, the NIH is currently funding five research projects with ‘hypnosis’ or ‘hypnotherapy’ in the title (compared to 35 for ‘mindfulness’, for example).
(27)
Miller, V. et al. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 2015; doi: 10.1111/apt.13145.

الفصل السادس: إعادة النظر في الألم

(1)
Sam Brown’s story is told in ‘Burning Man’ by Jay Kirk, GQ magazine, February 2012. Available at: http://www.gq.com/news-politics/newsmakers/201202/burning-man-sambrown-jay-kirk-gq-february-2012.
(2)
Hoffman, H.G. et al. Annals of Behavioral Medicine 2011; 41: 183–191.
(3)
Pilkington, E. ‘Painkiller Addiction: The plague that is sweeping the US’, The Guardian, 28 November 2012. Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/society/2012/nov/28/painkiller-addiction-plague-united-states.
(4)
The American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians (ASIPP) Fact Sheet. Available at: https://www.asipp.org/documents/ASIPPFactSheet101111.pdf.
(5)
‘Opioids Drive Continued Increase in Overdose Deaths’, CDC Press Release, 20 February 2013. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2013/p0220_drug_overdose_deaths.html See also ‘Vital Signs: Overdoses of opioid prescription pain relievers—United States, 1999–2008’, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2011; 60: 1487–1492. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6043a4.htm.
(6)
Ahmed, A. ‘Painkiller Addictions Worst Drug Epidemic in US History’, Al Jazeera America, 30 August 2013. Available at: http://america.aljazeera.com/articles/2013/8/29/painkiller-kill-morepeoplethanmarijuanause.html.
(7)
‘Aron Ralston Shares His Incredible Story of Survival’. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=83nk6zmu5_o.
(8)
Telephone interview with Hunter Hoffman, 7 May 2014.
(9)
Figure from interview with Sam Sharar, University of Washington Medical Center, 8-9 May 2014. See also Hoffman, H. et al. Annals of Behavioral Medicine 2011; 41: 183–191.
(10)
Reviewed in Hoffman, H. et al. Annals of Behavioral Medicine 2011; 41: 183–191.
(11)
Maani, C.V. et al. Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery 2011; 71: S125–130.
(12)
This quote appears in ‘Burning Man’ by Jay Kirk, GQ magazine, February 2012. Available at: http://www.gq.com/news-politics/newsmakers/201202/burning-man-sam-brown-jay-kirk-gq-february-2012.
(13)
Esdaile’s treatment of Gooroochuan Shah is described in Hidden Depths: The Story of Hypnosis (2002) by Robin Waterfield, pp. 196-197.
(14)
Interview with David Patterson, Seattle, Washington, 10 May 2014.
(15)
Patterson, D.R. et al. The International Journal of Clinical & Experimental Hypnosis 2004; 52: 27–38.
(16)
Patterson, D.R. et al. The International Journal of Clinical & Experimental Hypnosis 2010; 58: 288–300.
(17)
Barnsley, N. et al. Current Biology 2011; 21: R945-946.
(18)
Moseley, G.L. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 2012; 36: 34–46.
(19)
Telephone interview with Candy McCabe, 19 December 2014.
(20)
McCabe, C. Journal of Hand Therapy 2011; 24: 170–179.
Preston, C. & Newport, R. Rheumatology 2011; 50: 2314-2315.
(21)
Rothgangel, A.S. et al. International Journal of Rehabilitation Research 2011; 34: 1–13.
(22)
Interview with David Spiegel, Curie Institute, Paris, 23 October 2013.

