ملاحظات

الجزء الأول: خلفية عن الموضوع

الفصل الأول: مقدمة

(1)
Elizabeth Douglass and Gary Cohn, “Zones of Contention in Gasoline Pricing,” Los Angeles Times, June 19, 2005, www.latimes.com.
(2)
Liz Fedor, “Airlines Might Be Ready to Close Fare Gap,” Minneapolis Star Tribune, January 4, 2005, www.startribune.com.
(3)
Franklin Paul, “Kodak Launches Printer to Compete with HP, Others,” Washington Post, February 6, 2007, www.washingtonpost.com.
(4)
Anne Broache, “Supreme Court Rules in Printer Ink Dispute,” March 1, 2006, news.com.com.
(5)
“Kodak’s New Battle Plan: Cheap Printer Ink,” February 6, 2007, www.techdirt.com.
(6)
Franklin Paul, “Kodak Launches Printer to Compete with HP, Others,” February 6, 2007.
(7)
Ruaridh Nicoll, “Electricity Cut-Off Sparks South African Township Riot,” The Guardian, August 8, 1997.
(8)
Anita Ramasastry, “Websites that Charge Different Customers Different Prices,” FindLaw’s Legal Commentary, 2005, www.writ.findlaw.com.
(9)
Lisa E. Bolton, Luk Warlop, and Joseph Alba, “Consumer Perceptions of Price (Un) Fairness,” Journal of Consumer Research 29 (March 2003): 474–491.
(10)
Peter R. Darke and Darren W. Dahl, “Fairness and Discounts: The Subjective Value of a Bargain,” Journal of Consumer Psychology 13, no. 3 (2003): 328–338, 334.
(11)
Sarah R. Brosnan and Frans B. M. de Waal, “Monkeys Reject Unequal Pay,” Nature 425 (2003): 297–299.
(12)
“Animal Behavior, Fair and Square,” The Economist, September 20, 2003: 77.
(13)
Antonio Damasio, Descartes’ Error: Emotion, Reason and the Human Brain (London: Penguin Books, 1994).

الفصل الثاني: لمحة تاريخية

(1)
Diana Wood, Medieval Economic Thought (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002): 114.
(2)
Ibid., p. 12.
(3)
Ibid., p. 79.
(4)
Joel Kaye, Economy and Nature in the Fourteenth Century: Money, Market Exchange, and the Emergence of Scientific Thought (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998): 7.
(5)
Ibid., 3.
(6)
Wood, 2002, p. 11.
(7)
Richard E. Rubenstein, Aristotle’s Children (Orlando, FL: Harcourt, 2004): 184.
(8)
Aristotle, The Nicomachean Ethics, ed. and trans. David Ross (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998): 1133a.
(9)
Ibid.
(10)
Ibid.
(11)
Wood, 2002, p. 137.
(12)
Walter Nicholson, Microeconomic Theory: Basic Principles and Extensions, 3rd ed. (New York: The Dryden Press, 1985): 13.
(13)
Thomas Aquinas, Commentary on Nicomachean Ethics, vol. 2, trans., C. I. Litzinger (Chicago: Henry Regnery, 1964).
(14)
John Baldwin, The Medieval Theories of the Just Price: Romanists, Canonists and Theologians in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries (Philadelphia: Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, 1959), n.s. 49, pt. 4.
(15)
Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica, 2a2ae, Question 77, Article 3.
(16)
Marjorie Grice-Hutchinson, The School of Salamanca: Readings in Spanish Monetary Theory (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1952): 27.
(17)
Alejandro A. Chafuen, Faith and Liberty: The Economic Thought of the Late Scholastics (Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2003): 114.
(18)
Wood, 2002, p. 137.
(19)
Raymond De Roover, “The Concept of the Just Price: Theory and Economic Policy,” Journal of Economic History 18 (December 1958): 422–438, 424.
(20)
Wood, 2002, p. 143.
(21)
Ibid., p. 139.
(22)
Sally Blount, “Whoever Said that Markets Were Fair?” Negotiation Journal 16, no. 3 (2000): 237–252.
(23)
Daniel Kahneman, Jack L. Knetsch, and Richard H. Thaler, “Fairness and the Assumptions of Economics,” Journal of Business 59, no. 4 (1986): S285–S300; Daniel Kahneman, Jack L. Knetsch, and Richard H. Thaler, “Fairness as a Constraint on Profit Seeking: Entitlements in the Market,” American Economic Review 76 (September 1986): 728–741.
(24)
David Herlihy, “The Concept of the Just Price: Discussion,” Journal of Economic History 18 (December 1958): 437-438.

الجزء الثاني: النموذج

الفصل الثالث: النموذج

(1)
Christel Rutte and David Messick, “An Integrated Model of Perceived Unfairness in Organizations,” Social Justice Research 8, no. 3 (1995): 239–261.
(2)
Leon Festinger, A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1957).
(3)
Ibid.
(4)
Sarah Maxwell, “Rule-Based Price Fairness and Its Effect on Willingness to Purchase,” Journal of Economic Psychology 23, no. 2 (2002): 193–212.
(5)
George C. Homans, Social Behavior: Its Elementary Forms (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1961); J. Stacy Adams, “Toward an Understanding of Inequity,” Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 67 (1963): 422–436; Peter Blau, Exchange and Power in Social Life (New York: Wiley, 1967).
(6)
John W. Thibaut and Harold H. Kelley, The Social Psychology of Groups (New York: Wiley, 1959); John W. Thibaut and Laurens Walker, Procedural Justice: A Psychological Analysis (Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1975).
(7)
Alvin W. Gouldner, “The Norm of Reciprocity: A Preliminary Statement,” American Sociological Review 25, no. 2 (1960): 161–178.
(8)
Richard Oliver and John E. Swan, “Consumer Perceptions of Interpersonal Equity and Satisfaction in Transactions: A Field Survey Approach,” Journal of Marketing 53 (April 1989): 21–35; Richard Oliver and John E. Swan, “Equity and Disconfirmation Perceptions as Influences on Merchant and Product Satisfaction,” Journal of Consumer Research, 16 (December 1989): 372–383.
(9)
J. Stacy Adams, “Toward an Understanding of Inequity,” Journal of Abnormal Social Psychology, 67 (1963): 422–436.
(10)
Joel E. Urbany, Thomas J. Madden, and Peter R. Dickson, “All’s Not Fair in Pricing: An Initial Look at the Dual Entitlement Principle,” Marketing Letters 1, no. 1 (1989): 17–25.
(11)
Margaret Campbell, “Perceptions of Price Fairness: Antecedents and Consequences,” Journal of Marketing Research 36 (May 1999): 187–199.

الفصل الرابع: المعايير

(1)
Robert B. Cialdini and Raymond R. Reno, “A Focus Theory of Normative Conduct: A Theoretical Refinement and Reevaluation of the Role of Norms in Human Behavior,” Advances in Experimental Social Psychology 24 (1990): 240–248.
(2)
Robert Axelrod, “An Evolutionary Approach to Norms,” American Political Science Review 80 (1986): 1095–1111.
(3)
Émile Durkheim, The Division of Labor in Society, trans., George Simpson (Glencoe, IL: Free Press, 1933 [1893]).
(4)
Guillermina Jasso, “Rule Finding about Rule Making: Comparison Processes and the Making of Rules,” in Michael Hechter and Karl-Dieter Opp (eds.), Social Norms (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2001): 348–393.
(5)
Ragnar Rommetveit, Social Norms and Roles (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1954).
(6)
For similar ideas but from a different angle, see James Surowiecki, The Wisdom of Crowds (New York: Anchor Books, 2005).
(7)
E. Allan Lind and Tom R. Tyler, The Social Psychology of Procedural Justice (New York: Plenum, 1988); Tom R. Tyler and E. Allan, “A Relational Model of Authority in Groups,” in M. Zanna (ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, vol. 25, (San Diego: Academic Press, 1992): 115–191.
(8)
Douglass C. North, Institutions, Institutional Change and Economic Performance (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990): 6.
(9)
See, e.g., Daniel Kahneman, Jack L. Knetsch, and Richard H. Thaler, “Fairness as a Constraint on Profit Seeking: Entitlements in the Market,” American Economic Review 76 (September 1986): 728–741.
(10)
See, e.g., Hechter and Opp (eds.), 2001.
(11)
See, e.g., Christina Bicchieri, The Grammar of Society: The Nature and Dynamics of Social Norms (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006).
(12)
See, e.g., Robert C. Ellickson, Order without Law: How Neighbors Settle Disputes (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1991).
(13)
See, e.g., Jan B. Heide and George John, “Do Norms Matter in Marketing Relationships?” Journal of Marketing 56 (April 1992): 32–44.
(14)
See, e.g., Gary Goertz and Paul F. Diehl, “Toward a Theory of International Norms,” Journal of Conflict Resolution 36 (December 1992): 634–664.
(15)
Oliver Williamson, The Economic Institutions of Capitalism: Firms, Markets, Relational Contracting (New York: Free Press, 1975).
(16)
Dale T. Miller, “The Norm of Self Interest,” American Psychologist 54 (December 1999): 1053–1060.
(17)
Heide and John, 1992.
(18)
Goertz and Diehl, 1992.
(19)
David M. Messick and Keith Sentis, “Fairness, Preference and Fairness Biases,” in David Messick and Karen Cook (eds.), Equity Theory, (New York: Praeger, 1983): 61–94.
(20)
Bicchieri, 2006.
(21)
Ellickson, 1991.
(22)
Joachim Kruger and Russell Clement, “The Truly False Consensus Effect: An Ineradicable and Egocentric Bias in Social Perception,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 67, no. 4 (1994): 596–619.
(23)
Anthony Giddens, The Constitution of Society (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984): 22.
(24)
Christine Horne, “Sociological Perspectives on the Emergence of Social Norms,” in Michael Hechter and Karl-Dieter Opp (eds.), Social Norms (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2001): 3–34.
(25)
Ibid.
(26)
Barbara Stewart, “$9.50 for the Movies? Vallone Urges a Boycott,” New York Times, March 2, 1999.
(27)
“Consumer Boycott of Glaxo Gains Steam with Protest by Seniors,” February 21, 2003, www.SeniorJournal.com.
(28)
Abbie Hoffman, Steal This Book (Pirate Editions 1971), www.tenant.net/Community/steal/steal.html.

