المراجع والقراءات الإضافية
In addition to the giants on whose shoulders I have stood for more than 30 years and who are recognized in the text and bibliography that follows, I should like to thank the many archivists and librarians in the United States, Australia, and the United Kingdom who are all too often taken for granted. I should also like to thank my former students Jason Flanagan and Jacqui Bird for their thoughtful analyses of the career of J. Robert Oppenheimer and the role of atomic scientists in the making of nuclear weapons, respectively. Needless to say, there is a vast literature on various aspects of the politics of nuclear weaponry and the problems and prospects of dealing with nuclear weapons. The publications listed below represent the tip of that iceberg and include the most important studies in English. Constraints of space have made it necessary to omit many excellent and important works in the field.
The best place to begin the study of nuclear weapons is the pages of the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists, founded in 1945 as a newsletter distributed among nuclear physicists concerned by the possibility of nuclear war; for 60 years the Bulletin’s Doomsday Clock has followed the rise and fall of nuclear tensions. For a discussion of the far-reaching effects of nuclear weapons, including the mass fire caused by firestorms, see Lynn Eden, Whole World on Fire: Organizations, Knowledge, and Nuclear Weapons Devastation (Cornell University Press, 2004). The best introduction to the threat posed by nuclear terrorists is Graham Allison, Nuclear Terrorism: The Ultimate Preventable Catastrophe (Times Books, 2004); also useful are Scott D. Sagan and Kenneth N. Waltz, The Spread of Nuclear Weapons: A Debate Renewed (W. W. Norton, 2003) and Joseph Cirincione, Jon Wolfstahl, and Miriam Rajkumar, Deadly Arsenals: Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Threats (Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2005).
The Einstein letter together with FDR’s reply is found in Vincent C. Jones, Manhattan: The Army and the Atomic Bomb (US Government Printing Office, 1985). A good introduction to the Einstein story, taking into account all the latest discoveries of letters and organized in a conventional chronological format, is Walter Isaacson, Einstein: His Life and Universe (Simon and Schuster, 2007). For details on the German research effort, see Richard Rhodes, The Making of the Atomic Bomb (Simon and Schuster, 1986); McGeorge Bundy, Danger and Survival: Choices about the Bomb in the First Fifty Years (Random House, 1988); Mark Walker, German National Socialism and the Quest for Nuclear Power, 1939–1949 (Cambridge University Press, 1989); and Jeffey T. Richelson, Spying on the Bomb: American Nuclear Intelligence from Nazi Germany to Iran and North Korea (Norton, 2006). The best introduction to the making of the atomic bomb is still Henry D. Smyth, A General Account of the Development of Methods of Using Atomic Energy for Military Purposes under the Auspices of the United States Government, 1940–1945 (US Government Printing Office, 1945).
For the role of the atomic scientists, see Robert Jungk, Brighter Than a Thousand Suns: The Moral and Political History of the Atomic Scientists (Victor Gollancz, 1958); Robert Gilpin, American Scientists and Nuclear Weapons Policy (Princeton University Press, 1962); and Gregg Herken, Brotherhood of the Bomb: The Tangled Lives and Loyalties of Robert Oppenheimer, Ernest Lawrence, Edward Teller (Henry Holt, 2002). Also see Jacqueline Bird’s related essay in The Politics of Nuclear Weaponry, ed. Richard Dean Burns and Joseph M. Siracusa (Regina Books, 2007).
The ‘atomic diplomacy’ debate may be followed in Gar Alperovitz, The Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb and the Architecture of an American Debate (Harper Collins, 1995); Robert James Maddox, Weapons for Victory: The Hiroshima Decision Fifty Years Later (University of Missouri Press, 1995); and, most recently, Wilson D. Miscamble, From Roosevelt to Truman: Potsdam, Hiroshima, and the Cold War (Cambridge University Press, 2007). For a useful distillation of the vast literature on this subject, see J. Samuel Walker, Prompt and Utter Destruction: Truman and the Use of Atomic Bombs against Japan (University of North Carolina Press, 1997).
For the impact of wartime bombing of civilians, see Jorg Friedich, Fire: The Bombing of Germany, 1940–45 (Columbia University Press, 2007), and the incomparable John Hersey, Hiroshima (Penguin, 1946). The George Orwell quote is found in Orwell in Tribune: ‘As I Please’ and Other Writings, 1943–7, compiled and edited by Paul Anderson (Politioco’s, 2007).
The Baruch Plan and the Gromyko proposal are found in Joseph M. Siracusa, The American Diplomatic Revolution: A Documentary History of the Cold War, 1941–1947 (Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1976). For a detailed treatment of the Baruch Plan, which contains a fair amount of primary source material, see Leneice N. Wu’s essay in Richard Dean Burns (ed.), Encyclopaedia of Arms Control and Disarmament (3 vols, Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1993), and Richard G. Hewlett and Oscar E. Anderson, Jr, A History of the United States Atomic Energy Commission, vol. 1, The New World, 1939/1946 (University of Pennsylvania, 1962).
