الفصل الأول: الفجوة الكبرى

  • Pelsaert: Tapan Raychaudhuri and Irfan Habib, The Cambridge Economic History of India, Vol. I, c. 1200–c. 1750 (Cambridge University Press, 1982), p. 462.
  • Dr Johnson on oats: Samuel Johnson, A Dictionary of the English Language (1755).
  • $1 per day poverty line: World Bank’s World Development Report: Poverty (Oxford University Press, 1990); and Martin Ravallion, Datt Gaurav, and Dominique van de Walle, ‘Quantifying Absolute Poverty in the Developing World’, Review of Income and Wealth, 37 (1991): 345–61.
  • Italian soldiers: Brian A’Hearn, ‘Anthropometric Evidence on Living Standards in Northern Italy, 1730–1860’, Journal of Economic History, 63 (2003): 351–81.
  • Ealing gardener: Sir Frederick Eden, The State of the Poor (J. Davis, 1797), Vol. II, pp. 433–5.

الفصل الثالث: الثورة الصناعية

  • efficiency of farmers in poor countries: T. W. Schultz, Transforming Traditional Agriculture (Yale University Press, 1964); R. A. Berry and W. R. Cline, Agrarian Structure and Productivity in Developing Countries (Johns Hopkins University Press, 1979); Robert C. Allen, Enclosure and the Yeoman (Oxford University Press, 1992).
  • French and British tax burden: P. Mathias and P. K. O’Brien, ‘Taxation in England and France, 1715–1810’, Journal of European Economic History, 5 (1976): 601–50.
  • Provence: J.-L. Rosenthal, ‘The Development of Irrigation in Provence’, Journal of Economic History, 50 (September 1990): 615–38.
  • despotic power of Parliament: Julian Hoppit, ‘Patterns of Parliamentary Legislation, 1660–1800’, The History Journal, 39 (1996): 126.
  • witchcraft and the Bible: John Wesley, Journal, for 21 May 1768.
  • Hobsbawm on cotton: Eric Hobsbawm, Industry and Empire (Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1969), p. 56.
  • Desaguliers on Newcomen engine: John Theophilus Desaguliers, A Course of Experimental Philosophy (John Senex, 1734–44), Vol. II, pp. 464-5.
  • steam power and productivity growth: N. F. R. Crafts, ‘Steam as a General Purpose Technology: A Growth Accounting Perspective’, Economic Journal, 114 (495) (2004): 338–51.

الفصل الخامس: الإمبراطوريات العظمى

  • 1812 costs in England and India: Edward Baines, History of the Cotton Manufacture in Great Britain (H. Fisher, R. Fisher, and P. Jackson, 1835), p. 353. First Report from the Select Committee on the Affairs of the East India Company (China Trade), UK, House of Commons, 1830 (644), evidence of Mr John Kennedy and Mr H. H. Birley, questions 4979–5041.
  • decline of weaving in Bihar: Amiya Kumar Bagchi, ‘Deindustrialization in Gangetic Bihar, 1809–1901’, in Barun De (ed.), Essays in Honour of Professor S. C. Sakar (New Delhi, People’s Publishing House, 1976), pp. 499–523.
  • Martin and Brocklehurst: UK House of Commons, Report from the Select Committee on East India Produce, 1840 (527), question 3920.