الفصل السابع: تحدَّث معي

(1)
‘Childhood, Infant and Perinatal Mortality in England and Wales’, Office for National Statistics Bulletin 2012. Available at: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/dcp171778_350853.pdf.
(2)
Waldenstrom, U. et al. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynecology 1996; 17: 215–228.
(3)
Olde, E. et al. Clinical Psychology Review 2006; 26: 1–16.
(4)
In England in 2013/14, the rate of ‘unassisted deliveries’ (without induction, caesarean, instrumental delivery or episiotomy, but including pain relief such as epidurals) was 44.5%. http://www.birthchoiceuk.com/Professionals/index.html.
(5)
Hodnett, E.D. et al. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012; issue 10, article no. CD 003766.
(6)
Telephone interview with Ellen Hodnett, 10 March 2014.
(7)
Gibbons, L. et al. ‘The Global Numbers and Costs of Additionally Needed and Unnecessary Caesarean Sections Performed Per Year: Overuse as a barrier to universal coverage’, World Health Report 2010. Background Paper 30. Available at: http://www.who.int/healthsystems/topics/financing/healthreport/30C-sectioncosts.pdf.
(9)
This is well established in animals. There’s very little research on this in humans, but for example, see:
Lederman, R.P. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology 1978; 132: 495–500.
Lederman, R.P. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology 1985; 153: 870–877.
(10)
Hodnett, E.D. et al. Journal of the American Medical Association 2002; 288: 1373–1381.
(11)
Brocklehurst, P. et al. British Medical Journal 2011; 343: d7400.
(12)
Symon, A. et al. British Medical Journal 2009; 338: b2060 Babies in the independent midwife group were more likely to die, but the authors concluded this was because this group included significantly more ‘high-risk’ women with preexisting medical conditions and complications. When the researchers excluded these cases from their analysis, the death rate in both groups was the same.
(13)
Olsen, O. & Clausen, J.A. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012, issue 9. Art. No. CD000352.
(14)
‘New Advice Encourages More Home Births’, NHS Choices, 13 May 2014. Available at: http://www.nhs.uk/news/2014/05May/Pages/New-advice-encourages-more-home-births.aspx.
(15)
My son was born on the morning of 18 October 2012. My midwives, Jacqui Tomkins and Elke Heckel, are from the London Birth Practice (www.londonbirthpractice.co.uk). Tomkins has been chair of Independent Midwives UK (IMUK) since 2013, and in 2014 was named midwife of the year at the British Journal of Midwifery Awards for her work in securing insurance for self-employed midwives.
(16)
As I’d previously had a c-section, my second pregnancy was officially ‘high-risk’, because of the possibility that my scar from the previous surgery might rupture during delivery, with serious consequences for the baby and me. According to NHS guidelines, I should not have attempted to give birth at home. However, my partner and I researched the evidence on uterine rupture and concluded that in our case, the extra risk was very small. We decided—supported by the head of midwifery at my local hospital—that for us this risk was outweighed by the benefits of continuous care at home.
(17)
‘NICE Confirms Midwife-led Care During Labour is Safest for Straightforward Pregnancies’, NICE Press Release, 3 December 2014. Available at: https://www.nice.org.uk/news/press-and-media/midwife-care-during-labour-safest-womenstraightforward-pregnancies.
(18)
Hodnett, E.D. et al. Journal of the American Medical Association 2002; 288: 1373–1381.
(19)
‘The Cost of Having a Baby in the United States’, Truven Health Analytics Marketscan Study, January 2013. Available at: http://transform.childbirthconnection.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/Cost-of-Having-a-Baby1.pdf.
(20)
Skype video interview with Elvira Lang, 24 April 2014.
(21)
Lang, E.V. et al. The Lancet 2000; 355: 1486–1490.
Lang, E.V. et al. Pain 2006; 126: 155–164.
Lang, E.V. et al. Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology 2008; 19: 897–905.
(22)
Lang, E.V. & Rosen, M.P. Radiology 2002; 222: 375–382.
(23)
Lang’s company is called Hypnalgesics (see www.hypnalgesics.com). Lang has also written two books about Comfort Talk– Patient Sedation Without Medication (2011), which is aimed at medical professionals, and Managing Your Medical Experience (2014), written for patients.
(24)
Lang, E.V. Journal of Radiology Nursing 2012; 31:114–119.
(25)
Lang, E.V. et al. Pain 2005; 114: 303–309.
(26)
Providing tools that patients can use to cope for themselves, rather than simply chatting or comforting them in other ways, seems crucial. In a trial of 201 patients having tumours destroyed using chemicals or an electric current, Lang included a control group who were given ‘empathic care’, which included avoiding negative language and swiftly responding to requests (Lang, E.V. et al. Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology 2008; 19: 897–905). These patients ended up far more anxious than those who received standard care. They needed more drugs, and suffered so many complications—things like falling oxygen levels, or a dangerous spike in blood pressure—that Lang had to stop the study early (patients in the Comfort Talk group, who were also read a relaxation script, did much better than standard care). Lang says the nurses in the empathic care group tried to comfort their patients—discussing their own experiences with illness, for example, or stroking a patient’s forehead—and she thinks that this interfered with the patients’ own coping efforts. This wasn’t part of the intended intervention, but, ‘Suddenly everyone in the room wanted to be extra nice,’ she says, ‘and sometimes patients just wanted to be left in peace.’
(27)
Lang, E.V. et al. Academic Radiology 2010; 17: 18–23.
(28)
Temel, J.S. et al. The New England Journal of Medicine 2010; 363: 733–742.
(29)
Telephone interview with Vicki Jackson, 16 December 2014.
(30)
Temel, J.S. et al. The New England Journal of Medicine 2010; 363:733–742.