The best historical assessments include Barton J. Bernstein, ‘The Quest for Security: American Foreign Policy and International Control of Atomic Energy’, Journal of American History 60 (March 1974), 1003–44; and Larry Gerber, ‘The Baruch Plan and the Origins of the Cold War’, Diplomatic History 6 (Winter 1982), 69–95. The Bush quote is found in the introduction of Thomas C. Reed’s At the Abyss: An Insider’s History of the Cold War (Ballantine Books, 2004).
Portions of this chapter have been adapted from my recent study, with David G. Coleman, Real-World Nuclear Deterrence: The Making of International Strategy (Praeger Security International, 2006). The famous NSC 68 document is found in Joseph M. Siracusa, Into the Dark House: American Diplomacy and the Ideological Origins of the Cold War (Regina Books, 1998).
For the historical context of these years, see Paul Boyer, By the Bomb’s Early Light: American Thought and Culture at the Dawn of the Atomic Age (North Carolina Press, 1994); Michael Mandelbaum, The Nuclear Revolution: International Politics before and after Hiroshima (Cambridge University Press, 1981); and Michael J. Hogan, A Cross of Iron: Harry S. Truman and the Origins of the National Security States, 1945–1954 (Cambridge University Press, 1998).
Also useful are Gregg Herken, The Winning Weapon: The Atomic Bomb in the Cold War, 1945–1950 (Knopf, 1980); Margaret Gowing, Independence and Deterrence: Britain and Atomic Energy, 1945–1952 (Macmillan, 1974); and John Lewis Gaddis et al. (eds) Cold War Statesmen Confront the Bomb (Oxford University Press, 1999).
The Soviet side of this story is told ably in David Holloway, Stalin and the Bomb: The Soviet Union and Atomic Energy, 1939–1956 (Yale University Press, 1994); and Vojtech Mastny, The Cold War and Soviet Insecurity: The Stalin Years (Oxford University Press, 1996).
The growth of the global anti-nuclear campaign, together with the forces, personalities, and events that moulded it, is told in Lawrence S. Wittner’s incomparable multi-volume study, The Struggle against the Bomb (Stanford University Press, 1993).
Indispensable are three works by Raymond L. Garthoff: Deterrence and the Revolution in Soviet Military Doctrine (Brookings Institution, 1990), Soviet Strategy in the Nuclear Age (rev. edn, Praeger, 1962), and Détente and Confrontation: American Soviet Relations from Nixon to Reagan (Brookings Institution, 1985). In this same category I also include Lawrence Freedman’s The Evolution of Nuclear Strategy, 3rd edn (Palgrave Macmillan, 2003) and Deterrence (Polity, 2004).
Still useful on nuclear doctrine are Thomas C. Schelling, Arms and Influence (Yale University Press, 1966), and Glenn H. Snyder, Deterrence and Defence (Princeton University Press, 1961).
Of the several accounts of the Cuban Missile Crisis, Graham Allison and Philip Zelikow’s Essence of Decision: Explaining the Cuban Missile Crisis, 2nd edn (Longman, 1999) is the standard account. Alexandr Fursenko and Timothy Naftali, ‘One Hell of a Gamble’: Khrushchev, Castro and Kennedy, 1958–1964, Secret History of the Cuban Missile Crisis (W. W. Norton, 1997), had unprecedented access to the former Soviet archives, while Ernest R. May and Philip Zelikow, The Kennedy Tapes: Inside the White House during the Cuban Missile Crisis (Belknap Press, 1997), provides transcripts of most of the audio recordings JFK secretly made during the episode.
The treaty milestones of these years are covered in Joseph M. Siracusa and David G. Coleman, Depression to Cold War: A History of America from Herbert Hoover to Ronald Reagan (Praeger, 2002), and Richard Dean Burns (ed.), Encyclopaedia of Arms Control and Disarmament (3 vols, Charles Scribner’s sons, 1993).
Arms control efforts to limit the potential threat of strategic weaponry may be found in McGeorge Bundy, Danger and Survival; J. P. G. Freeman, Britain’s Nuclear Arms Control Policy in the Context of Anglo-American Relations, 1957–68 (St Martin’s Press, 1986); Martin Goldstein, Arms Control and Military Preparedness from Truman to Bush (Peter Lang, 1993); and Robin Ranger, Arms and Politics, 1958–1978: Arms Control in a Changing Political Context (Gage, 1979). Kennedy’s creation of the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency is described by Duncan L. Clarke, Politics of Arms Control: The Role and Effectiveness of the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (Free Press, 1979).
The debate over nuclear testing and negotiation of the limited test ban treaty are detailed in Robert Divine, Blowing on the Wind: The Nuclear Test Ban Debate, 1954–1960 (Oxford University Press, 1978); Glenn Seaborg, Kennedy, Khrushchev and the Test Ban (University of California Press, 1981); Kendrick Oliver, Kennedy, Macmillan, and the Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty (St Martin’s Press, 1998); and William R. Cleave and S. T. Cohen, Nuclear Weapons, Policies, and the Test Ban Issues (Praeger, 1987).
