مراجع

الفصل الأول: المأزق: أسباب السخط في العصر المذهب

  • The “scanty fortunes” idea may be found in Tocqueville’s Democracy in America (Garden City, NY: Anchor Books, 1969), 636-37.
  • Statistics on U.S. population, economics, and society are most easily found in the Historical Statistics of the United States: Colonial Times to 1970. 2 vols. (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1975), or the update, Historical Statistics of the United States: Earliest Times to the Present. 5 vols. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006).

الفصل الثاني: أزمة تسعينيات القرن التاسع عشر: ١٨٨٩–١٩٠١

  • Worth Robert Miller’s “Building a Populist Coalition in Texas, 1892–1896,” appeared in Journal of Southern History 74 (May 2008).
  • Milton Friedman expressed his pro-silver views in “Bimetallism Revisited,” Journal of Economic Perspectives 4 (autumn 1990): 85–104, and “The Crime of 1873,” Journal of Political Economy 98 (Dec. 1990): 1159–94.
  • The quotation from Michael Kazin’s A Godly Hero: The Life of William Jennings Bryan (New York: Anchor Books, 2007), may be found on xviii–xix.

الفصل الثالث: تبلور الحركة التقدمية: ١٩٠١–١٩٠٨

  • As Roosevelt used it, the word “bully” had nothing to do with bullying. It simply meant “outstanding” or “fi rst rate,” as in “Bully for you.”
  • The TR biographer referred to is Kathleen Dalton: Theodore Roosevelt: A Strenuous Life (New York: Vintage Books, 2004), quoted here from 298, and later from 272.
  • The Walter Rauschenbusch quotes are from his Christianity and the Social Crisis (New York: Macmillan, 1908), 265, 352, 345.
  • The support of Protestant Social Gospelers and social-justice-minded Catholics for trade unions and the labor movement is perceptively traced in Ken Fones-Wolf, “Religion and Trade Union Politics in the United States, 1880–1920,” International Labor and Working-Class History 34 (fall 1988): 39–55.
  • That men as well as women took an active role at Hull-House: from Rima Lunin Schultz, “Hull-House after Jane Addams: Revisiting the Social Settlement as Women’s Space: 1889–1935,” paper delivered at the Newberry Library Seminar on Women and Gender, Chicago, Dec. 5, 2008.
  • Robert D. Johnston, The Radical Middle Class: Populist Democracy and the Question of Capitalism in Progressive Era Portland, Oregon (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2003), details the work of U’Ren and the Oregon System.

الفصل الرابع: أوج الحركة التقدمية: ١٩٠٨–١٩١٧

  • The Frank P. Walsh statement is part of his essay, “Labor’s Day,” in American Federationist (a publication of the American Federation of Labor) 25 (Oct. 1918): 895, 897. Also helpful on the U.S. Industrial Relations Commission are Allen Davis, “The Campaign for the Industrial Relations Commission, 1911–1913,” Mid-America 45 (Oct. 1963): 211–28; the obituary of Walsh in the New York Times, May 3, 1939; and Shelton Stromquist, Reinventing “The People”: The Progressive Movement, The Class Problem, and the Origins of Modern Liberalism (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2006), esp. chap. 7.
  • The Elizabeth Sanders quotation is in her book, Roots of Reform: Farmers, Workers, and the American State, 1877–1917 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999), 169. The later quotation is on 158. Sanders’ book articulates the thesis that Progressivism’s legislative muscle lay in agrarian parts of the country. Party affiliation—Populist, Democratic, or insurgent Republican—was less important than connections to the agrarian economy and the concentration of political strength in such districts. In urban or mixed districts, she argues, the interests of labor (the natural ally of agrarians) were diluted by competing forces. Close students may want to know that Sanders’ interpretation is recent and, to me, convincingly solves the problem of interparty, intersectional, urban and rural support for Progressivism. Earlier interpretations such as Robert Wiebe’s widely read The Search for Order (1967) stress reformers’ search for social control of both the new industrial capitalism and the mass of potentially radical people. Others such as Martin Sklar had written in the 1960s, from a Marxist perspective, that Progressive-era reform was a cover for business interests. This became known as the “corporate-liberal” interpretation. In The Corporate Reconstruction of American Capitalism, 1890–1916 (1988), Sklar explored more subtly and in more detail how capitalism moved “from the competitive to the corporate stage of its development” by 1914.
  • The Eric Rauchway quotation on Bryanites: in “Armchair Warriors,” Reviews in American History 32 (2004): 228. For a comprehensive survey of wealth distribution comparing the Gilded Age and Progressivism with the present, see Louis Uchitelle, “The Richest of the Rich, Proud of a New Gilded Age,” New York Times, July 15, 2007, and supportive letters to the editor, July 17, 2007. One of the few contemporary treatments is Willford Isbell King, Income in the United States, Its Amount and Distribution, 1909–1919 (New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co., for the National Bureau of Economic Research, 1921-22), 146.
  • Bryan’s speech in Congress, “An Income Tax,” given Jan. 30, 1894, may be found in Speeches of William Jennings Bryan, rev. and arranged by Himself, with a Biographical Introduction by Mary Baird Bryan, His Wife (New York: Funk & Wagnalls, 1913), I:159–79. Quotations here are from 161, 163–65, and 174.
  • For E. R. A. Seligman, see his The Income Tax: A Study of the History, Theory, and Practice of Income Taxation at Home and Abroad (1911; 2d ed., New York: Macmillan, 1914), 33, 640. The Hartford Courant quote appears in John D. Buenker, “The Ratifi cation of the Federal Income Tax Amendment,” Cato Journal 1 (spring 1981): 221-22.
  • The Herbert Croly quotations are in The Promise of American Life (1909; New York: Macmillan, 1911), at 118-19, 155–57, 381-82, 409. Theodore Roosevelt’s Osawatomie speech is available online at www.theodore-roosevelt.com/trnationalismspeech.html.
  • Biographies of Wilson include H. W. Brands, Woodrow Wilson (New York: Times Books, 2003) and John Milton Cooper, The Warrior and the Priest: Woodrow Wilson and Theodore Roosevelt (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1983).
  • “divided heart on race” of TR: Kathleen Dalton’s phrase, in Theodore Roosevelt: A Strenuous Life, 92.
  • Wilson, “ours is a program of liberty,” is in Lewis L. Gould, Four Hats in the Ring: The 1912 Election and the Birth of Modern American Politics (Lawrence: University of Kansas Press, 2008), 164. Wilson explained his program in The New Freedom: A Call for the Emancipation of the Generous Energies of a People (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, Page, 1913).
  • The commentator on socialism is David J. O’Brien, “A Vote for Socialism: Like Christianity, It’s Never Been Tried.” In Commonweal, July 18, 2008, 18.

الفصل السادس: انحسار الحركة التقدمية: ١٩١٩–١٩٢١

  • Bryan’s “certain discomfort with white supremacy” are words taken from Kazin, A Godly Hero, 227.

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