الفصل الثامن: إما المواجهة أو الفرار

(1)
Telephone interview with Robert Kloner, 23 April 2013.
(2)
Kloner, R.A. et al. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 1997; 30: 1174–1180.
(3)
Meisel, S.R. et al. The Lancet 1991; 338: 660–661.
Trichopoulos, D. et al. The Lancet 1983; 1: 441–444.
Suzuki, S. et al. The Lancet 1995; 345: 981.
(4)
When Kloner looked for a spike in cardiac deaths in New York after the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001, for example, he didn’t find one. He suggests that this is because most of the people who were in direct danger and therefore might have suffered from this effect—those who were inside the two towers—perished anyway when the buildings collapsed.
(5)
More information on the Whitehall studies is available here: https://www.ucl.ac.uk/whitehallII.
(6)
Bobak, M. & Marmot, M. British Medical Journal 1996; 312: 421–425.
(7)
Dhabhar, F.S. et al. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2012; 37: 1345–1368.
(8)
Glaser, R. & Kiecolt-Glaser, J.K. Nature Reviews Immunology 2005; 5: 243–251.
Cohen, S. et al. Journal of the American Medical Association 2007; 298: 1685–1687.
(9)
Cohen, S. et al. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2012; 109: 5995–5999.
(10)
Christian, L.M. et al. Neuroimmunomodulation 2006; 13: 337–346.
Godbout, J.P. & Glaser, R. Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology 2006; 1: 421–427.
(11)
McDade, T.W. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2012; 109 supp 2: 17281–17288.
(12)
Chung, H.Y. et al. Ageing Research 2009; 8: 18–30.
(13)
Chida, Y. et al. Nature Clinical Practice Oncology 2008; 5: 466–475.
Heikkilä, K. et al. British Medical Journal 2013; 346: f165.
(14)
Jenkins, F.J. et al. Journal of Applied Biobehavioral Research 2014; 19: 3–23.
(15)
Sloan, E.K. et al. Cancer Research 2010; 70: 7042–7052 (breast cancer).
Lamkin, D.M. et al. Brain, Behavior & Immunity 2012; 26: 635–641 (acute lymphoblastic leukaemia).
Kim-Fuchs, C. et al. Brain, Behavior & Immunity 2014; 40: 40–47 (pancreatic cancer).
(16)
Lemeshow, S. et al. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 2011; 20: 2273–2279.
(17)
Blackburn’s role in working out their function won her a share of the 2009 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
(18)
Epel, E.S. et al. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2004; 101: 17312–17315.
(19)
Sapolsky, R. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2004; 101: 17323-17324.
(20)
For a review, see: Lin, J. et al. Mutation Research 2012; 730: 85–89.
There are also clues to how stress influences telomeres; in lab studies, the stress hormone cortisol reduces telomerase activity, while molecules involved in inflammation erode telomeres directly. This process seems to work in both directions—when the telomeres of immune cells get too short, they pump out chemicals that further boost inflammation, see: Rodier, F. & Campisi, J. Journal of Cell Biology 2011; 192: 547–556.
(21)
This quote first appeared in ‘Can Meditation Really Slow Ageing?’ by Jo Marchant published by Mosaic, 1 July 2014. Available at: http://mosaicscience.com/story/can-meditationreally-slow-ageing. (The section from paragraph 2 on p.163 to paragraph 3 on p.164 is adapted from this article.).
(22)
Cawthon, R.M. et al. The Lancet 2003; 361: 393–395.
(23)
Armanios, M. & Blackburn, E.H. Nature Reviews Genetics 2012; 13: 693–704.
(24)
Codd, V. et al. Nature Genetics 2013; 45: 422–427.
(25)
Epel, E.S. et al. Aging 2009; 1: 81–88.
Zhao, J. et al. Diabetes 2014; 63: 354–362.
(26)
‘Poor’ is defined by the federal government’s poverty thresholds – for example for a family of four (with two children) in 2014, this was defined as an annual income of less than $24,008. For more information on the economic challenges facing rural communities in black belt counties, see: Brody, G.H., Kogan, S.M. & Grange, C.M. (2012). ‘Translating Longitudinal, Developmental Research with Rural African American Families into Prevention Programs for Rural African American Youth’. In V. Maholmes & R.B. King (eds), Oxford Handbook of Poverty and Child Development. London: Oxford University Press.
(27)
Telephone interview with Gene Brody, 8 January 2015, and interview, Emory University, Atlanta, 4 February 2014.
(28)
Brody, G.H., Kogan, S.M. & Grange, C.M. (2012). ‘Translating Longitudinal, Developmental Research with Rural African American Families into Prevention Programs for Rural African American Youth’. In V. Maholmes & R.B. King (eds), Oxford Handbook of Poverty and Child Development. London: Oxford University Press.
(29)
Miller, G.E. et al. Psychological Bulletin 2011; 137: 959–997.
(31)
Telephone interview with Greg Miller, 4 December 2014. This research is summarised in Marmot, M. The Status Syndrome: How Social Standing Affects Our Health and Longevity (2005), Holt Paperbacks.
(32)
Miller, G.E. et al. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2009; 106: 14716–14721.
(33)
Osler, M. et al. International Journal of Epidemiology 2006; 35: 1272–1277.
(34)
Kittleson, M.M. et al. Archives of Internal Medicine 2006; 166: 2356–2361.
(35)
Lin, J. et al. Mutation Research 2012; 730: 85–89
(36)
For example see:
Szanton, S.L. et al. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine 2012; 19: 489–495.
Chae, D.H. et al. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2014; 46: 103–111.
Brody, G.H. et al. Child Development 2014; 85: 989–1002.
(37)
Blackburn, E.H. & Epel, E.S. Nature 2012; 490: 169–171.
(38)
This quote (and the one in the following paragraph) first appeared in ‘Can Meditation Really Slow Ageing?’ by Jo Marchant published by Mosaic, 1 July 2014. Available at: http://mosaicscience.com/story/can-meditation-really-slowageing (Paragraphs 2–5 on p. 170 are adapted from this article).
(39)
Telephone interview with Elissa Epel, 24 February 2014.
(40)
This concept (as well as the example with the skier) is described further in:
Jamieson, J.P. et al. Current Directions in Psychological Science 2013; 22: 51–56.
(41)
Telephone interview with Wendy Mendes, 17 September 2014.
(42)
Jamieson, J.P. et al. Current Directions in Psychological Science 2013; 22: 51–56.
(43)
Jamieson, J.P. et al. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 2010; 46: 208–212.
(44)
Chen, E. et al. Child Development 2004; 75: 1039–1052.
(45)
Miller, G.E. et al. Psychological Bulletin 2011; 137: 959–997.
(46)
McEwen, B.S. & Gianaros, P.J. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 2010; 1186: 190–222.
McEwen, B.S. & Morrison, J.H. Neuron 2013; 79: 16–29.
(47)
Ganzel, B.L. et al. NeuroImage 2008; 40: 788–795.
(48)
Miller, G.E. et al. Psychological Bulletin 2011; 137: 959–997.
(49)
Sweitzer, M.M. et al. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2008; 10:1571–1575.
(50)
Gianaros, P.J. et al. Cerebral Cortex 2011; 21: 896–910.