الفصل الخامس: الانفعالات

(1)
Norman Finkel, Not Fair! The Typology of Commonsense Unfairness (Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2001): 56.
(2)
Craig L. Carr, On Fairness (Aldershot, UK: Ashgate Publishing Ltd., 2000).
(3)
Ibid., p. 8.
(4)
Ibid., p. 7.
(5)
Ibid., p. 9.
(6)
Daniel Kahneman, Jack L. Knetsch, and Richard H. Thaler, “Fairness as a Constraint on Profit Seeking: Entitlements in the Market,” American Economic Review 76 (September 1986): 728–741.
(7)
Ibid., p. 729.
(8)
Bruno S. Frey and Werner W. Pommerehne, “On the Fairness of Pricing: An Empirical Survey among the General Population,” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 20 (1993): 295–307.
(9)
Raymond Gorman and James B. Kehr, “Fairness as a Constraint on Profit Seeking: Comment,” American Economic Review 82, no. 1 (1992): 355–358.
(10)
Sarah Maxwell, “What Makes a Price Increase Seem ‘Fair’?” Pricing Strategy and Practice: An International Journal 3, no. 4 (1995): 21–27.
(11)
Antonio Damasio, Descartes’ Error: Emotion, Reason and the Human Brain (London: Penguin Books, 1994): 193.
(12)
Ibid., p. 49.
(13)
Antonio Damasio, Looking for Spinoza: Joy, Sorrow, and the Feeling Brain (Orlando, FL: Harcourt, 2003): 153.

الفصل السادس: التوقعات

(1)
William Samuelson and Richard Zeckhauser, “Status Quo Bias in Decision Making,” Journal of Risk and Uncertainty 1 (March 1988): 7–59.
(2)
Ibid., p. 38.
(3)
Richard S. Lazarus, “From Psychological Stress to the Emotions: A History of Changing Outlooks,” Annual Review of Psychology 44 (1993): 1–21.
(4)
Hooman Estelami, “The Price is Right … or is it? Demographic and Category Effects on Consumer Price Knowledge,” Journal of Product and Brand Management 7, no. 3 (1998): 254–266.
(5)
Ibid.
(6)
See, e.g., E. Berscheid et al., “Outcome Dependency, Attention, Attribution, and Attraction,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 34 (1976): 978–989.
(7)
David M. Messick and Keith Sentis, “Fairness, Preference and Fairness Biases,” in David Messick and Karen Cook (eds.), Equity Theory (New York: Praeger, 1983).
(8)
Linda Babcock and George Loewenstein, “Explaining Bargaining Impasses: The Role of Self-Serving Biases,” Journal of Economic Perspectives 11, no. 1 (1997): 109–126.
(9)
Richard Oliver and John Swan, “Consumer Perceptions of Interpersonal Equity and Satisfaction,” Journal of Marketing 53, no. 2 (1989): 21–34.
(10)
Dennis Rockstroh, “Store Price Scanners: Shoppers Beware,” Mercury News, September 14, 2005, www.typepad.com.
(11)
Sarah Maxwell and Nicholas Maxwell, “The Perception of a Fair Price: Self-Interest and Social Norms in Individualist vs. Collectivist Cultures,” International Conference of the Academy of Marketing Science (Ann Arbor, MI: Books on Demand, 1995).
(12)
Jacob Jacoby and Jerry C. Olson, “Consumer Response to Price: An Attitudinal, Information Processing Perspective,” in Yoram Wind and Marshall Greenberg (eds.), Moving Ahead with Attitude Research (Chicago: American Marketing Society, 1977).
(13)
Manohar U. Kalwani et al., “A Price Expectations Model of Customer Brand Choice,” Journal of Marketing Research 27 (August 1990): 251–261.
(14)
David Leonhardt, “ The Shock of the New Entry Fee,” New York Times, September 26, 2004.
(15)
Dalia Sussman, “Poll: Americans Angry About Gas Prices,” ABC News, August 22, 2005, abcnews.go.com.
(16)
Dhruv Grewal and Larry Compeau, “Pricing and Public Policy: A Research Agenda and an Overview,” Journal of Public Policy & Marketing 18, no. 1 (1999): 3–10.
(17)
Noah Rothbaum, “10 Things Your Rental Car Company Won’t Tell You,” June 13, 2006, aol.smartmoney.com.
(18)
David Streitfeld, “Amazon Mystery: Pricing of Books,” Los Angeles Times, January 2, 2007, www.calendarlive.com.
(19)
Julio Rothemberg, “Fair Pricing,” 2004, www.people.hbs.edu.
(20)
A. S. Blinder, et al., Asking About Prices: A New Approach to Understanding Price Stickiness (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1998): 309.
(21)
Samuelson and Zeckhauser, 1988.
(22)
Richard Thaler, “Mental Accounting and Consumer Choice,” Marketing Science 3 (Summer 1985): 199–214.
(23)
Russell Winer, “A Reference Price Model of Brand Choice for Frequently Purchased Products,” Journal of Consumer Research 13 (September 1986): 250–256.
(24)
James M. Lattin and Randolf E. Bucklin, “Reference Effects of Price and Promotion on Brand Choice Behavior,” Journal of Marketing Research 26, no. 3 (1989): 229–310.
(25)
Gurumurthy Kalyanaram and John D. Little, “A Price Response Model Developed from Perceptual Theories” (working paper, Sloan School of Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 1987).
(26)
Peter R. Dickson and Alan G. Sawyer, “ The Price Knowledge and Search of Supermarket Shoppers,” Journal of Marketing 54, no. 3 (1990): 42–53.
(27)
Chris Janiszewski and Donald R. Lichtenstein, “A Range Theory Account of Price Perception,” Journal of Consumer Research 25 (March 1999): 353–368.
(28)
Kent B. Monroe and Angela Y. Lee, “Remembering Versus Knowing: Issues in Buyers’ Processing of Price Information,” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 27, no. 2 (1999): 207–225.
(29)
Tracy A. Suter and Scot Burton, “Believability and Consumer Perceptions of Implausible Reference Prices in Retail Advertisements,” Psychology & Marketing 13, no. 1 (1996): 37–54.
(30)
Federal Trade Commission, FTC Guides against Deceptive Pricing, www.ftc.gov/bcp/guides/decptprc.htm: Section 233. 1.
(31)
“Florida Begins Probe of ‘Reference’ Prices Used for Macy’s Sales,” Wall Street Journal (Eastern Edition), January 7, 1997.
(32)
Patrick J. Kaufman, N. Craig Smith, and Gwendolyn K. Ortmeyer, “Deception in Retailer High-Low Pricing: A ‘Rule of Reason’ Approach,” Journal of Retailing 70, no. 2 (1994): 115–138.