For the Reagan years and arms control, see Strobe Talbott, Deadly Gambits: The Reagan Administration and the Stalemate in Nuclear Arms Control (Knopf, 1984); Kenneth L. Adelman, The Great Universal Embrace: Arms Summitry, a Skeptic’s Account (Simon and Schuster, 1989); and Keith L. Shimko, Images and Arms Control: Perceptions of the Soviet Union in the Reagan Administration (University of Michigan Press, 1991).
Also useful are Alexander L. George and Richard Smoke, Deterrence in American Foreign Policy: Theory and Practice (Columbia University Press, 1974); Fred Kaplan, The Wizards of Armageddon (Simon and Schuster, 1983); and Marc Trachtenberg, History and Strategy (Princeton University Press, 1991).
Overviews include Richard Dean Burns and Lester H. Brune, The Quest for Missile Defenses, 1944–2003 (Regina Books, 2004); Ashton B. Carter and David N. Schwartz (eds), Ballistic Missile Defense (Brookings Institution, 1984); and David B. H. Denoon, Ballistic Missile Defense in the Post-Cold War Era (Westview, 1995). For Soviet/Russian developments, see Pavel Podvig (ed.), Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces (MIT Press, 2001) and Steven J. Zaloga, The Kremlin’s Nuclear Sword: The Rise and Fall of Russia’s Strategic Nuclear Forces, 1945–2000 (Smithsonian Institution Press, 2002).
The 1968 debates over deployment are covered in Edward R. Jayne, The ABM Debate: Strategic Defense and National Security (Center for Strategic Studies, 1969); Abram Chayes and Jerome Wiesner (eds), ABM: An Evaluation of the Decision to Deploy an Antiballistic Missile System (Harper and Row, 1969); and Ernest J. Yanarella, The Missile Defense Controversy: Strategy, Technology, and Politics, 1955–1972 (University Press of Kentucky, 1977).
For the Reagan administration’s efforts to reinterpret the ABM treaty, see Raymond L. Garthoff, Policy Versus the Law: The Reinterpretation of the ABM Treaty (Brookings Institution Press, 1987). For Reagan’s initiative, consult William L. Broad, Teller’s War: The Top Secret Story Behind the Star Wars’ Deception (Simon and Schuster, 1992) and Frances Fitzgerald, Way Out There in the Blue: Reagan, Star Wars and the End of the Cold War (Simon and Schuster, 2000).
In addition to the works noted in Chapter 1, see Stephen J. Cimbala, Nuclear Strategy in the Twenty-First Century (Praeger, 2000).
The importance of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty is discussed in Ted Greenwood, Harold A. Feiveson, and Theodore A. Taylor, Nuclear Proliferation: Motivations, Capabilities and Strategies for Control (McGraw-Hill, 1977); Michael P. Fry, Patrick Keatinge, and Joseph Rotblat (eds), Nuclear Non-Proliferation and the Non-Proliferation Treaty (Springer-Verlag, 1990); David Fischer, Stopping the Spread of Nuclear Weapons: The Past and the Prospects (Taylor and Francis, 1992); and T. V. Paul, Power Versus Prudence: Why Nations Forgo Nuclear Weapons (McGill-Queens University Press, 2000).
For the rise and fall of Dr A. Q. Khan and his nuclear black market, see William Langewiesche, The Atomic Bazaar: The Rise of the Nuclear Poor (Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2007) and Nuclear Black Markets: Pakistan, A. Q. Khan and the Rise of Proliferation Networks (International Institute for Strategic Studies, London, 2007).
Recent studies of how not to deal with North Korea are Marion V. Creekmore, Jr, A Moment of Crisis: Jimmy Carter, the Power of a Peacemaker, and North Korea’s Nuclear Ambitions (Public Affairs, 2007); Gordon D. Chang, Nuclear Showdown: North Korea Takes on the World (Random House, 2007); and Jasper Becker, Rogue Regime: Kim Jong Il and the Looming Threat of North Korea (Oxford University Press, 2007).
For the problems and prospects of the proliferation of nuclear weapons states in South Asia, see Devin T. Hagerty, The Consequences of Nuclear Proliferation: Lessons from South Asia (MIT Press, 1998); George Perkovich, India’s Nuclear Bomb: The Impact on Global Proliferation (University of California Press, 1999); and K. K. Pathak, Nuclear Policy of India: A Third World Perspective (Gitanjali Prakashan, 1980).
For an account of nuclear ‘know-how’ gone astray, consult John McPhee, The Curve of Binding Energy (Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1974). And to understand how easy it would be for a terrorist organization to assemble an atomic bomb, see Peter D. Zimmerman and Jeffrey G. Lewis, ‘The Bomb in the Backyard’, Foreign Policy (November–December 2006), 33–9.