الفصل التاسع: استمتِعْ باللحظة

(1)
Paragraphs 1-2 and 18-19 of this chapter are adapted from ‘Can Meditation Really Slow Ageing?’ by Jo Marchant published by Mosaic, 1 July 2014. Available at: http://mosaicscience.com/story/can-meditation-really-slow-ageing.
(2)
Telephone interview with Mark Williams, 9 February 2009, confirmed via email April 2015.
(3)
Pagnoni, G. et al. PLoS One 2008; 3: e3083.
(4)
This quote is from Gareth Walker’s video testimonial posted at: http://www.everyday-mindfulness.org/gareths-video-testimonial/ [accessed 2 April 2015]. All other quotes from Gareth Walker are from my interview, Barnsley, 23 January 2015.
(5)
Interview with Trudy Goodman, Santa Monica, 22 November 2013.
(6)
National Health Statistics Reports, no. 79, 10 February 2015. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nhsr/nhsr079.pdf.
(7)
See Pickert, K. ‘The Mindful Revolution’, TIME magazine, 23 January 2014. Available at: http://time.com/1556/themindful-revolution.
(8)
For example, see:
Lauche, R. et al. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 2013; 75: 500–510 Lerner, R. et al. Cancer and Clinical Oncology 2013; 2: 62–72.
Veehof, M.M. et al. Pain 2011; 152: 533–542
Piet, J. et al. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2012; 80: 1007–1020.
Hofmann, S.G. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2010; 78: 169–183.
Chiesa, A. & Serretti, A. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 2011; 17: 83–93.
Cramer, H. et al. Current Oncology 2012; 19: e343–351.
(9)
For discussions of this see, for example:
Blomfield, V. ‘Buddhism and the Mindfulness Movement: Friends or foes?’, blog post 6 April 2012. Available at: http://www.wiseattention.org/blog/2012/04/06/buddhismthe-mindfulness-movement-friends-or-foes.
‘Mindfulness: Panacea or fad?’, BBC Radio 4, 11 January 2015. Presented by Emma Barnett. Produced by Phil Pegum. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b04xmqdd.
(10)
Szalavitz, M. Scientific American July 2014: 30-31.
(11)
Barker, K. Social Science & Medicine 2014; 106: 168–176.
(12)
Interview with Gareth Walker, Barnsley, UK, 23 January 2015.
(14)
Interview with Willem Kuyken, University of Exeter, 23 February. Since our meeting, Kuyken has moved to Oxford and is now director of the Oxford Mindfulness Centre.
(15)
Teasdale, J.D. et al. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2000; 68: 615–623.
Ma, S.H. & Teasdale, J.D. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2004; 72: 31–40.
These two randomised controlled trials compared MBCT with usual care, however they excluded patients currently taking antidepressants. Kuyken’s subsequent trials of the therapy compared MBCT against drug treatment.
(16)
Kuyken, W. et al. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2008; 76: 966–978.
(17)
Kuyken, W. et al. The Lancet 2015; doi: 10.1016/S0140–6736(14) 62222–4.
(18)
Interview with Sara Lazar, Harvard University, Boston, 27 May 2014.
(19)
This quote previously appeared in ‘Can Meditation Really Slow Ageing?’ by Jo Marchant published by Mosaic, 1 July 2014. Available at: http://mosaicscience.com/story/canmeditation-really-slow-ageing.
(20)
Lutz, A. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2004; 101: 16369–16373.
(21)
Lazar, S.W. et al. NeuroReport 2005; 16: 1893–1897.
(22)
Eriksson, P.S. et al. Nature Medicine 1998; 4: 1313–1317.
(23)
Hölzel, B.K. et al. SCAN 2010; 5: 11–17.
Hölzel, B.K. et al. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging 2011; 191: 36–43.
(24)
Luders, E. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 2014; 1307: 82–88.
(25)
Gard, T. et al. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience 2014; 6: 76.
(26)
Mohr, D.C. et al. British Medical Journal 2004; doi:10.1136/bmj. 38041.724421.55.
(27)
Buljevac, D. et al. British Medical Journal 2003; 327: 646.
(28)
Mohr, D.C. et al. Neurology 2012; 79: 412–419.
(29)
Results from the three-month meditation retreat studied by Blackburn and Epel are reported here: Jacobs, T.L. et al. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2011; 36: 664–681.
Other examples of studies hinting that meditation might boost telomerase or lengthen telomeres include:
Ornish, D. et al. The Lancet Oncology 2013; 14: 1112–1120 Lavretsky, H. et al. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 2013; 28: 57–65.
(30)
This quote (and the quote from Elizabeth Blackburn in the following paragraph) previously appeared in ‘Can Meditation Really Slow Ageing?’ by Jo Marchant published by Mosaic, 1 July 2014. Available at: http://mosaicscience.com/story/can-meditation-really-slow-ageing.
(31)
Interview with Elizabeth Blackburn, Paris, 23 October 2013.
(32)
Kabat-Zinn, J. et al. Psychosomatic Medicine 1998; 60: 625–632.
(33)
Davidson, R.J. et al. Psychosomatic Medicine 2003; 65: 564–570.
(34)
Barrett, B. et al. Annals of Family Medicine 2012; 10: 337–346.
(35)
Simpson, R. et al. BMC Neurology 2014; 14: 15.
(36)
Telephone interview with Robert Simpson, 7 January 2015.