الفصل السابع: النتائج

(1)
Tracie Rozhon, “Mrs. Clinton ‘Listens,’ This Time to House Prices,” New York Times, August 12, 1999.
(2)
Richard Harrington, “Ticket Auction Trend May Cost You,” July 6, 2006, MontereyHerald.com.
(3)
Vera Baird, “Getting Carter—The Future of Legal Aid,” The Times, July 4, 2006, www.timesonline.co.uk.
(4)
Morton Deutsch, Distributive Justice: A Social-Psychological Perspective (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985).
(5)
Jason A. Coquitt and Jerome M. Cherthoff, “Explaining Injustice: The Interactive Effect of Explanation and Outcome on Fairness Perceptions and Task Motivation,” Journal of Management 28, no. 5 (2002): 591–610.
(6)
Jen-Hung Huan and Chia-Yen Lin, “The Explanation Effects on Consumer Perceived Justice, Satisfaction and Loyalty Improvement: An Exploratory Study,” The Journal of American Academy of Business 7, no. 2 (2005): 212–218.
(7)
John C. Shaw, Eric Wild and Jason A Conquitt, “To Justify or Excuse? A Meta-Analytic Review of the Effects of Explanation,” Journal of Applied Psychology 88, no. 3 (2003): 444–458.
(8)
Ibid.
(9)
Janice Bohm and Bryan Hendricks, “Effects of Interpersonal Touch, Degree of Justification, and Sex of Participants in Compliance with Request,” The Journal of Social Psychology 137, no. 4 (1997): 460–469.
(10)
Sarah Maxwell, “Rule-Based Price Fairness and Its Effect on Willingness to Purchase,” Journal of Economic Psychology 23, no. 2 (2002): 193–212.
(11)
Michael B. Lupfer et al., “Folk Conceptions of Fairness and Unfairness,” European Journal of Social Psychology 30 (2000): 405–428.
(12)
Dan Ariely, George Loewenstein and Drazen Prelec, “‘Coherent Arbitrariness:’ Stable Demand Curves without Stable Preferences,” The Quarterly Journal of Economics 118, no. 1 (2003): 73–106; Dan Ariely, George Loewenstein, and Drazen Prelec, “Tom Sawyer and the Construction of Value,” Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization 60, no. 1 (2006): 1–28.
(13)
“Comings & Goings,” New York Times, April 9, 2006.
(14)
Richard L. Oliver and John E. Swan, “Equity and Disconfirmation Perceptions as Influences on Merchant and Product Satisfaction,” Journal of Consumer Research 16 (December 1989): 372–383.
(15)
Margaret Neale, Vandra L. Huber, and Gregory B. Northcraft, “The Framing of Negotiations: Contextual Versus Task Frame,” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Making 39 (1987): 228–241.
(16)
Richard L. Oliver and John E. Swan, “Consumer Perceptions of Interpersonal Equity and Satisfaction in Transactions: A Field Survey Approach,” Journal of Marketing 53 (April 1989): 21–35.
(17)
Edward E. Sampson, “On Justice as Equality,” Journal of Social Issues 31, no. 3 (1975): 45–64.
(18)
John Rawls, A Theory of Justice (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1971).
(19)
Hal R. Varian, “Distributive Justice, Welfare Economics, and the Theory of Fairness,” Philosophy and Public Affairs 4 (1975): 223–247.
(20)
Kelly L. Haws and William O. Bearden, “Dynamic Pricing and Consumer Fairness Perceptions,” Journal of Consumer Research 33, no. 3 (2006): 304–311.
(21)
Peter R. Darke and Darren W. Dahl, “Fairness and Discounts: The Subjective Value of a Bargain,” Journal of Consumer Psychology 13, no. 3 (2003): 328–338.
(22)
Tamar Lewin, “Students Find $100 Textbooks Cost $50 Purchased Overseas,” New York Times, October 21, 2003.
(23)
Daniel Kahneman, Jack Knetsch, and Richard Thaler, “Fairness and the Assumptions of Economics,” Journal of Business 59 (October 1986): S285–S300; Robert Forsythe et al., “Fairness in Simple Bargaining Experiments,” Games and Economic Behavior 6 (1994): 347–369.
(24)
Gary E. Bolton and Rami Zwick, “Anonymity versus Punishment in Ultimatum Bargaining,” Games and Economic Behavior 10 (1995): 95–121.
(25)
Sampson, 1975.
(26)
Karen F. Stein, “Explaining Ghetto Consumer Behavior: Hypotheses from Urban Sociology,” Journal of Consumer Affairs 14, no. 1 (1980): 232–242.
(27)
Morton Deutsch, “Equity, Equality, and Need: What Determines Which Value Will Be Used as the Basis of Distributive Justice?” Journal of Social Issues 31, no. 3 (1975): 137–149.
(28)
Milt Freudenheim, “Low Payments by U.S. Raise Medical Bills Billions a Year,” New York Times, June 1, 2006.
(29)
“Lautenschlager to File Complaints against Two Area Hospitals,” Milwaukee Business Journal, November 7, 2005, Milwaukee.bizjournal.com.
(30)
Sue Kirchhoff, “Efforts Renewed to Control Excessive Cost of Payday Loans,” USA Today, December 1, 2006.
(31)
Bernard Wasow, “A New Minimum Benefit for Social Security,” The Social Security Network, April 12, 2004, www.socsec.org.
(32)
Melissa Campanelli, “What’s in Store for EDLP?” Sales and Marketing Management 145, no. 9 (1993): 56–59.
(33)
Alex Berenson, “A Cancer Drug Shows Promise, at a Price That Many Can’t Pay,” New York Times, February 15, 2006, www.nytimes.com.
(34)
“Price Gouging on Cancer Drugs?” New York Times, February 17, 2006, www.nytimes.com.
(35)
Ruaridh Nicoll, “Electricity Cut-Off Sparks South African Township Riot,” The Guardian, August 8, 1997.
(36)
Deutsch, 1975.

الفصل الثامن: العزو السببي

(1)
Fritz Heider, The Psychology of Interpersonal Relations (New York: Wiley, 1958); Harold H. Kelley, “The Processes of Causal Attribution,” American Psychologist 28 (February 1973): 107–123; Bernard Weiner, An Attributional Theory of Motivation and Emotion (New York: Springer-Verlag, 1986).
(2)
Bernard Weiner, “Attributional Thoughts about Consumer Behavior,” Journal of Consumer Research 27, no. 3 (2000): 382–387.
(3)
Ibid.
(4)
Matthew Rabin, “Incorporating Fairness into Game Theory and Economics,” American Economic Review 83, no. 5 (1993): 1281–1302.
(5)
Sally Blount, “When Social Outcomes Aren’t Fair: The Effect of Causal Attributions on Preferences,” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 63, no. 2 (August 1995): 131–144.
(6)
Margaret Campbell, “Why Did You Do That? The Important Role of Inferred Motive in Perceptions of Price Fairness,” Journal of Product and Brand Management 8, no. 2 (1999): 145–153.
(7)
Sarah Maxwell, “The Effects of Differential Textbook Pricing: On-Line vs. In-Store,” Journal of Media Economics 16, no. 2 (2003): 87–95.
(8)
Margaret Campbell, “Perceptions of Price Fairness: Antecedents and Consequences,” Journal of Marketing Research 36 (May 1999): 187–199.
(9)
Rajiv Vaidyanathan and Praveen Aggarwal, “Who Is the Fairest of Them All? An Attributional Approach to Price Fairness Perceptions,” Journal of Business Research 56, no. 6 (2003): 453–459.
(10)
Arthur M. Okun, Prices and Quantities: A Macroeconomic Analysis (Washington DC: The Brookings Institution, 1981).
(11)
Michael Tsiros, Vikas Mittal, and William T. Ross, Jr., “The Role of Attributions in Customer Satisfaction: A Reexamination,” Journal of Consumer Research 31, no. 2 (2004): 478–483.
(12)
Valerie Folkes, Susan Koletsky, and John L. Graham, “A Field Study of Causal Inference and Consumer Reaction: The View from the Airport,” Journal of Consumer Research 13 (March 1987): 534–539.
(13)
N. T. Feather and J. G. Simon, “Fear of Success and Causal Attribution for Outcome,” Journal of Personality 41 (1973): 525–542.
(14)
Sarah Maxwell, “Biased Attributions of a Price Increase: Effects of Culture and Gender,” Journal of Consumer Marketing 16, no. 1 (1999): 9–23.
(15)
Jaebeom Suh and Jeffrey Hess, “Individualism vs. Collectivism: Cultural Moderation of Consumer Attribution,” Proceedings, American Marketing Association (Summer 1996): 188–192.
(16)
Harold H. Kelley, “The Process of Causal Attribution,” American Psychologist 28 (February 1973): 107–123; Gifford W. Bradley, “Self-Serving Biases in the Attribution Process; A Reexamination of the Fact or Fiction Question,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 36, no. 1 (1978): 56–71.
(17)
Weiner, 1986.

الفصل التاسع: العملية

(1)
Jerald Greenberg, “Stress Fairness to Fare No Stress: Managing Workplace Stress by Promoting Organizational Justice,” Organizational Dynamics 33, no. 4 (2004): 352–364.
(2)
John Thibaut and Laurens Walker, Procedural Justice: A Psychological Analysis (Hillsdale, NY: Erlbaum, 1975).
(3)
E. Allan Lind and Tom R. Tyler, The Social Psychology of Procedural Justice (New York: Plenum, 1988).
(4)
Kwok Leung and Wai-Kwan Li, “Psychological Mechanisms of Process-Control Effects,” Journal of Applied Psychology 75, no. 6 (1990): 613–620.
(5)
Kelly L. Haws and William O. Bearden, “Dynamic Pricing and Consumer Fairness Perceptions,” Journal of Consumer Research 33, no. 3 (2006): 304–311.
(6)
“Lentil as Anything,” www.lentilasanything.com.
(7)
Barbara Meyer, “Textbook Market Unfair: Few Alternatives Available,” Kansas State Collegian, March 10, 2004, www.kstate.collegian.com.
(8)
N. K. Malhotra, “Information Load and Consumer Decision Making,” Journal of Consumer Research 8 (March 1982): 419–430.
(9)
Sarah Maxwell, “Hyperchoice and High Prices: An Unfair Combination,” Journal of Product and Brand Management 14, no. 7 (2005): 448–454.
(10)
Edward E. Zajac, Fairness or Efficiency: An Introduction to Public Utility Pricing (Cambridge, MA: Ballinger Publishing, 1978); Edward E. Zajac, Political Economy of Fairness (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1995).
(11)
Douglas N. Jones and Patrick C. Mann, “The Fairness Criterion in Public Utility Regulations: Does Fairness Still Matter?” Journal of Economic Issues 35, no. 1 (2001): 153–172.
(12)
Joe Sharkey, “Business Travel: One Critic Shows the Mounting Animosity over Different Air Fares for Business and Leisure Fliers,” New York Times, March 6, 2002.
(13)
Roy Furchgott, “You Say You Didn’t Buy It. But Did You Read the Tiny Type?” New York Times, December 7, 1997.
(14)
Sarah Maxwell, “Rule-Based Price Fairness and its Effect on Willingness to Purchase,” Journal of Economic Psychology 23, no. 2 (2002): 191–212.
(15)
Diana Wood, Medieval Economic Thought (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002).
(16)
Uwe E. Reinhardt, “The Pricing of U.S. Hospital Services: Chaos behind a Veil of Secrecy,” Health Affairs 25, no. 1 (2006): 57–69.