الفصل السادس: الأمريكتان

  • cultivation of maize in eastern North America: Bruce D. Smith, The Emergence of Agriculture (Scientific American Library, 1998), pp. 145–81, 200; and Bruce G. Trigger, The Children of Aataentsic: A History of the Huron People to 1660 (McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1987), pp. 119–26.
  • native population decline: Russell Thornton, American Indian Holocaust and Survival: A Population History since 1492 (University of Oklahoma Press, 1987), pp. 25, 57, 133.
  • Mexican and Andean native populations: Mark A. Burkholder and Lyman L. Johnson, Colonial Latin America , 2nd edn. (Oxford University Press, 1994), p. 264; and James Lockhard and Stuart B. Schwartz, Early Latin America: A History of Colonial Spanish America and Brazil (Cambridge University Press, 1983), p. 338.
  • 14,697: Thornton, American Indian Holocaust, pp. 29, 162-3.
  • The quotation relating to God and the epidemic of 1617–19 is from John Eliot, New England’s First Fruits (Henry Overton, 1643), p. 12.
  • The quotation about making cloth is from Edward Johnson, The Wonder-Working Providence of Sions Saviour, in New England, 1628–1651, Book II, Chapter XXI at http://puritanism.online.fr/ (accessed 4 April 2011).
  • exports as a percentage of GDP in Pennsylvania: exports are the sum of Proud’s contemporary estimate of £700,000 per year for 1771–3 plus £161,000, which equals 64% of the estimates of average annual shipping earnings and invisible earnings of the middle Atlantic colonies for 1768–72, in James F. Shepherd and Gary M. Walton, Shipping, Maritime Trade, and the Economic Development of Colonial North America (Cambridge University Press, 1972), pp. 128, 134. In 1765–7 and 1772, 64% of the tonnage of shipping clearing New York and Philadelphia came from the latter. Proud’s estimate of exports exceeds Shepherd and Walton’s. GDP equals the 1770 population of 240,100 multiplied by £12 per head.
  • Jamaica exports/GDP in 1832: Gisela Eisner, Jamaica, 1830–1930: A Study in Economic Growth (Manchester University Press, 1961), p. 25.
  • South Carolina’s export of skins and cedar: quoted by John J. McCusker and Russell R. Mennard, The Economy of British North America (University of North Carolina Press, 1985), p. 171.
  • Carolina rice productivity: Marc Egnal, New World Economies: The Growth of the Thirteen Colonies and Early Canada (Oxford University Press, 1998), pp. 105-6.
  • 30% ratio of exports to income: per capita exports from Peter A. Coclanis, The Shadow of a Dream: Economic Life and Death in the South Carolina Low Country, 1670–1920 (Oxford University Press, 1989), p. 75, and per capita income (high value) from Alice Hanson Jones, Wealth of a Nation To Be: The American Colonies on the Eve of the Revolution (Arno Press, 1980), p. 63.
  • farmers on the frontier buying consumer goods: McCusker and Mennard, British North America, pp. 175, 180–1.
  • half the land in the valley of Mexico: Charles Gibson, The Aztecs under Spanish Rule: A History of the Indians of the Valley of Mexico, 1519–1810 (Stanford University Press, 1964), p. 277.
  • British Columbia seal skins: Alexander von Humboldt, Political Essay on the Kingdom of New Spain, tr. John Black (London, 1822), Vol. II, pp. 311, 320.
  • road from Vera Cruz to Mexico City: von Humboldt, Political Essay, Vol. IV, pp. 8-9.
  • mine employment: Peter Bakewell, ‘Mining in Colonial Spanish America’, in The Cambridge History of Latin America, Vol. II, ed. Leslie Bethell (Cambridge University Press, 1984), pp. 127-8; and Enrique Tandeter, Coercion and Market: Silver Mining in Colonial Potosi, 1692–1826 (University of New Mexico Press, 1993), p. 16.
  • The 4% share of exports in Mexican GDP in 1800 is from John H. Coatsworth, ‘The Decline of the Mexican Economy, 1800–1860’, in América Latina en la época de Simón Bolivar: la formación de la economías latinoamericanos y los intereses económicos europeos, 1800–1850, ed. Reinhart Liehr (Berlin, Colloquium Verlag, 1989), p. 51.
  • income distribution of Mexico in 1790: Branko Milanovic, Peter H. Lindert, and Jeffrey G. Williamson, ‘Measuring Ancient Inequality’, Cambridge, MA, National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper 13550, http://www.nber.org/papers/13550.pdf, 2007, p. 60.
  • size of national cotton industries in the 1850s: Robert C. Allen, The British Industrial Revolution in Global Perspective (Cambridge University Press, 2009), p. 211.
  • exports to GDP in the USA 1800–60: Susan B. Carter, Scott Sigmund Gartner, Michael R. Haines, Alan L. Olmstead, Richard Sutch, and Gavin Wright, Historical Statistics of the United States, millenium edition, online (Cambridge University Press), series Ca10 and Ee366.
  • de-industrialization in Puebla: von Humboldt, Political Essay, Vol. III, p. 469.
  • scientific culture and education in Mexico: von Humboldt, Political Essay, Vol. I, pp. 212, 216, 223.