الفصل العاشر: ينبوع الشباب

(1)
Rosero-Bixby, L. ‘Costa Rican Nonagenarians: Are they the longest living male humans?’ Paper presented at the IUSSP V International Population Conference, Tours, France, 2005.
(2)
Rosero-Bixby, L. et al. Vienna Yearb. Popul. Res. 2013; 11: 109–136.
(3)
Dan Buettner describes the visit in his 2010 book, Blue Zones: Lessons for Living Longer From the People Who’ve Lived the Longest, published by the National Geographic Society.
(4)
Rehkopf, D.H. et al. Experimental Gerontology 2013; 48: 1266–1273.
(5)
Telephone interview with Michel Poulain, 2 September 2013.
(6)
House, J.S. et al. American Journal of Epidemiology 1982; 116: 123–140.
(7)
House, J.S. et al. Science 1988; 241: 540–545.
(8)
Holt-Lunstad, J. et al. PLoS Medicine 2010; 7: e1000316.
(9)
Telephone interview with Charles Raison, 30 March 2011, confirmed via email May 2015. This quote originally appeared in the article ‘Heal Thyself’ by Jo Marchant, New Scientist, 27 August 2011, pp. 30–34. When we spoke, Raison was a professor at Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia. He is now based at the University of Wisconsin–Madison.
(10)
Vespa, J. et al. America’s Families & Living Arrangements: 2012, www.census.gov/prod/2013pubs/p20-570.pdf.
(11)
McPherson, M. et al. American Sociological Review 2006; 71: 353–375.
(12)
Eisenberger, N.I. et al. Science 2003; 302: 290–292.
Eisenberger, N.I. & Cole, S.W. Nature Neuroscience 2012; 15: 1–6.
(13)
Cacioppo, J.T. et al. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 2011; 1231: 17–22.
Hawkley, L.C. & Cacioppo, J.T. Annals of Behavioral Medicine 2010; 40: 218–227.
(14)
Telephone interview with John Cacioppo, 21 April 2011.
(15)
This quote originally appeared in the article ‘Heal Thyself’ by Jo Marchant, New Scientist, 27 August 2011, pp. 30–34.
(16)
Luo, Y. et al. Social Science & Medicine 2012; 74: 907–914.
(17)
Cole, S.W. et al. Genome Biology 2007; 8: R189.
(18)
Interview with Steve Cole, University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), 21 November 2013.
(19)
Cole, S.W. et al. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2011; 108: 3080–3085.
(20)
Cole, S.W. PLoS Genetics 2014; 10: e1004601.
(21)
Antoni, M.H. et al. Biological Psychiatry 2012; 71: 366–372.
(22)
Telephone interviews with Michael Antoni, 18 September 2013 and 6 March 2014.
(23)
This quote originally appeared in ‘The Pursuit of Happiness’ by Jo Marchant, Nature 2013; 503: 458–460.
(24)
Spiegel, D. et al. The Lancet 1989; 334: 888–891.
(25)
This was David Spiegel’s count when I interviewed him at the Curie Institute, Paris, 23 October 2013. The negative trials include a large Canadian trial of 235 women with metastatic breast cancer, published in 2001 (Goodwin, P.J. et al. New England Journal of Medicine 2001; 345: 1719–1726), and Spiegel’s own attempt to repeat his 1989 study, on 125 women with the condition, published in 2007 (Spiegel, D. et al. Cancer 2007; 110: 1130–7). Spiegel argues that there are problems with some of these studies, for example that the intervention being tested didn’t cause any psychological changes in the first place, so wouldn’t then be expected to have any physical effect.
The most prominent of the positive studies is a 2008 trial led by Barbara Andersen of Ohio State University, which included 227 women with non-metastatic breast cancer (Andersen, B.L. et al. Cancer 2008; 113: 3450–3458). They took a four-month course that aimed to provide them with social support and to help manage stress in their lives. Andersen followed the women for an average of 11 years. Their mood and immune responses improved, and their average survival time was increased by six months, from 2.2 years in the control group to 2.8 years in the therapy group. Sceptic James Coyne has criticised the statistical analysis used in this study, arguing that the data didn’t actually show a positive result at all (Stefanek, M.E. et al. Cancer 2009; 115: 5612–5616).
(26)
Aizer, A.A. et al. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2013; 31: 3869–3876.
For prostate, breast, colorectal, oesophageal and head/neck cancers, the authors concluded that the survival benefit conferred by being married was greater than that published for chemotherapy.
(27)
Interview with David Spiegel, Curie Institute, Paris, 23 October 2013.
(28)
Telephone interview with James Coyne, 19 September 2013.
(29)
Buchen, L. Nature 2010; 467: 146–148.
(30)
McGowan, P.O. et al. Nature Neuroscience 2009; 12: 342–348.
(31)
Lam, L.L. et al. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2012; 109: 17253–17260.
Romans, S.E. et al. Child Development 2014; 86: 303–309.
Naumova, O.Y. et al. Development & Psychopathology 2012; 24: 143–155.
Fraga, M.F. et al. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2005; 102: 10604–10609.
(32)
One of the first people to publish this idea was the biologist Bruce Lipton, in his 2005 book The Biology of Belief: Unleashing the Power of Consciousness, Matter & Miracles. It’s now a popular claim on new age and health websites, for example see:
http://www.abundance-and-happiness.com/epigenetics.html.
http://healthscamsexposed.com/2014/06/epigenetics-proves-cancer-is-not-mysterious-or-inevitable.
http://healingthecause.blogspot.co.uk/2014/03/ancestralhealing-epigenetics.html.
(33)
These ideas are discussed further in:
Cole, S.W. Current Directions in Psychological Science 2009; 18: 132–137.
Cole, S.W. PLoS Genetics 2014; 10: e1004601.
(34)
Brody, G.H., Kogan, S.M. & Grange, C.M. (2012). ‘Translating Longitudinal, Developmental Research with Rural African American Families into Prevention Programs for Rural African American Youth’. In V. Maholmes & R.B. King (eds), Oxford Handbook of Poverty and Child Development. London: Oxford University Press.
Several other studies, for example by Northwestern University’s Greg Miller, have also found that warm or nurturant parenting protects people against the biological effects of stress later in life.
Miller, G.E. & Chen, E. Child Development Perspectives 2013; 7: 67–73.
(35)
Brody, G.H. et al. Journal of Adolescent Health 2008; 43: 474–481.
(36)
Miller, G.E. et al. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2014; 111: 11287–11292.
(37)
Telephone interview with Greg Miller, 4 December 2014.
(38)
Both loneliness and chronic stress are thought to increase the risk of dementia. For example, see:
Holwerda, T.J. et al. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 2014; 85:135–142.
Greenberg, M.S. et al. Alzheimer’s & Dementia 2014; 10: S155–S165.
(39)
Telephone interview with Michelle Carlson, 24 February 2015.
(40)
Fried, L.P. et al. Journal of Urban Health 2004; 81: 64–78.
Carlson, M.C. et al. Journal of Gerontology: Medical Sciences 2009; 64: 1275–1282.
(41)
Carlson, M.C. et al. Alzheimers & Dementia. Forthcoming.
(42)
Telephone interview with Lobsang Negi, 10 December 2014, and interview, Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia, 3 February 2015.
(44)
Pace, T.W.W. et al. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2009; 34: 87–98.
(45)
Pace, T.W.W. et al. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2013; 38: 294–299.
(46)
Mascaro, J.S. et al. SCAN 2013; 8: 48–55.
(47)
Interview with Brendan Ozawa-de Silva, Atlanta, 4 & 5 February 2015.