الفصل العاشر: العقاب

(1)
Robert Axelrod, “An Evolutionary Approach to Norms,” American Political Science Review 80, no. 4 (1986): 1095–1111.
(2)
Richard DeRidder and Rama C. Tripathi, Norm Violation and Intergroup Relations (Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press, 1992): 22.
(3)
George C. Homans, The Human Group (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1950): 123.
(4)
Dale T. Miller and Neil Vidmar, “The Social Psychology of Punishment Reactions,” in Melvin J. Lerner and Sally C. Lerner (eds.), The Justice Motive in Social Behavior: Adapting to Times of Scarcity and Change (New York: Plenum Press, 1981): 145–172.
(5)
Jeffrey P. Carpenter, Peter Hans Matthews and Okomboli Ong’ong’a, “ Why Punish? Social Reciprocity and the Enforcement of Prosocial Norms,” Journal of Evolutionary Economics 24 (2004): 407–429.
(6)
Matthew Rabin, “Incorporating Fairness into Game Theory and Economics,” The American Economic Review (December 1993): 1281–1302.
(7)
Frans B. M. DeWaal, “The Chimpanzee’s Sense of Social Regularity and Its Relation to the Human Sense of Justice,” American Behavioral Scientist 34, no. 3 (January/February 1991): 335–348.
(8)
Michael E. Price, Leda Cosmides, and John Tooby, “Punitive Sentiment as an Anti-Free Rider Psychological Device,” Evolution and Human Behavior 23, no. 3 (May 2002): 203–231.
(9)
Herbert Gents, “Strong Reciprocity and Human Sociality,” Journal of Theoretical Biology 206, no. 2 (September 21, 2000): 169–179.
(10)
Alvin W. Gouldner, “The Norm of Reciprocity: A Preliminary Statement,” American Sociological Review 25, no. 2 (1960): 161–178.
(11)
Gary Goertz and Paul F. Diehl, “Toward a Theory of International Norms,” Journal of Conflict Resolution 36 (December 1992): 634–664.
(12)
Friedrich A. Hayek, The Road to Serfdom (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994 [1944]).
(13)
Gregory Gundlach and Ravi S. Achrol, “Governance in Exchange: Contract Law and its Alternatives,” Journal of Public Policy and Marketing 12 (October 1993): 141–155.
(14)
Ragnar Rommetveit, Social Norms and Roles (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1954).
(15)
Robert Piron and Luis Fernandez, “Are Fairness Constraints on Profit-Seeking Important?” Journal of Economic Psychology 16 (1995): 73–96.
(16)
Roger Bougie, Rik Pieters, and Marcel Zeelenberg, “Angry Customers Don’t Come Back, They Get Back: The Experience and Behavioral Implications of Anger and Dissatisfaction in Services,” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 31, no. 4 (2003): 377–393.
(17)
Jim Rendon, “What Gas Stations Won’t Tell You,” July 11, 2006, aol. smartmoney.com.
(18)
Sara H. Goo, “Underdogs in Battle Against Gas Gougers,” September 23, 2005, washingtonpost.com.
(19)
Daniel Kahneman, Jack L. Knetsch, and Richard H. Thaler, “Fairness as a Constraint on Profit Seeking: Entitlements in the Market,” American Economic Review 76 (September 1986): 728–741.
(20)
Jean-Robert Tyran and Dirk Engelmann, “To Buy or Not to Buy? An Experimental Study of Consumer Boycotts in Retail Markets,” Economica 72 (2005): 1–16.
(21)
Ipsos-Reid Survey, cited by Mark Dolliver, “Boomers as Boycotters,” Adweek, (Eastern edition), December 4, 2000: 44.
(22)
Price, Cosmides, and Tooby, 2002.
(23)
Natalie Angier, “ The Urge to Punish Cheats: It Isn’t Merely Vengeance,” New York Times, January 22, 2002.
(24)
Nada Nasr Bechwati and Maureen Morrin, “Outraged Consumers: Getting Even at the Expense of Getting a Good Deal,” Journal of Consumer Psychology 13, no. 4 (2003): 440–453.
(25)
Carpenter, Matthews, and Ong’ong’a, 2004.
(26)
Ernst Fehr and Klaus M. Schmidt, “A Theory of Fairness, Competition, and Cooperation,” Quarterly Journal of Economics (August 1999): 817–868.
(27)
Alan G. Sanfey et al., “The Neural Basis of Economic Decision-Making in the Ultimatum Game,” Science 300 (2003): 1755–1758.
(28)
Daria Knoch, et al., “Diminishing Reciprocal Fairness by Disrupting the Right Prefrontal Cortex,” Sciencexpress, October 5, 2006, www.sciencexpress.org.
(29)
D. DeQuervain et al., “The Neural Basis of Altruistic Punishment,” Science 305 (2004): 1254–1258.
(30)
J. Keith Murnighan and Madan M. Pillutla, “Fairness versus Self-Interest: Asymmetric Moral Imperatives in Ultimatum Bargaining,” in Roderick M. Kramer and David M. Messick (eds.), Negotiation as a Social Process, (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1995), 240–267.
(31)
Ernst Fehr and Urs Fischbacher, “Third-Party Punishment and Social Norms,” Evolution and Human Behavior 25 (2004): 63–87.
(32)
Fehr and Schmidt, 1999.
(33)
Alvin E. Roth et al., “Bargaining and Market Behavior in Jerusalem, Ljubljana, Pittsburg, and Tokyo: An Experimental Study,” American Economic Review 81 (December 1991): 1068–1095.
(34)
Joseph Henrich et al., “Costly Punishment Across Human Societies,” Science 312, no. 5781 (June 23, 2006): 1767–1770.
(35)
Miller and Vidmar, 1981.
(36)
Sarah Maxwell, “Sanctioning Unfair Pricing: Making the Punishment Fit the Crime,” Proceedings, Summer Conference (Chicago: American Marketing Association, 2003).
(37)
Bruce Mohl, “Wal-Mart Settles Lawsuit on Item-Pricing for $7.35M,” The Boston Globe, January 22, 2004, www.consumerwatchdog.org.

الفصل الحادي عشر: السلطة

(1)
Federal Highway Administration, “Highway Statistics,” 2006, www.fhwa.dot.gov.
(2)
“For Oil Giants, Pricey Gas Means Big Profits,” ABC News, January 25, 2006, abcnews.go.com.
(3)
Tom Curry, “What Is Price ‘Gouging’? And Can It Be Stopped?” MSNBC, April 26, 2006, www.msnbc.msn.com.
(4)
Pete Domenici, Representative from New Mexico, quoted in “Big Oil Defends Profits,” CBS News, November 9, 2005, www.cbsnews.com.
(5)
White House, “President Discusses Energy at National Small Business Conference,” press release, April 27, 2005, www.whitehouse.gov.
(6)
Curry, 2006.
(7)
Robert A. Dahl, “The Concept of Power,” Behavioral Science 2 no. 3 (July 1957): 201–215.
(8)
Kurt Eichenwald, “Archer Daniels Said to Settle Sweetened Price-Fixing Case,” New York Times, June 18, 2004.
(9)
Stefano DellaVigna and Ulrike Malmendier, “Contract Design and Self-Control: Theory and Evidence,” The Quarterly Journal of Economics 119, no. 2 (May 2004): 353–384.
(10)
Gary L. Frazier and Sudhir H. Kale, “Manufacturer-Distributor Relationships: A Sellers’ Versus Buyers’ Market Perspective,” International Marketing Review 6, no. 6 (1989): 7–26.
(11)
F. Robert Dwyer, Paul H. Schurr, and Sejo Oh, “Developing Buyer-Seller Relationships,” Journal of Marketing 51 (April 1987): 11–27.
(12)
Francis Bacon, Religious Meditations, Of Heresies (Philadelphia: William Bradford, 1688), electronic resource, www.library.fordham.edu.
(13)
“Crowned at Last,” The Economist, March 31, 2005, www.economist.com .
(14)
Behrang Rezabakhsh et al., “Consumer Power: A Comparison of the Old Economy and the Internet Economy,” Journal of Consumer Policy 29 (2006): 3–36.
(15)
John R. French and Bertram Raven, “The Bases of Social Power,” in Dorwin Cartwright (ed.), Studies in Social Power (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1959): 150–167.
(16)
X. Pan, B. T. Ratchford, and V. Shankar, “The Evolution of Price Dispersion in Internet Retail Markets,” Advances in Applied Microeconomics 12 (2003): 85–105.
(17)
“Crowned at Last” 2005.
(18)
Linda D. Molm, “Imbalanced Structures, Unfair Strategies: Power and Justice in Social Exchange,” American Sociological Review 59, no. 1 (1994): 98–121.
(19)
F. Robert Dwyer, “Are Two Better than One? Bargaining Behavior and Outcomes in an Asymmetrical Power Relationship,” Journal of Consumer Research 11 (September 1984): 680–693.
(20)
Daniel Kahneman, Jack L. Knetsch, and Richard H. Thaler, “Fairness as a Constraint on Profit Seeking: Entitlements in the Market,” American Economic Review 76 (September 1986): 728–741.
(21)
Robert H. Frank, Passions within Reason: The Strategic Role of the Emotions (New York: W. W. Norton, 1988).
(22)
Jeffrey Bradach and Robert Eccles, “Price, Authority and Trust,” Annual Review of Sociology 15 (1989): 97–106.
(23)
“E-Commerce,” The Economist: The World in 2007: 94.
(24)
L. Walker, et al., “Reactions of Participants and Observers to Modes of Adjudication,” Journal of Applied Social Psychology 4 (1974): 295–310.

