(١) أرسطو وأخلاق الفضيلة
The text of Aristotle most relevant to this book is the Nicomachean Ethics, available in Penguin Classics
in an edition by Jonathan Barnes (Harmondsworth, 1976). Jonathan Barnes has also
published a useful introduction to Aristotle in the Very Short Introduction
series (Oxford, 2000), though not much of it deals with his ethical thought. See
also D. S. Hutchinson, The Virtues of
Aristotle (London, 1986), and Jonathan Lear, Aristotle: The Desire to Understand (Cambridge,
More general studies of ethics relevant to the book’s argument can be
found in Alasdair MacIntyre, A Short History of
Ethics (London, 1968) and After
Virtue (London, 1981). A more recent, illuminating study is
Rosalind Hursthouse, On Virtue Ethics
Schopenhauer’s major work, and the only one referred to in this
study, is The World as Will and
Representation, ed. E. F. J. Payne, 2 vols. (New York, 1969).
Useful introductions to Schopenhauer are to be found in Patrick Gardiner,
Schopenhauer (Harmondsworth, 1963), and
Brian Magee, The Philosophy of Schopenhauer
(Oxford, 1983). A briefer account is to be found in Terry Eagleton, The Ideology of the Aesthetic (Oxford,
1990), ch. 7.
Works by Nietzsche cited in this study are The Will to Power (New York, 1975), Beyond Good and Evil, and The Birth of
Tragedy. The latter two works can be found in Walter Kaufmann
(ed.), Basic Writings of Nietzsche (New York,
1968), a convenient selection of Nietzsche’s texts. Classic introductions to his
thought are Walter Kaufmann, Nietzsche: Philosopher,
Psychologist, and Antichrist (New York, 1950); R. J. Hollingdale,
Nietzsche: The Man and his Philosophy
(London, 1964); and Arthur C. Danto, Nietzsche as
Philosopher (New York, 1965). See also Keith Ansell Pearson,
Nietzsche (London, 2005), and Michael
Tanner, Nietzsche (Oxford). A more
substantial study is Richard Schacht, Nietzsche (London, 1983).
Logico-Philosophicus, first published in London in 1961, is available
in abridged form in Anthony Kenny (ed.), The
Wittgenstein Reader (Oxford, 1994). See also Wittgenstein’s
Philosophical Investigations, trans. G.
Anscombe (Oxford, 1953), and Culture and Value, trans. Peter Winch (Chicago,
For introductions to Wittgenstein’s thought, see D. F. Pears,
Wittgenstein (London, 1971), and Anthony
Kenny, Wittgenstein (Harmondsworth, 1973).
Two more recent introductions, both lucid and helpful, are A. C. Grayling,
Wittgenstein (Oxford, 1988), and Ray
Monk, Wittgenstein (London, 2005). Monk is
also the author of an excellent biography, Ludwig
Wittgenstein: The Duty of Genius (London, 1990). A more advanced
but equally rewarding study is G. P. Baker and P. M. S. Hacker, Wittgenstein: Understanding and Meaning (Oxford,
(٥) الحداثة وما بعد الحداثة
There are various allusions throughout the book to these cultural
movements, which the reader might like to have further elucidated. For
modernism, Peter Conrad’s monumental Modern Times,
Modern Places (London, 1998) is worth dipping in and out of. An
excellent theoretical study is Marshall Berman, All that
is Solid Melts into Air (London, 1982). See also Raymond
Williams, The Politics of Modernism (London,
1989), and T. J. Clark, Farewell to an Idea
(New Haven and London, 1999).
For postmodernism, see Jean-François Lyotard, The Postmodern Condition (Minneapolis, 1984); Ihab Hassan,
The Postmodern Turn (Ithaca, NY, 1987);
David Harvey, The Condition of Postmodernity
(Oxford, 1990); and Perry Anderson, The Origins of
Postmodernity (London, 1998). Briefer studies of the trend are to
be found in Alex Callinicos, Against
Postmodernism, and Terry Eagleton, The
Illusions of Postmodernism (Oxford, 1996). A more difficult and
substantial study is Fredric Jameson, Postmodernism, or,
the Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism (Durham, NC,
Marx’s views on ‘species being’ and human nature are to be found
mainly in his Economic and Philosophical
Manuscripts of 1844. This is reprinted among other places in L.
Colletti (ed.), Karl Marx: Early Writings
(Harmondsworth, 1975). For commentaries on these matters, see Norman Geras,
Marx and Human Nature (London, 1983), and
Terry Eagleton, The Ideology of the Aesthetic
(Oxford, 1990), ch. 8. The essay by Louis Althusser most relevant to my argument
is ‘On Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses’, in Lenin and Philosophy (London, 1971).
Freud’s Introductory Lectures on
Psychoanalysis (Harmondsworth, 1973) is one of the best
introductions to some of his general concepts. His discussion of the death drive
is to be found among other places in Beyond the Pleasure
Principle, trans. J. Strachey, International Psycho-Analytical
Library, ed. E. Jones, 4 (London, 1950). The theme is developed by Norman O.
Brown in Life Against Death (London, 1959).
For more general accounts of Freud, see Philip Rieff, Freud: The Mind of the Moralist (Chicago and London, 1959), and
Paul Ricoeur, Freud and Philosophy (New Haven
and London, 1970).
(٨) أعمال أخرى
The following works are also referred to in the book:
Julian Baggini, What’s It All
About? (London, 2004).
Isaiah Berlin, Four Essays on
Liberty (Oxford, 1969).
John Cottingham, On the Meaning
of Life (London, 2003).
Terry Eagleton, Against the
Grain: Selected Essays 1975–1985 (London, 1986);
William Shakespeare (Oxford,
1986); and Sweet Violence: The Idea of the
Tragic (Oxford, 2003).
Frank Farrell, Subjectivity,
Realism and Postmodernism (Cambridge,
Martin Heidegger, Being and
Time (New York, 1962).
Alasdair MacIntyre, Dependent
Rational Animals (London, 1998).
Jean-Paul Sartre, Being and
Nothingness (London, 1958), and Nausea (Harmondsworth,
Roger Scruton, Modern
Philosophy (London, 1994).
Max Weber, Essays in
Sociology, ed. H. H. Gerth and C. Wright Mills