الفصل الحادي عشر: الاتجاه إلى الكهرباء

(1)
Novella, S. ‘Energy Medicine: Noise-based pseudoscience’, Science-based medicine blog, 12 December 2012. Available at: https://www.sciencebasedmedicine.org/energy-medicinenoise-based-pseudoscience.
(2)
The details of Janice’s story (Janice is not her real name) given here are taken from the electronic version of Kevin Tracey’s 2005 book Fatal Sequence: The Killer Within, published by Dana Press. Tracey notes in the introduction to this book that he did not take recordings or notes during Janice’s hospitalisation, so he reconstructed the account from memory.
(3)
Levinson, A.T. et al. Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2011; 32: 195–205.
(4)
Tracey, K. Fatal Sequence, Chapter 5, location 1294.
(5)
Tracey, K. Fatal Sequence, Introduction, location 70.
(6)
Lehrer, P. Biofeedback 2013; 41: 88–97.
(7)
Vaschillo, E. et al. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback 2002; 27: 1–27.
(8)
Lehrer, P. Biofeedback 2013; 41: 26–31.
(9)
Thayer, J.F. & Lane, R.D. Biological Psychology 2007; 74: 224–242.
(10)
Telephone interview with Paul Lehrer, 26 January 2015.
(11)
Del Pozo, J.M. et al. American Heart Journal 2004; 147: E11.
Lin, G. et al. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine 2012; 18: 143–152.
(12)
Gevirtz, R. Biofeedback 2013; 41: 110–120.
(13)
Benson, H. The Relaxation Response, Avon Books, 1976, p. 83.
(14)
For example, see:
Benson, H. et al. The Lancet 1974; i: 289–291.
Benson, H. et al. Journal of Chronic Diseases 1974; 27: 163–169.
(15)
Benson describes the results of his initial studies in his 1976 book, The Relaxation Response (pp. 87–95). For example, oxygen consumption abruptly dropped by 10–20% during meditation (compared to around 8% during sleep). Slow brain waves called alpha waves increased in intensity. Levels of lactic acid in the blood (a waste product of metabolism) dropped by around 40%. Heart rate slowed on average by about three beats per minute.
(16)
Park, G. & Thayer, J.F. Frontiers in Psychology 2014; 5: 278
Porges, S.W. Biological Psychology 2007; 74: 116–143.
(17)
Thayer, J.F. et al. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 2012; 36: 747–756.
(18)
Lehrer, P. Psychosomatic Medicine 1999; 61: 812–821.
(19)
Gevirtz, R. Biofeedback 2013; 41: 110–120.
(20)
Described in Tracey, K. Fatal Sequence, Chapter 7, location 1885.
(21)
Described in Tracey, K. Fatal Sequence, Chapter 8, location 2307.
(22)
Described in Tracey, K. Fatal Sequence, Chapter 9, location 2467.
(23)
Watkins, L.R. et al. Neuroscience Letters 1995; 183: 27–31.
(24)
Borovikova, L. et al. Nature 2000; 405: 458–462.
(25)
Tracey, K.J. Nature 2002; 420: 853–859.
(26)
Tracey tells this story in Tracey, K. ‘Shock Medicine’, Scientific American March 2015, pp. 28–35.
(27)
Kok, B.E. & Fredrickson, B.L. Biological Psychology 2010; 85: 432–436.
(28)
Kok, B.E. et al. Psychological Science 2013; 24: 1123–1132.
(29)
Telephone interview with Bethany Kok, 8 December 2014.
(31)
These ideas are discussed in this interview with HeartMath’s research director Rollin McCraty in ‘Sufism: An inquiry’ (vol 16, no 2, pp. 33–58). Available at: http://issuu.com/iasufism/docs/sufism.vol16.2.
See also:
McCraty, R. et al. The Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine 2004; 10: 133–143.
McCraty, R. et al. The Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine 2004; 10: 325–336.
McCraty, R. & Childre, D. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine 2010; 16: 10–24.
(32)
For example:
Farkas, B. ‘Is Heartmath’s emWave Personal Stress Reliever Scientific?’, James Randi Educational Foundation blog, 31 January 2011. Available at: http://archive.randi.org/site/index.php/swift-blog/1202--is-heartmaths-emwave-personalstress-reliever-scientific.html.
Novella, S. ‘Energy Medicine: Noise-based pseudoscience’, Science-based medicine blog, 12 December 2012. Available at: https://www.sciencebasedmedicine.org/energy-medicinenoise-based-pseudoscience.
(33)
Xin, W. et al. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2013; 97: 926–35.
(34)
Video interview for Sky News. Available at: http://news.sky.com/story/1396464/nerve-hack-offers-arthritis-sufferers-hope.
(35)
Koopman, F. A. et al. Arthritis & Rheumatism 2012; 64 Suppl 10: 581.
(36)
Moore, T. ‘“Nerve hack” Offers Arthritis Sufferers Hope’, Sky News, 23 December 2014. Available at: http://news.sky.com/story/1396464/nerve-hack-offers-arthritis-sufferers-hope.
(37)
Tracey, K. ‘Shock Medicine’, Scientific American March 2015, pp. 28–35.
(38)
Fritz, J.R. & Huston, J.M. Bioelectronic Medicine 2014; 1: 25–29.
(39)
Miller, L. & Vegesna, A. Bioelectronic Medicine 2014; 1: 19–24.
(40)
Behar, M. ‘Can the Nervous System Be Hacked?’, New York Times magazine, 23 May 2014. Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/25/magazine/can-the-nervous-systembe-hacked.html.
(41)
Martin, J.L.R. & Martín-Sánchez. E. European Psychiatry 2012; 27: 147–155.
(42)
Behar, M. ‘Can the Nervous System Be Hacked?’, New York Times magazine, 23 May 2014. Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/25/magazine/can-the-nervous-systembe-hacked.html.
(43)
Weintraub, A. ‘Brain-altering Devices May Supplant Drugs – and Pharma is OK With That’, Forbes.com, 24 February 2015. Available at: http://www.forbes.com/sites/arleneweintraub/2015/02/24/brain-altering-devices-may-supplantdrugs-and-pharma-is-ok-with-that.
Tracey, K. ‘Shock Medicine’, Scientific American March 2015, pp. 28–35.
(44)
Guerrini, F.DARPA’s ElectRx Project: Self-Healing Bodies through Targeted Stimulation of the Nerves’, Forbes.com, 29 August 2014. Available at: http://www.forbes.com/sites/federicoguerrini/2014/08/29/darpas-electrx-project-selfhealing-bodies-through-targeted-stimulation-of-the-nerves.
(45)
Tracey, K. Fatal Sequence, Chapter 10, location 2820.
(46)
See, for example:
Nolan, R.P. et al. Journal of Internal Medicine 2012; 272: 161–169.
Lehrer, P. et al. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback 2010; 35: 303–315.
Kox, M. et al. Psychosomatic Medicine 2012; 74: 489–494.
Olex, S. et al. International Journal of Cardiology 2013; 18: 1805–1810.
(47)
Behar, M. ‘Can the Nervous System Be Hacked?’, New York Times magazine, 23 May 2014. Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/25/magazine/can-the-nervous-systembe-hacked.html.
(48)
Tracey, K. Fatal Sequence, Chapter 10, location 2908.