الفصل الثاني عشر: الثقة

(1)
Kanchan Vasdev, “All 200 Milk Samples Fail Test,” Tribune News Service, August 13, 2006, www.tribuneindia.com.
(2)
Akshay R. Rao and Mark E. Bergen, “Price Premium Variations as a Consequence of Buyers’ Lack of Information,” Journal of Consumer Research 19, no. 3 (1992): 412–424.
(3)
David M. Messick and Roderick M. Kramer, “Trust as a Form of Shallow Morality,” in Karen Cook (ed.), Trust in Society, (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2001): 89–117.
(4)
Roy J. Lewicki, Daniel J. McAllister, and Robert J. Bier, “Trust and Distrust: New Relationships and Realities,” Academy of Management Review 23, no. 3 (1998): 438–458.
(5)
Shelly Taylor, “A Categorization Approach to Stereotyping,” in D. L. Hamilton (ed.), Cognitive Processes in Stereotyping and Intergroup Behavior, (Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1981): 88–114.
(6)
Oliver Williamson, “Calculativeness, Trust and Economic Organization,” Journal of Law and Economics 36 (1993): 453–486.
(7)
Mark Granovetter, “Economic Action and Social Structure: The Problem of Embeddedness,” American Journal of Sociology 91, no. 3 (1985): 481–510.
(8)
Kenneth Arrow, The Limits of Organization (New York: Norton, 1974).
(9)
Leonard L. Berry, “Retailers with a Future,” Marketing Management 5 (Spring 1996): 38–46.
(10)
Amanda Vickers and Jackie Smith, “Why Consumer Trust Is the Key to Repeat Business,” The Wise Marketer, January 2005, www.thewisemarketer.com.
(11)
Glen L. Urban, “The Trust Imperative” (working paper no. 4302-03, Sloan School of Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2003), http://ssrn.com/abstract=400421 or DOI: 10.2139/ssrn.400421.
(12)
John Drummond, “The Value of Being a ‘Trusted’ Company,” Corporate Responsibility Management 2, no. 4 (2006): 12-13.
(13)
Donald L. Potter, “Moving from a DRTV ‘Need-It-Now’ Sell to a ‘Trust-Marketing’ Relationship,” Response Magazine, February 1, 2005, www.responsemagazine.com.
(14)
Lynn Jeffress and Jean-Paul Mayanobe, “A World Struggle Is Underway: An Interview with Jose Bove,” Z Magazine, June 2001, www.thirdworldtraveler.com.
(15)
Messick and Kramer, 2001.
(16)
Jeffrey Bradach and Robert Eccles, “Price, Authority and Trust,” Annual Review of Sociology 13 (1989): 97–118.
(17)
Larue T. Hosmer, “Trust: The Connecting Link between Organizational Theory and Philosophical Ethics,” Academy of Management Review 20, no. 2 (1995): 379–403.
(18)
Roger C. Mayer, James H. Davis, and F. David Schoorman, “An Integration Model of Organizational Trust,” Academy of Management Review 20, no. 3 (1995): 709–844.
(19)
Ernst Fehr, Urs Fischbacher, and Michael Kosfeld, “Neuroeconomic Foundations of Trust and Social Preferences: Initial Evidence,” American Economic Review 95, no. 2 (2005): 346–351.
(20)
Francis Fukuyama, Trust (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995): 26.
(21)
James Coleman, “Social Capital in the Creation of Human Capital,” American Journal of Sociology 94 (1988): S95–S120; Robert D. Putnam, “The Prosperous Community: Social Capital and Public Life,” American Prospect 13 (1993): 35–42.
(22)
Fukuyama, 1995.
(23)
Yankelovich, “A Crisis of Confidence: Rebuilding the Bonds of Trust,” State of Consumer Trust Report, 2004, www.compad.com.au.
(24)
Russell Hardin, “Conceptions and Explanations of Trust,” in Karen Cook (ed.), Trust in Society (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2001): 3–39.
(25)
Peter Blau, Exchange and Power in Social Life (New York: Wiley, 1967).
(26)
See, e.g., Frank K. Sonnenberg, “Trust Me, Trust Me Not,” Journal of Business Strategy 15, no. 1 (January/February 1994): 14–16; John D. Butler Jr., “Toward Understanding and Measuring Conditions of Trust: Evolution of a Conditions of Trust Inventory,” Journal of Management 17, no. 3 (1991): 643–663.
(27)
See, e.g., Marshall Sashkin and Richard L. Williams, “Does Fairness Make a Difference?” Organizational Dynamics 19, no. 2 (1990): 56–71.
(28)
L. G. Zucker, “Production of Trust: Institutional Sources of Economic Structure, 1840–1920,” in B. M. Staw and L. L. Cummings (eds.), Research in Organization Behavior, vol. 8, (Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1986): 53–111.
(29)
Hosmer, 1995.
(30)
Una McMahon-Beattie, “Future of Revenue Management: Trust and Revenue Management,” Journal of Revenue and Pricing Management 4, no. 4 (2005): 406-407.
(31)
Margaret Campbell, “Perceptions of Price Fairness: Antecedents and Consequences,” Journal of Marketing Research 36 (May 1999): 187–199.
(32)
Morton Deutsch, “Trust and Suspicion,” The Journal of Conflict Resolution 2, no. 4 (1958): 265–279.
(33)
Campbell, 1999.
(34)
John W. Huppertz, Sidney J. Arenson, and Richard H. Evans, “An Application of Equity Theory to Buyer-Seller Exchange Situations,” Journal of Marketing Research 15 (May 1978): 250–260.
(35)
Rosemary Kalapurakal, Peter R. Dickson, and Joel E. Urbany, “A Conceptual Model of Price Fairness Judgments” (working paper, Ohio State University, 1992): 17.
(36)
Robert Bies and Thomas Tripp, “Beyond Distrust: ‘Getting Even’ and the Need for Revenge,” in Roderick Kramer and Tom R. Tyler (eds.), Trust in Organizations, (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1996): 252–283.
(37)
Fred M. Feinberg, Aradhna Krishna, and Z. John Zhang, “Do We Care What Others Get? A Behaviorist Approach to Targeted Promotions,” Journal of Marketing Research 39, no. 3 (2002): 277–291.
(38)
Joel Brockner and Phyllis A. Siegel, “Understanding the Interaction between Procedural and Distributive Justice,” in Roderick M. Kramer and Tom R. Tyler (eds.), Trust in Organizations, (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1996): 390–410.
(39)
Yankelovich, 2004.
(40)
Thomas T. Nagle and Reed K. Holden, The Strategy and Tactics of Pricing (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1995).
(41)
Kees van den Bos and Henk A. M. Wilke, “When Do We Need Procedural Fairness? The Role of Trust in Authority,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 75, no. 6 (1998): 1449–1458.
(42)
Jean Ensminger, “Reputations, Trust, and the Principal Agent Problem,” in Karen Cook (ed.), Trust in Society, (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2001): 185–201.
(43)
Yankelovich, 2004.
(44)
Brockner and Segal, 1996.
(45)
Sunanda N. Ganju, “Gender Revolution after White Revolution,” India Together, September 20, 2005, www.indiatogether.org.

الجزء الثالث: التطبيقات

الفصل الثالث عشر: التعديلات

(1)
Anna Shoup, “The Global Warming Debate: Emissions Trading Ins and Outs,” June 5, 2006, www.pbs.org/newshour.
(2)
Collin Dunn, “The Social Costs of Greenhouse Gas Emissions,” February 10, 2006, www.treehugger.com.
(3)
“A Soluble Problem,” The Economist, March 24, 2000: 20.
(4)
John Peet, “Water, Water Everywhere: And Scarcely a Drop of Common Sense in Its Pricing,” The Economist: The World in 2004: 18.
(5)
Ronald Bailey, “The Case for Selling Human Organs,” Reasonline, April 18, 2001, reason.com.
(6)
John Stossel, interviewed on Your World with Neil Cavuto, Fox News, June 13, 2006, mediamatters.org.
(7)
Claire Andre and Manuel Velasquez, “Kidneys for Sale,” Issues in Ethics 1, no. 2 (1988), www.scu.edu/ethics.
(8)
Claudia Kalb, “Ethics, Eggs and Embryos,” Newsweek, June 20, 2005: 52.
(9)
Norbert Schechter, “Economic Damages under New York Wrongful Death Statute” June, 2006, www.nysscpa.org.
(10)
Jim Yardley, “3 Deaths in China Reveal Disparity in Price of Lives,” New York Times, April 14, 2006.
(11)
Randy Kennedy, “The Day the Traffic Disappeared,” New York Times, April 20, 2003.
(12)
“Charge Late Fees for Missed Appointments?” The [Non]billable Hour,” June 27, 2006, thenonbillablehour.typepad.com.
(13)
“Road Pricing,” August 28, 2006, en.wikipedia.org.
(14)
Adam Raphael, “Road Pricing: Queue or Pay?” The Economist: The World in 2003: 79.
(15)
Randy Cohen, “Line Up,” New York Times Magazine, July 24, 2005.
(16)
Sheryl E. Kimes and Jochen Wirtz, “Has Revenue Management Become Acceptable?” Journal of Service Research 6, no. 2 (2003): 125–137.
(17)
Dhruv Grewal, David M. Hardesty, and Gopalkrishnan R. Iyer, “The Effects of Buyer Identification and Purchase Timing on Consumers’ Perceptions of Trust, Price Fairness and Repurchase Intentions,” Journal of Interactive Marketing 18, no. 4 (2004): 87–100, www.interscience.com.
(18)
“American Socialism: Battling with Demons,” The Economist, September 24, 2005: 41.
(19)
“Copying Rights,” Newsweek, March 26, 2007: 11.
(20)
David Rowell, “Airline Zen: Less Is More,” November 2001 (updated February 2005), www.thetravelinsider.info.