الفصل السابع: أفريقيا

  • French Congo: Jacqueline M. C. Thomas, Les Ngbaka de la Lobaye: le dépeuplement rural chez une population forestière de la République Centrafricaine (Mouton, 1963), pp. 258–71, 417–19.
  • the spirits of traders: Mary Kingsley, Travels in West Africa (National Geographic Society, 2002; originally published 1897), p. 36.
  • biggest pots: Harold A. Innis, The Fur Trade in Canada: An Introduction to Canadian Economic History (University of Toronto Press, 1999; originally published 1930), p. 18.
  • the Micmac joke: Father Chrestien Le Clercq, in his New Relation of Gaspesia, tr. and ed. W. F. Ganong (The Champlain Society, 1910), p. 277.
  • Alfonso I’s letter: quoted by Adam Hochschild, King Leopold’s Ghost: A Story of Greed, Terror, and Heroism in Colonial Africa (Houghton Mifflin, 1998), p. 13.
  • Swanzy’s testimony: UK, House of Commons, Report from the Select Committee on the West Coast of Africa; together with the minutes of evidence, appendix, and index. Part I, Report and Evidence, Parliamentary Papers (1842), Vols. XI, XII, questions 467 and 468.
  • hectares of palm trees in Nigeria: Kenneth F. Kiple and Kriemhild Coneè Ornelas (eds.), The Cambridge World History of Food (Cambridge University Press, 2000), section II.E.3, palm oil.
  • the Reverend Casalis’ observation: R. C. Germond (ed.), Chronicles of Basutoland: A Running Commentary on the Events of the Years 1830–1902 by the French Protestant Missionaries in Southern Africa (Morija Sesuto Book Depot, 1967), p. 267.
  • profitability of palm oil extraction: calculated from Eric L. Hyman, ‘An Economic Analysis of Small-Scale Technologies for Palm Oil Extraction in Central and West Africa’, World Development, 18 (1990): 455–76.
  • Machel ‘for the nation to live’: quoted by Mahmood Mamdani, Citizen and Subject (Princeton University Press, 1996), p. 135.

الفصل الثامن: النموذج القياسي والتحول المتأخر للتصنيع

  • short men in Tokugawa Japan: Akira Hayami, Osamu Saitô, and Ronald P. Toby (eds.), Emergence of Economic Society in Japan, 1600–1859 (Oxford University Press, 2004), pp. 235–8.
  • book rental shops in Edo: Hayami et al., Emergence, pp. 28, 241.
  • MES: James Montgomery, A Practical Detail of the Cotton Manufacture of the United States of America (Glasgow, 1840); J. P. Lesley, The Iron Manufacturer’s Guide to the Furnaces, Forges and Rolling Mills of the United States (New York, 1859); D. G. Rhys, The Motor Industry: An Economic Survey (Butterworths, 1972); Jack Baranson, Automotive Industries in Developing Countries (World Bank, 1969); Rich Kronish and Kenneth S. Mericle (eds.), The Political Economy of the Latin American Motor Vehicle Industry (MIT Press, 1984); John P. Tuman and John T. Morris (eds.), Transforming the Latin American Automobile Industry: Unions, Workers, and the Politics of Restructuring (M. E. Sharpe, 1998); United Nations Report, A Study of the Iron and Steel Industry in Latin America (United Nations, 1954).

الفصل التاسع: التصنيع في نموذج «الدفعة القوية»

  • Lenin quip: V. I. Lenin, ‘Report on the Work of the Council of People’s Commissars’, Eighth All-Russia Congress of Soviets, 22 December 1920, Collected Works, tr. and ed. Julius Katzer, Vol. 31, p. 516.
  • heights in 1891 and 1976: Takafusa Nakamura, The Postwar Japanese Economy: Its Development and Structure (University of Tokyo Press, 1981), p. 96.

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