الفصل الثاني عشر: البحث عن الرب

(1)
Dawkins, R. The God Delusion (2006), Bantam Press.
Hawking, S. & Mlodinow, L. The Grand Design (2010), Bantam Press.
(2)
Religion, Spirituality and Public Health: Research, applications and recommendations. Testimony by Harold G. Koenig to Subcommittee on Research and Science Education of the US House of Representatives, 18 September 2008. Available at: https://science.house.gov/sites/republicans.science.house.gov/files/documents/hearings/091808_koenig.pdf.
(3)
For example, a 2011 study of 36,000 adults in Norway found that the more often they attended church, the lower their blood pressure: Sorensen, T. et al. The International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine 2011; 42: 13–28.
Another study of nearly 40,000 people in 22 countries found that those who went to church more reported better health: Nicholson, A. et al. Social Science & Medicine 2009; 69: 519–528. For a review, see Koenig, H.G. et al. Handbook of Religion and Health (2012), Oxford University Press.
(4)
For example, see Sloan, R.P. et al. The Lancet 1999; 353: 664–667.
(5)
‘Religion, Spirituality and Public Health: Research, applications and recommendations.’ Testimony by Harold G. Koenig to Subcommittee on Research and Science Education of the US House of Representatives, 18 September 2008. Available at: https://science.house.gov/sites/republicans.science.house.gov/files/documents/hearings/091808_koenig.pdf.
(6)
Telephone interview with Richard Sloan, 28 February 2015.
(7)
Chida, Y. et al. Psychotherapy & Psychosomatics 2009; 78: 81–90.
(8)
Fox News Poll, 2011, Question 29. Available at: http://www.foxnews.com/us/2011/09/07/fox-news-poll-creationism.
(9)
This quote and the one in the previous paragraph are from a 2005 interview with Sheri Kaplan published by TheBody.com, available at: http://www.thebody.com/hivawards/winners/skaplan.html.
The biographical information given in this section comes from that article as well as two others: Cheakalos, C. ‘Positive Approach: Sheri Kaplan gives heterosexuals with HIV a place to celebrate the joys of life’, People magazine, 4 March 2002. Available at: http://www.people.com/people/archive/article/0,,20136502,00.html.
Bradley Hagerty, B. ‘Can Positive Thoughts Help Heal Another Person?’, NPR, 21 May 2009. Available at: http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=104351710, I was unable to contact Sheri to find out how she is doing now.
(10)
Spiritual Transformation and Healing: Anthropological, Theological, Neuroscientific and Clinical Perspectives. Koss-Chioino, J. & Hefner, P. J. (eds), AltaMira Press (2006), p. 245 (Sheri is named in this paper as ‘Susan’).
(11)
Cotton, S. et al. Journal of General Internal Medicine 2006; 21: S5–13.
(12)
Ironson, G. et al. Journal of General Internal Medicine 2006; 21: S62–68.
(13)
Sloan, E. et al. 2007. ‘Psychobiology of HIV infection.’ In Ader, R. (ed.), Psychoneuroimmunology. Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 869–895.
Cole, S.W. Psychosomatic Medicine 2008; 70: 562–568.
(14)
Leserman, J. et al. Psychological Medicine 2002; 32: 1059–1073.
(15)
Carrico, A.W. & Antoni, M.H. Psychosomatic Medicine 2008; 70: 575–584.
Creswell, J.D. et al. Brain, Behavior and Immunity 2009; 23: 184–188.
(16)
Telephone interview with Andrew Newberg, 10 March 2014.
(17)
Pargament, K.I. et al. Archives of Internal Medicine 2001; 161: 1881–1885.
(18)
Ironson, G. et al. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 2011; 34: 414–425.
(19)
Ironson, G. et al. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 2011; 34: 414–425.
(20)
Wachholtz, A.B. & Pargament, K.I. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 2005; 28: 369–384.
(21)
Wachholtz, A.B. & Pargament, K.I. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 2008; 31: 351–366.
(22)
Telephone interview with Kenneth Pargament, 12 March 2014.
(23)
Wachholtz, A.B. and Pargament, K.I. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 2005; 28: 369–384.
(24)
Pargament, K.I. & Mahoney, A. The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion 2005; 15: 179–198.
(25)
Jacobs, T.L. et al. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2011; 36: 664–681.
(26)
Telephone interview with Clifford Saron, 4 April 2014.
(27)
This quote previously appeared in ‘How Meditation Might Ward Off the Effects of Ageing’ by Jo Marchant, Observer, 24 April 2011. Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2011/apr/24/meditation-ageing-shamatha-project.
(28)
Fredrickson, B.L. et al. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2013; 110: 13684–13689.
Marchant, J. ‘The Pursuit of Happiness’, Nature 2013; 503: 458–460.
(29)
Cacioppo, J. & Patrick, W. Loneliness: Human Nature and the Need for Social Connection (2008), p. 262.
(30)
Interview with Alessandro de Franciscis, Lourdes Medical Bureau, 12 June 2015.
(31)
This quote is taken from a talk given by Vittorio Micheli at Our Lady of Lourdes Church, Dublin, 23 May 2014.
(32)
Interview with Tim Briggs, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Stanmore, Middlesex, 16 January and 20 February 2015.