الفصل الرابع عشر: البقشيش

(1)
See, e.g., Ofer H.Azar, “Optimal Monitoring with External Incentives: The Case of Tipping,” Southern Economic Journal, 71 no. 1 (2004): 170–181.
(2)
Orn B. Bodvarsson and William A Gibson, “Economics and Restaurant Gratuities: Determining Tip Rates,” American Journal of Economics and Sociology 56, no. 2 (1997): 187–203.
(3)
Robert H. Frank, Passions within Reason: The Strategic Role of the Emotions (New York: Norton, 1988).
(4)
Jeff D. Opdyke, “Love & Money: 10%? 15%? 20%? We Are What We Tip,” Wall Street Journal, July 10, 2005.
(5)
Ibid.
(6)
Sarah Maxwell, “Fair Price, Fair Practice: Dual Entitlements for the Consumer,” Proceedings, Fordham Pricing Conference (New York: Fordham University, 2005).
(7)
Daniel Kahneman, Jack L. Knetsch, and Richard H. Thaler, “Fairness as a Constraint on Profit Seeking: Entitlements in the Market,” American Economic Review, 76 (September 1986): 728–741.
(8)
Sarah Maxwell, “KKT Revisited” (working paper, Fordham Pricing Center, Fordham University, New York, 2006).
(9)
Michael Conlin, Michael Lynn, and Ted O’Donoghue, “The Norm of Restaurant Tipping,” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 52, no. 3 (2003): 297–308; Michael Lynn and Michael McCall, “Gratitude and Gratuity: A Meta-Analysis of Research on the Service-Tipping Relationship,” Journal of Socio-Economics 29, no. 2 (2000): 203–214.
(10)
Uri Ben-Zion and Edi Karni, “Tip Payments and the Quality of Service,” in O. C. Ashenfelter and W. E. Oates (eds.), Essays in Labor Market Analysis, (New York: Wiley, 1977): 37–44.
(11)
Bodvarsson and Gibson, 1997.
(12)
Kerry Seagrave, Tipping: An American Social History of Gratuities (Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1998).
(13)
William Scott, The Itching Palm: A Study of the Habit of Tipping in America (Philadelphia: Penn Publishing Company, 1916).
(14)
Danielle Archibagi, “Tips and Democracy,” Dissent, Spring 2004, www.dissent.magazine.org.
(15)
Ofer H. Azar, “The Social Norm of Tipping: Does It Improve Social Welfare?,” Journal of Economics 85, no. 2 (2005): 141–149.
(16)
Jeanne Sahadi, “Tipping Revisited: Readers Respond,” June 5, 2003, cnnmoney. printthis.clickability.com.
(17)
Bodvarsson and Gibson, 1997, p. 187.
(18)
Natalie MacLean, “Gratuitous Praise,” February 11, 2005, www.smh.com.au/articles.
(19)
Michael Lynn, George M. Zinkhan, and Judy Harris, “Consumer Tipping: A Cross-Country Study,” Journal of Consumer Research 20, no. 3 (1993): 478–488.
(20)
James Surowiecki, “Check, Please,” The New Yorker, September 5, 2005: 58.
(21)
Michael Lynn, “Restaurant Tipping and Service Quality: A Tenuous Relationship,” Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly 42, no. 1 (2001): 14–20.
(22)
Chris, August 8, 2005, majikthise.typepad.com.
(23)
“History,” National Restaurant Association (2005), www.restaurant.org/aboutus/history.
(24)
Nancy Benac, “Tipping Debate,” July 3, 2002, www.icrsurvey.com.
(25)
Ofer H. Azar, “What Sustains Social Norms and How They Evolve? The Case of Tipping,” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 54, no. 1 (2004): 49–57.
(26)
Ibid.
(27)
Seagrave, 1998.
(28)
The Associated Press 2002 Poll, in “Tipping Notes,” Topeka Capital Journal, August 25, 2002, www.cjonline.com.
(29)
Bodvarsson and Gibson, 1997.
(30)
R. Mildred, August 28, 2005, majikthise.typepad.com.
(31)
Letitia Baldridge’s New Complete Guide to Executive Manners (New York: Rawson Associates, Macmillan Publishing Company, 1993).
(32)
Warren St. John, “Time to Render unto Doormen,” New York Times, December 21, 2003.
(33)
Sean Foley, August 28, 2005, majikthise.typepad.com.
(34)
Stevenson Swanson, “Tips Giving Way to Service Charges?” Charlotte Observer, October 14, 2005, www.charlotte.com.
(35)
Matthias Klaes, “Some Remarks on the Place of Psychological and Social Elements in a Theory of Custom,” American Journal of Economics and Sociology 61, no. 2 (2002): 523.
(36)
“Forget the Tip … Market Trends Drive a Wage,” 2005, www.thinkandask.com.

الفصل الخامس عشر: التمييز

(1)
Anita Ramasastry, “Websites that Charge Different Customers Different Prices,” June 20, 2005, writ.news.findlaw.com.
(2)
Martha Heller, “Is Dynamic Pricing Really So Bad?” October 25, 2000, comment.cio.com/soundoff.
(3)
D. Streitfeld, “On the Web, Price Tags Blur,” Washington Post, September 27, 2000.
(4)
Howard Marmorstein, Jeanne Rossomme, and Dan Sarel, “Unleashing the Power of Yield Management in the Internet Era: Opportunities and Challenges,” California Management Review 45, no. 3 (2003): 147–167.
(5)
Joseph Turow, “Open to Exploitation: American Shoppers Online and Offline,” (Annenberg Public Policy Center, University of Pennsylvania, 2005), www.appcpenn.org.
(6)
Debbie Bocian, Keith Ernst, and Wei Li, “Unfair Lending: The Effect of Race and Ethnicity on the Price of Subprime Mortgages,” Center for Responsible Lending, May 31, 2006, www.responsiblelending.org.
(7)
Jacque Storm, “Gender-Based Price Discrimination: Does It Require a New Solution or Enforcement of an Old Law?” South Dakota Legislative Research Council (Issue Memorandum 96–22, 2000).
(8)
Joanna Grossman, “The End of ‘Ladies’ Night’ in New Jersey: A Controversial Ruling Deems the Practice Sex Discrimination against Men,” 2004, lawjig@hofstra.edu.
(9)
Edward E. Zajac, Fairness or Efficiency: An Introduction to Public Utility Pricing (Cambridge, MA: Ballinger, 1978).
(10)
Judith Dancoff, “Done Deals,” MM Magazine (January/February 2002): 13.
(11)
Richard Thaler, “Mental Accounting and Consumer Choice,” Marketing Science 4 (Summer 1985): 199–214.
(12)
Michael J. McCarthy, “Taking the Value Out of Value-Sized: Shoppers Flock to Discounters, But It Isn’t Always Cheaper; The Cool Whip Conundrum,” Wall Street Journal, August 14, 2002.
(13)
David E. Sprott, Kenneth C. Manning, and Anthony D. Miyazaki, “Grocery Price Setting and Quantity Surcharges,” Journal of Marketing 67, no. 3 (2003): 34–45.
(14)
Ellen Garbarino and Sarah Maxwell, “Social Norms and Judged Fairness as Mediators of Trust-Breaking Due to Dynamic Posted Prices,” Proceedings, Fordham Pricing Conference (New York, Fordham University, 2004).
(15)
“Broken Promises: When Your Program Changes the Rules,” 2005, www.insideflyer.com.
(16)
Fred M. Feinberg, Aradhna Krishna, and Z. John Zhang, “Do We Care What Others Get? A Behaviorist Approach to Targeted Promotions,” Journal of Marketing Research 39, no. 3 (2002): 277–291.
(17)
Decision No. 587-C-A-2002, “In the Matter of a Complaint Filed by Tom Sherlock against Air Canada,” October 30, 2002, www.cta-otc.gc.ca.
(18)
Paul Krugman, “What Price Fairness?” New York Times, October 4, 2000.
(19)
Sarah Maxwell, “Rule-Based Price Fairness and Its Effect on Willingness to Purchase,” Journal of Economic Psychology 23, no. 2 (2002): 191–212.
(20)
“What You Pay at Target, Wal-Mart May Depend on Where You Live: Different Neighborhoods Have Different Prices,” November 30, 2005, www.thedenverchanel.com.
(21)
Ibid.
(22)
Lan Xia, Kent B. Monroe, and Jennifer L. Cox, “The Price Is Unfair! A Conceptual Framework of Price Fairness Perceptions,” Journal of Marketing 68 (October 2004): 1–15.
(23)
Lan Xia, Monika Kukar-Kinney, and Kent B. Monroe, “The Effects of Promotion Restrictions on Perceptions of Promotion and Price Fairness,” Proceedings, Fordham Pricing Conference (New York, Fordham University, 2005).
(24)
Ramasastry, 2005.
(25)
Feinberg, Krishna, and Zhang, 2002.
(26)
“Getting Personal: Will Engaging in Dynamic Pricing Help or Hurt Your Business?” Entrepreneur, October 2005, www.allbusiness.com.
(27)
“How Technology Tailors Price Tags,” Wall Street Journal (Eastern Edition), June 21, 2001.

الفصل السادس عشر: التفاوض

(1)
Diana Wood, Medieval Economic Thought (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002).
(2)
Howard Raiffa, The Art and Science of Negotiation: How to Resolve Conflicts and Get the Best Out of Bargaining (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 1982).
(3)
M. H. Bazerman and J. Carroll, “Negotiator Cognition,” in B. Staw and L. L. Cummings (eds.), Research in Organizational Behavior, Vol 9, (Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1987): 247–288.
(4)
Otomar J. Bartos, “Simple Model of Negotiation: A Sociological Point of View,” Journal of Conflict Resolution 21, no. 4 (December 1977): 565–579.
(5)
George Loewenstein et al., “Biased Judgments of Fairness in Bargaining,” The American Economic Review 85, no. 5 (1993): 1337–1343.
(6)
Linda Loewenstein and George Loewenstein, “Explaining Bargaining Impasses: The Role of Self-Serving Biases,” Journal of Economic Perspectives 11, no. 1 (1997): 109–126.
(7)
Linda Babcock et al., “Biased Judgments of Fairness in Bargaining,” American Economic Review 85, no. 5 (1995): 1337–1343.
(8)
Ian Ayres, “Further Evidence of Discrimination in New Car Negotiations and Estimates of Its Cause,” islandia.law.yale.edu/ayers/carint.htm.
(9)
Sarah Maxwell, “The Social Norms of Discrete Consumer Exchange: Classification and Quantification,” American Journal of Economics and Sociology 58, no. 4 (October 1999): 999–1018.
(10)
George F. Loewenstein, Leigh Thompson, and Max H. Bazerman, “Social Utility and Decision Making in Interpersonal Contexts,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 57, no. 3 (1989): 426–441.
(11)
Robyn Dawes and Richard Thaler, “Anomalies of Cooperation,” Journal of Economic Perspective 2, no. 3 (1988): 187–197.
(12)
A. C. Filley, Interpersonal Conflict Resolution (Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman, 1975); Dean G. Pruitt, Negotiation Behavior (New York: Academic Press, 1981); Evert van de Vliert, Theoretical Frontiers of Complex Interpersonal Conflict Behavior (Hove, UK: Erlbaum, Taylor, and Francis, 1996).
(13)
See, e.g., O. Ben-Yoav and D. G. Pruitt, “Resistance to Yielding and the Expectation of Cooperative Future Interaction in Negotiation,” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 20 (1984): 323–353.
(14)
Tom Tyler and Steven L. Blader, “Justice and Negotiation,” in Michele J. Gelfand and Jeanne M. Brett (eds.), The Handbook of Negotiation and Culture (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2004): 295–312.
(15)
Aimee Drolet, Richard Larrick, and Michael W. Morris, “Thinking of Others: How Perspective Taking Changes Negotiators’ Aspirations and Fairness Perceptions as a Function of Negotiator Relationship,” Basic and Applied Social Psychology 20, no. 1 (1998): 23–31.
(16)
Sarah Maxwell, Pete Nye, and Nicholas Maxwell, “Less Pain, Same Gain: The Effects of Priming Fairness in Price Negotiations,” Journal of Psychology and Marketing 16, no. 7 (1999): 545–562.
(17)
Ibid.
(18)
Sarah Maxwell, Pete Nye, and Nicholas Maxwell, “The Wrath of the Fairness-Primed Negotiator When the Reciprocity Norm Is Violated,” Journal of Business Research 56, no. 2 (2003): 399–409.
(19)
Dean G. Pruitt, Negotiation Behavior (New York: Academic Press, 1981).
(20)
James K. Esser and S. S. Komorita, “Reciprocity and Concession Making in Bargaining,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 31, no. 5 (1975): 864–872.
(21)
Linda D. Molm, Nobuyuki Takahashi, and Gretchen Peterson, “In the Eye of the Beholder: Procedural Justice in Social Exchange,” American Sociological Review 68, no. 1 (2003): 128–152.
(22)
Randy Cohen, “Mea Culpa,” New York Times Magazine, April 4, 2001: 6.
(23)
Pruitt, 1981.
(24)
Jeffry Rubin and Bert Brown, The Social Psychology of Bargaining and Negotiation (New York: Academic Press, 1975).
(25)
Ibid.
(26)
Charles B. McClintock and William B. Liebrand, “The Role of Interdependence Structure, Individual Value Orientation and Other’s Strategy in Social Decision Making: A Transformational Analysis,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 55, no. 3 (1988): 396–409.
(27)
See, e.g., Gary L. Frazier and Raymond C. Rody, “The Use of Influence Strategies in Interfirm Relationships in Industrial Product Channels,” Journal of Marketing 55, no. 1 (1991): 52–69.
(28)
Maxwell, Nye, and Maxwell, 2003.
(29)
James J. White, “Machiavelli and the Bar: Ethical Limitations on Lying in Negotiation,” American Bar Foundation Research Journal (1980): 926–938.
(30)
Eleanor H. Norton, “Bargaining and the Ethics of Process,” What’s Fair: Ethics for Negotiators (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2004): 292.
(31)
Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica, 2a2ae, Question 77, Article 3 (New York: Benzinger Bros., 1947-48).
(32)
Pruitt, 1981.
(33)
William Ross and Jessica LaCroix, “Multiple Meanings of Trust in Negotiation Theory and Research: A Literature Review and Integrative Model,” International Journal of Conflict Management 7, no. 4 (1996): 314–360.
(34)
Karen S. Cook et al., “The Distribution of Power in Exchange Networks: Theory and Experimental Results,” American Journal of Sociology 89 (1983): 275–305.
(35)
Linda D. Molm, Theron M. Quist, and Phillip A. Wiseley, “Reciprocal Justice and Strategies of Exchange,” Social Forces 72 (1993): 19–44.
(36)
Kenneth R. Evans and Richard F. Beltramini, “A Theoretical Model of Consumer Negotiated Pricing: An Orientation Perspective,” Journal of Marketing 51 (April 1987): 58–73.
(37)
J. Eliashberg et al., “Assessing the Predictive Accuracy of Two Utility-Based Theories in Marketing Channel Negotiation Context,” Journal of Marketing Research 23 (1986): 101–110.
(38)
Margaret Neale and Max Bazerman, Cognition and Rationality in Negotiation (New York: Free Press, 1991): 156.
(39)
Matt Michel, June, 2001, www.plumbers.org/pdl/opt.html quoted by Frank Blau, “What Is a ‘Fair’ Price?” August 27, 2001, www.pmmag.com.

الفصل السابع عشر: الضرائب

(1)
Robert Barra, Long Island State Assemblyman, AP release (2006) www.weax.com.
(2)
Harris Interactive Online Survey, conducted for Tax Foundation, March 8–16, 2006, www.taxfoundation.org.
(3)
Charles Bennett, “Preliminary Results of the National Research Program’s Reporting Compliance Study of Tax Year 2001 Individual Returns,” Internal Revenue Service (2005).
(4)
James Alm and Benno Torgler, “Cultural Differences and Tax Morale in the United States and in Europe,” Journal of Economic Psychology 27, no. 2 (2006): 224–246.
(5)
Benjamin Barber, interviewed by Gwen Ifill, The Newshour with Jim Lehrer, April 16, 2001, www.pbs.org/newshour/.
(6)
“Tax Quotes,” Internal Revenue Service, www.irs.gov.
(7)
“ Taxpayer Attitude Survey,” IRS Oversight Board (2005), www.irsoversightboard.treas.gov.
(8)
“A Barometer of Modern Morals,” Pew Research Center, March 28, 2006, pewresearch.org.
(9)
NBC News Poll, Blum & Weprin Associates, April 3–5, 2005, www.pollingreport.com.
(10)
James Alm, Gary H. McClelland, and William D. Schulze, “Changing the Social Norm of Tax Compliance by Voting” (working paper No. 98–17, Center for Economic Analysis, University of Colorado, Boulder, 1998); Benno Torgler, “Tax Morale, Rule-Governed Behaviour and Trust,” Constitutional Political Economy 14, no. 2 (2003): 119–140.
(11)
James Alm, Jorge Martinez-Vazquez, and Benno Torgler, “Russian Attitudes Toward Paying Taxes—Before, During and After the Transition,” (working paper no. 2005–27, Center for Research in Economics, Management and the Arts, 2005): 18.
(12)
Stephen Coleman, “The Minnesota Income Tax Compliance Experiment: State Tax Results,” Minnesota Department of Revenue (1996), www.socialnorm.org/CaseStudies/taxcompliance.php.
(13)
Harris Interactive Online Survey, conducted for Tax Foundation, March 8–16, 2006, www.taxfoundation.org.
(14)
“Fact Sheets: History of the U.S. Tax System,” United States Department of the Treasury, www.ustreas.gov/education/fact-sheets/taxes/ustax.
(15)
Fox News/Opinion Dynamics Poll, March 29-30, 2005, www.pollingreport.com.
(16)
Dru Sefton, “Enthusiasts Don’t Mind Having to Pay Taxes,” New Orleans Times Picayune, March 24, 2002, www.responsiblewealth.org.
(17)
Tax Foundation, “Poll Shows Majority of U. S. Adults Support Major Tax Reform, Willing to Give up Some Deductions to Make Tax System Simpler,” April 5, 2006, www.taxfoundation.org.
(18)
Gallup Poll, April 4–7, 2005, www.pollingreport.com.
(19)
“Description and Analysis of Proposals to Replace the Federal Income Tax,” Joint Committee on Taxation, JCS–18–95, June 5, 1995, 58-59.
(20)
“April’s Hard Truths,” The Economist, April 15, 2006: 34.
(21)
“Americans Feel They Pay Fair Share of Taxes, Says Poll,” May 2, 2005, NewsTarget.com.
(22)
“Flat Tax,” RateEmpire.com.
(23)
“Estonian Economist and Former Chairman of the Country’s Parliamentary Budget Committee in September 2005,” www.zeit.de/2005/36/Osteuropa.
(24)
Professor Annette Nellen, San José State University, www.cob.sjsu.edu/facstaff/.
(25)
Harris Interactive Online Survey, 2006.
(26)
“April’s Hard Truths,” 2006.
(27)
Rob Morgan, “High Cigarette Tax Would Pay in Several Ways,” The State, April 16, 2006, www.thestate.com.
(28)
Jonathan Tamari, “Cigarette Taxes May Go up Again,” Asbury Park Press, March 17, 2006, www.app.com.
(29)
Christian Wardlaw and Ingrid Loeffler Palmer, “Calculating Luxury Taxes on Automobiles,” 2001, Edmunds.com.
(30)
Bob Jamieson, “Why Is Gasoline So Expensive?” World News Tonight, April 15, 2006, www.abcnews.go.com.
(31)
Andrew Bary, “Toll-Road Sales: Paying Up,” Barron’s, May 8, 2006: 17–20.
(32)
Harris Interactive Online Survey, 2006.
(33)
Chris Edwards, “Democrats’ Challenge on Tax Complexity,” Washington Times, July 23, 2004, www.washingtontimes.com.
(34)
Robert J. Samuelson, “The Guardians of Complexity,” Newsweek, April 17, 2006: 47.
(35)
Executive Summary of President’ Advisory Panel of Federal Tax Reform (2005): xiii.
(36)
Ibid.
(37)
James Alm and Benno Torgler, “Cultural Differences and Tax Morale in the United States and in Europe,” Journal of Economic Psychology 27 (2006): 224–246.
(38)
NBC News Poll, 2005.
(39)
Benno Torgler, “Tax Morale in Latin America,” Public Choice 122, no. 1 (2005): 133–157.
(40)
Paul Webley et al., Tax Evasion: An Experimental Approach (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991).
(41)
J. T. Scholz and M. Lubell, “Cooperation, Reciprocity and the Collective Action Heuristic,” American Journal of Political Science 45 (2001): 160–178.
(42)
Edward L. Deci, Intrinsic Motivation (New York: Plenum Press, 1975).
(43)
Torgler, 2005.
(44)
Benno Torgler, “Cross-Cultural Comparison of Tax Morale and Tax Compliance: Evidence from Costa Rica and Switzerland,” International Journal of Comparative Sociology 45, no. 17 (2004): 17–43.
(45)
Lars P. Feld and Benno Torgler, “Tax Morale after the Reunification of Germany: Results from a Quasi-Natural Experiment,” (working paper 210, University of California, Berkeley, 2007).
(46)
Ibid.
(47)
James Alm, Jorge Martinez-Vazquez, and Benno Torgler, “Russian Attitudes Toward Paying Taxes-Before, During and After the Transition,” (working paper no. 2005–27, Center for Research in Economics, Management and the Arts, 2005).
(48)
Torgler, 2005.
(49)
Bo Rothstein, Social Traps and the Problem of Trust (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005).
(50)
Sefton, 2002.
(51)
M. Ray Perryman, “Paying Taxes Is as American as Disliking Taxes,” San Antonio Business Journal, May 3, 2002, sanantonio.bizjournals.com.