الخاتمة

(1)
‘Lending a hand that heals’, King5, 16 September 2014. Available at: http://www.king5.com/story/entertainment/television/programs/evening-magazine/2014/09/16/lendinga-hand-that-heals/15740091.
For more information about Mary Lee McRoberts and her work, please see: http://www.maryleemcroberts.com.
(2)
While poorly designed studies sometimes show that patients benefit from reiki, once you do high-quality trials, in which reiki is compared against fake therapy, the benefits disappear. Edzard Ernst and his colleagues carried out a systematic review of RCTs in 2008 (Lee, M.S. et al. The International Journal of Clinical Practice 2008; 62: 947–954). In general, these trials showed that real reiki worked no better than sham reiki. There were a few positive results for reiki, but these tended to be one-offs, where a particular benefit might appear in one trial but was not replicated in other trials. Most of these studies had flaws, such as being too small, being poorly designed, or that the data were not adequately reported. The authors concluded that ‘the value of reiki remains unproven’.
(3)
One of the most rigorous analyses of this therapy was published in 2005 (Shang, A. et al. The Lancet 2005; 366: 726–732). It included 110 homeopathy RCTs and compared these to 110 equivalent trials of conventional medicines. When the authors restricted their analysis to the ‘high-quality’ trials, the conventional medicines were clearly better than placebo, whereas the homeopathic remedies showed only marginal benefit, consistent with them being no different to placebo (especially when you take into account that positive trials are more likely to be published than negative ones).
There have been other meta-analyses and systematic reviews of homeopathy trials, but none has ever shown convincing evidence that it works better than placebo. Nor have scientists ever been able to find any measurable difference between homeopathic remedies and inert liquids or pills.
(4)
Abbot, N.C. et al. Pain 2001; 91: 79–89.
Ernst has now retired, and is an emeritus professor of complementary medicine at Exeter University. For more information about his work, see http://edzardernst.com.
(5)
Ernst, E. ‘Running on faith’, The Guardian, 15 February 2005. Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/society/2005/feb/15/health.medicineandhealth1.
(6)
See, for example, the German New Medicine website on breast cancer: http://www.newmedicine.ca/breast.php.
(7)
Several families claim that their relatives have died after refusing conventional treatment on Ryke Hamer’s advice, for example, see: http://www.ariplex.com/ama/amamiche.htm.
Deaths resulting from alternative care advised by other doctors include:
Sheldon T. ‘Dutch Doctor Struck Off for Alternative Care of Actor Dying of Cancer’, British Medical Journal 2007; 335: 13.
‘Alternative Cure Doctor Suspended’, BBC News, 29 June 2007. Available at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/london/6255356.stm.
(8)
Schmidt, K. & Ernst, E. British Medical Journal 2002; 325:597.
(9)
Jones, M. ‘Malaria Advice “risks lives”’, Newsnight, BBC2, 13 July 2006.
(10)
For example, see:
Kent, G.P. American Journal of Epidemiology 1988; 127: 591–598.
Ernst, G. et al. Complementary Therapies in Medicine 2003; 11: 93–97.
(11)
McRoberts responds that she’s confident the spirits she communicates with would not show her anything that might be harmful to a patient. ‘My information comes directly from the other side,’ she says, ‘and I totally trust that it’s exactly the way it is supposed to be. If I were using my brain to think of what to do with the client, it would be another matter. But I turn my brain off when I connect in and let them feed me directly.’ Email from Mary Lee McRoberts, 29 August 2015.
(12)
For a discussion of the history and mechanism of acupuncture, see: Singh, S. & Ernst, E. Trick or Treatment (2008), Chapter 2, pp. 3988.
(13)
For most complaints, there is no evidence in high-quality trials that acupuncture works better than placebo. However for certain types of chronic pain and nausea, it may have a physical effect as well as a psychological one. A 2012 systematic review of 29 trials for chronic pain including 17,922 patients (Vickers, A.J. et al. Archives of Internal Medicine 2012; 172: 1444–1453) found that real acupuncture works slightly better than sham acupuncture (and both work better than a no-acupuncture control). The authors concluded that although most of the benefit of acupuncture is a placebo effect, the needles may have a modest effect too.
(14)
Interview with Deming Huang, Stanford Center for Integrative Medicine (SCIM), Stanford, California, 26 November 2013.
(15)
Freedman, D.H. ‘The Triumph of New-age Medicine’, The Atlantic, July/August 2011. Available at: http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2011/07/the-triumph-of-newage-medicine/308554.
(16)
Interview with Jeremy Howick, Oxford, 20 April 2015.
(17)
Stroud, L.R. et al. Biological Psychiatry 2002; 52: 318–327.
Kudielka, B.M. et al. Biological Psychology 2005; 69: 113–132.
(18)
Email interview with Elissa Epel, 9 April 2015.
(19)
Telephone interview with Jeff Sloan, 25 February 2015.
(20)
See also Sloan’s work with quality-of-life measures: Frost, M.H. & Sloan, J.A. The American Journal of Managed Care 2002; 8: 5574–9.
Sloan, J.A. et al. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2012; 30: 1498–1504.
(21)
Heathcote, E. British Medical Journal 2006; 333: 1304–1305.
(22)
UCSF’s Thomas Bodenheimer estimated it at 70% in 2000 (Bodenheimer, T. New England Journal of Medicine 2000; 342: 1539–44). Harvard’s John Abramson, author of the 2004 book Overdosed America, says that by 2009 this figure had reached 85%. See: http://www.ourbodiesourselves.org/health-info/who-paid-for-that-study.
(23)
The annual budget of the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health in 2015 was $124.1 million (0.4% of the NIH annual budget of $30 billion). I wasn’t able to find an exact figure for how much of this is spent on trials of mind–body therapies, but according to the centre’s third strategic plan (2011–2015), the money is split between two main research areas—mind–body therapies and natural products. Some of the money also goes on things like studying how many people use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), and disseminating evidence-based information on CAM interventions.
See: https://nccih.nih.gov/sites/nccam.nih.gov/files/about/plans/2011/NCCAM_SP_508.pdf.
(24)
Shang, A. et al. The Lancet 2005; 366: 726–732.
The authors included 110 homeopathy RCTs and compared these to 110 equivalent trials of conventional medicines. Twenty-one of the homeopathy trials were judged to be of ‘high quality’, compared to just nine of the conventional trials.
(25)
Skype video interview with Elvira Lang, 24 April 2014.
(26)
Telephone interview with Ellen Hodnett, 10 March 2014.
(27)
Interview with Bill Eley, Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia, 5 February 2015.
(28)
At least 400 US physicians commit suicide every year (equivalent to losing a whole medical school); double the risk faced by the general population.
Andrew, L.B. et al. ‘Physician Suicide’, Medscape 2014.
Available at: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/806779.overview.
Young doctors are especially vulnerable, with problems starting in school. In a 2009 study, nearly 10% of fourth-year medical students and interns admitted to having suicidal thoughts in past two weeks.
Goebert, D. et al. Academic Medicine 2009; 84: 236–241.
Burnout—a psychological syndrome that includes emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation—is estimated to affect as many as half of medical students, and more than a third of physicians.
Hojat, M. et al. International Journal of Medical Education 2015; 6: 12–16.
Recent research suggests that loss of empathy for patients may be a contributing factor in burnout. In brain imaging studies, doctors in general have less empathy-related brain activity than others when viewing photos of people in pain, and the lowest levels of empathy-related brain activity are associated with more severe burnout.
Tei, S. et al. Translational Psychiatry 2014; 4: e393.
(29)
In 2013, the US spent $2.9 trillion on healthcare, or 17.4% of GDP, see: http://www.cms.gov/Research-Statistics-Dataand-Systems/Statistics-Trends-and-Reports/NationalHealth-ExpendData/downloads/highlights.pdf.
For comparison with other countries, see: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.XPD.TOTL.ZS.
(30)
See: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/drug-use-therapeutic.htm Also, Thompson, D. ‘Prescription Drug Use Continues to Climb in US’, WebMD News, 14 May 2014. Available at: http://www.webmd.com/news/20140514/prescription-druguse-continues-to-climb-in-us.
(31)
Budnitz, D.S. et al. New England Journal of Medicine 2011; 365: 2002–2012.
(32)
Schork, N.J. Nature 2015; 520: 609–611.
(33)
Gøtzsche, P.C. British Medical Journal 2015; 350: h2435.
(34)
James, J.T. Journal of Patient Safety 2013; 9: 122–128.
For statistics on leading causes of death, see: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/leading-causes-of-death.htm.
(35)
http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DevelopmentApprovalProcess/DevelopmentResources/DrugInteractionsLabeling/ucm-114848.htm.
These figures date from 2000, so it may be significantly more than that by now.
(36)
See Young, E. SANE: How I Shaped Up My Mind, Improved My Mental Strength and Found Calm (2015) for a fascinating and evidence-based exploration of how physical factors, such as diet, exercise and sleep, influence the mind.

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