الفصل الثامن عشر: الثقافة

(1)
J. Q. Wilson, The Moral Sense (New York: Free Press, 1993).
(2)
Sarah Maxwell, “Social Norms of Consumer Pricing, Indian Style,” Proceedings: International Society for Marketing and Development (Legon, Ghana, 2000); Veronica Feder Mayer and Marcos Goncalves Avila, “A Qualitative Investigation about Community Standards of Fairness in the Brazilian Market: Inferences, Emotions and Culture,” Proceedings: Fordham Pricing Conference (New York: Fordham University, 2004); Sarah Maxwell et al., “Reactions to a Service Price Increase: What Makes It Seem Fair,” Proceedings: Academy of Marketing Science Cross Cultural Conference (Seoul, South Korea, 2006).
(3)
Harry C. Triandis, Individualism & Collectivism (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1995): 43.
(4)
Geert Hofstede, Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1997).
(5)
Mesquita Batja and Nico H. Frijda, “Cultural Variations in Emotions: A Review,” Psychological Bulletin 112, no. 2 (1992): 179–204.
(6)
K. Leung and M. H. Bond, “The Impact of Cultural Collectivism on Reward Allocation,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 47 (1984): 793–804.
(7)
K. Leung and E. A. Lind, “Procedural Justice and Culture: Effects of Culture, Gender, and Investigator Status on Procedural Preferences,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 50 (1986): 1134–1140.
(8)
Ken-ichi Obuchi, Tomohiro Kumagai, and Emi Atsumi, “Motives of and Responses to Anger in Conflict Situations: A Cross-Cultural Analysis,” Tohoku Psychologica Folia 61, (2002): 11–21.
(9)
Raymond R. Liu and Peter McClure, “Recognizing Cross-Cultural Differences in Consumer Complaint Behavior and Intentions: An Empirical Examination,” Journal of Consumer Marketing 18, no. 1 (2001): 54–71.
(10)
Harry S. Watkins and Raymond Liu, “Collectivism, Individualism and In-Group Membership: Implications for Consumer Complaining Be haviors in Multicultural Contexts,” Journal of International Consumer Marketing 8, no. 3/4 (1996): 69–96.
(11)
Marsha Richins and Bronislaw J. Verhage, “Cross-Cultural Differences in Consumer Attitudes and their Implications for Complaint Management,” International Journal of Research in Marketing 2 (1985): 197–206.
(12)
Francis Fukuyama, Trust (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1995).
(13)
Ibid.
(14)
Nancy R. Buchan, Rachel T. A. Croson and Eric J. Johnson, “When Do Fair Beliefs Influence Bargaining Behavior? Experimental Bargaining in Japan and the United States,” Journal of Consumer Research 31, no. 1 (2004): 181–190.
(15)
Michael Lynn, George M. Zinkhan, and Judy Harris, “Consumer Tipping: A Cross-Country Study,” Journal of Consumer Research 20, no. 3 (1993): 478–488.
(16)
Hofstede, 1997.
(17)
Bella Feygin, The Theory and Practice of Price Formation in the USSR (Falls Church, VA: Delphic Associates, Inc., 1983).

الفصل التاسع عشر: الممارسات

(1)
Margaret Campbell, “Perceptions of Price Fairness: Antecedents and Consequences,” Journal of Marketing Research 36 (May 1999): 187–199.
(2)
Outi Uusitalo and Maija Rökman, “Change in Pricing Strategy: The Case of Finnish Grocery Retailing,” Proceedings: Fordham Pricing Conference (New York: Fordham University, 2004).
(3)
Jonathan Epstein, “Rising Credit Card Fees Are Costing Consumers Billions,” Buffalo News, July 17, 2005, www.buffalonews.com.
(4)
Lisa E. Bolton, and Joseph W. Alba, “Price Fairness: Good and Service Differences and the Role of Vendor Costs,” Journal of Consumer Research 33 (September 2006): 258–265.
(5)
Enzo Pesciarelli, “Aspects of the Influence of Francis Hutcheson on Adam Smith,” History of Political Economy 31, no. 3 (1999): 525–545.
(6)
“How Textbooks Are Priced,” Barnes and Noble Bookstores, Inc. (1995).
(7)
“Coffee: World Coffee Situation,” Foreign Agricultural Service, United States Department of Agriculture, 1987–1991; Sarah Maxwell “Before and After the International Coffee Agreement,” (working paper, Florida International University, 1991).
(8)
William Baumol, Superfairness (Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 1986).
(9)
Jad Mouawad, “For Leading Exxon to Its Riches, $144,573 a Day,” New York Times, April 15, 2006.
(10)
“Shakers: CEO’s Pay Too Much for Affluent Investors,” International Herald Tribune, March 22, 2006, www.iht.com.
(11)
“In the Money: A Special Report on Executive Pay,” The Economist, January 20, 2007: 3-4.
(12)
“The Boss’s Pay: The WSJ/Mercer 2006 CEO Compensation Survey,” Wall Street Journal, April 9, 2007.
(13)
“Ousted Home Depot Chief’s Golden Handshake Irks Investors,” January 4, 2007, www.accountingweb.com.
(14)
“Microsoft’s 87% Windows Profit Margin Draws Criticism from Consumer Groups,” Ananova, January 14, 2005, www.ananova.com.
(15)
“Exxon’s Profit Will Be Hard to Top,” Wall Street Journal, February 2, 2007.
(16)
Simon Romero and Edmund Andrews, “At Exxon Mobil, a Record Profit but No Fanfare,” New York Times, January 31, 2006: A1.
(17)
“New National UConn Poll Shows Public Strongly Believes Prescription Drug Prices Unfair; Support Price Controls,” University of Connecticut, July 27, 2005, www.uconn.edu/newsmedia.
(18)
Lisa Bolton, Luk Warlop, and Joseph Alba, “Consumer Perceptions of Price (Un) Fairness,” Journal of Consumer Research 29 (2003): 474–491.
(19)
Timothy Aeppel, “Seeking Perfect Prices, CEO Tears up the Rules,” Wall Street Journal, March 27, 2007.
(20)
Bruno S. Frey and Werner W. Pommerehne, “On the Fairness of Pricing: An Empirical Survey among the General Population,” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 20 (1993): 295–307.
(21)
David Leonhardt, “Why Variable Pricing Fails at the Vending Machine,” New York Times, June 27, 2005, www.nytimes.com.
(22)
David Leonhardt, “Changes Ahead for a Theater Near You,” New York Times, February 15, 2006.
(23)
Thomas Mennecke, “iTunes Sticks with 99 Cent Structure,” May 2, 2006, www.slyck.com.
(24)
Judith A. Chevalier, Anil K. Kashyap, and Peter E. Rossi, “Why Don’t Prices Rise during Periods of Peak Demand? Evidence from Scanner Data,” American Economic Review 93, no. 1 (2003): 15–37.
(25)
Anita Kunz, “Drug Prices: What’s Fair?” Business Week, December 10, 2001, 61–70.
(26)
Kelly L. Haws and William O. Bearden, “Dynamic Pricing and Consumer Fairness Perceptions,” Journal of Consumer Research 33 (December, 2006): 304–311.
(27)
Charles Smith, Auctions: The Social Construction of Value (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1989): 80.
(28)
Elizabeth Esfahani, “The Mother of Stunt Marketers,” Business 2.0, July 2005: 60.
(29)
Jefferson Graham, “Ticketmaster Uses Auctions to Fight Online Scalpers,” USA Today, May 22, 2006, www.usatoday.com.
(30)
Thomas Hildreth, “Google’s Dutch Auction IPO: Is There a Take Away Lesson for the Rest of Us?” www.mclane.com.
(31)
Smith, 1989.
(32)
Sarah Lyall, “No Gift Horses Here, So Look in Their Mouths,” New York Times, August 14, 2005.
(33)
Douglas Frantz, Carol Vogel, and Ralph Blumenthal, “Files of Ex-Christie’s Chief Fuel Inquiry into Art Auction,” New York Times, October 8, 2000.
(34)
Lee Rosenbaum, “A Touch of Class-Action,” Wall Street Journal, February 15, 2001.
(35)
Peter R. Dickson and Rosemary Kalapurakal, “The Use and Perceived Fairness of Price-Setting Rules in the Bulk Electricity Market,” Journal of Economic Psychology 15 (1994): 427–448.
(36)
Arik Johnson, “Tying Arrangements: Illegal Tying Is One of the Most Common Antitrust Claims,” Aurora WDC, March 9, 2007, www.aurorawdc.com.
(37)
“Light Up: Why Airlines Have Started Charging for Check-in Bags,” The Economist, February 11, 2006: 60.
(38)
Dan Milmo, “BA Says It Will Charge £120 for Excess Baggage,” Guardian, February 9, 2007, www.guardian.com.uk.
(39)
Ronald Alsop, “How Boss’s Deeds Buff a Firm’s Reputation,” Wall Street Journal, January 31, 2007.
(40)
Tamara Kaplan, “The Tylenol Crisis,” www.personal.psu.edu.
(41)
Alsop, 2007.
(42)
Campbell, 1999.
(43)
Novartis International, Corporate Citizenship Review, January 2007.
(44)
“Donating Our Dollars and Hours: Charitable Giving in the United States,” July 3/10, 2006: 65.

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