ثبت المراجع

I have written Life Ascending mostly from primary sources, but the books highlighted below were all sources of insight and enjoyment for me. I don’t agree with everything in all of them, but that is part of the pleasure of a good book. Most are written for the general reader and are original scientific works in the tradition of The Origin of Species itself. Alphabetical order.
  • David Beerling The Emerald Planet (OUP, 2006). A splendid book on the impact of plants on the history of our planet. Colourful extended vignettes of evolution.
  • Susan Blackmore Conversations on Consciousness (OUP, 2005). An admirably level-headed attempt to canvas and make sense of the conflicting views of leading scientists and philosophers on consciousness.
  • Jacob Bronowski The Ascent of Man (Little, Brown, 1974). The book of the TV series. Magnificent.
  • Graham Cairns-Smith Seven Clues to the Origin of Life (CUP, 1982). Scientifically an old book now, but unequalled for its Sherlock Holmesian. examination of the clues at the heart of life’s chemistry.
  • ———, Evolving the Mind (CUP, 1998). An excellent and unusual defence of quantum theories of consciousness from a determinedly individual thinker.
  • Francis Crick Life Itself (Simon & Schuster, 1981). An indefensible hypothesis defended by one of the finest scientific minds of the twentieth century. Dated, but still worth a read.
  • Antonio Damasio The Feeling of What Happens (Vintage Books, 2000). One of several books by Damasio, all well worth a read. Poetic and intense; at its best on neurology, and weakest on evolution..
  • Charles Darwin The Origin of Species (Penguin, 1985). Among the most important books ever written.
  • Paul Davies The Origin of Life. (Penguin, 2006). A fine book, if perhaps prone to see too many obstacles.
  • Richard Dawkins Climbing Mount Improbable (Viking, 1996). One of surprisingly few popular books to deal explicitly with the evolution of complex traits like eyes, in Dawkins’ inimitable style.
  • ———, The Selfish Gene (OUP, 1976). One of the defining books of our age. A must-read.
  • Daniel Dennett Consciousness Explained (Little, Brown, 1991). A controversial classic that can’t be ignored.
  • Derek Denton The Primordial Emotions (OUP, 2005). An eloquent book with an important thesis, all the better for its excellent discussions of the work of other researchers and philosophers.
  • Christian de Duve Singularities (CUP, 2005). A densely argued book, encapsulating much of de Duve’s clear thinking. Not for the chemically faint-hearted, but the distillations of a fine mind.
  • ———, Life Evolving (OUP, 2002). An elegiac book on the biochemical evolution of life and our place in the universe. It reads like a swan song, but in fact precedes Singularities.
  • Gerald Edelman Wider than the Sky (Penguin, 2004). A slim but dense volume, and a good introduction to Edelman’s important ideas.
  • Richard Fortey Trilobite! (HarperCollins 2000). A delight, as are all Fortey’s books, and especially good on the evolution of the trilobites’ crystal eye.
  • Tibor Ganti The Principles of Life (OUP, 2003). An original take on the fundamental make-up of life, if lacking in real-world biochemistry. I reluctantly did not discuss his ideas.
  • Steven Jay Gould The Structure of Evolutionary Theory (Harvard University Press, 2002). A serious work of scholarship, but with flashes of Gould’s customary panache; a goldmine of interesting material.
  • Franklin Harold The Way of the Cell (OUP, 2001). A wonderful, insightful book on the cell, full of the poetry of deep science. Not always easy but well worth the effort.
  • Steve Jones The Language of the Genes (Flamingo, 2000). Wonderful introduction to the gene; effervescent.
  • ———, Almost like a Whale (Doubleday, 1999). Darwin updated with panache and deep learning.
  • Horace Freeland Judson The Eighth Day of Creation (Cold Spring Harbor Press, 1996). A seminal tome: interviews with the pioneers of molecular biology, at the dawn of an era.
  • Tom Kirkwood Time of Our Lives (Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1999). One of the best introductions to the biology of ageing, by a pioneer in the field; a humane work of science.
  • Andre Klarsfeld and Frederic Revah The Biology of Death (Cornell University Press, 2004). A thoughtful examination of aging and death, from the point of view of the cell. A rare meld of evolution and medicine.
  • Andrew Knoll Life on a Young Planet (Princeton University Press, 2003). A fine, accessible view of early evolution by one of the leading protagonists. Wise counsel.
  • Christof Koch The Quest for Consciousness (Roberts & Co, 2004). A textbook, and not an easy read, but full of flair and insight. A fine and balanced mind enquiring into the mind.
  • Marek Kohn A Reason for Everything (Faber and Faber, 2004). Short biographies of five British evolutionists, full of eloquence and insight. Very good on the evolution of sex.
  • Michael Land and Dan-Eric Nilsson Animal Eyes (OUP, Oxford, 2002). A textbook on animal optics, accessibly written and conveying well the exuberant ingenuity of evolution.
  • Nick Lane Power, Sex, Suicide (OUP, 2005). My own exploration of cell biology and the evolution of complexity, from the point of view of cellular energy.
  • ———, Oxygen (OUP, 2002). A history of life on earth with the gas that made complex life possible, oxygen, taking centre-stage.
  • Primo Levi The Periodic Table (Penguin, 1988). Not really a science book at all, but brimming with poetry, humanity and science. A master literary craftsman.
  • Lynn Margulis and Dorion Sagan Microcosmos (University of California Press, 1997). A fine introduction to the grand scale of the microcosm from one of the iconic figures in biology, no stranger to controversy.
  • Bill Martin and Miklós Müller Origin of Mitochondria and Hydrogenosomes (Springer, 2007). A scholarly multi-author text on a seminal event in evolution: disparate views of the eukaryotic cell.
  • John Maynard Smith and Eörs Szathmáry The Origins of Life (OUP, 1999). A popular reworking of their classic text The Major Transitions in Evolution (WH Freeman/Spektrum, 1995). A major work by great intellects.
  • John Maynard Smith Did Darwin get it Right? (Penguin, 1988). Accessible essays, some on the evolution of sex, by the late guru of evolutionary biologists.
  • Oliver Morton Eating the Sun (Fourth Estate, 2007). A gem of a book, combining a novelist’s insight into people and place with a deep feeling for molecules and planets. Especially good on the carbon crisis.
  • Andrew Parker In the Blink of an Eye (Free Press, 2003). Much to savour, despite a rather blinkered view.
  • Vilayanur Ramachandran The Emerging Mind (Profile, 2003). Ramachandran’s 2003 Reith lectures, essentially his earlier book Phantoms in the Brain in compressed form. An original and imaginative mind at play.
  • Mark Ridley Mendel’s Demon (Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2000). An intellectual treat, lacing its profound material on the evolution of complexity with grave wit.
  • Matt Ridley The Red Queen (Penguin, 1993). A seminal book on the evolution of sex and sexual behaviour; insightful and full of Ridley’s trademark flair.
  • ———, Francis Crick (HarperPress, 2006). A first-rate biography of one of the most interesting figures in twentieth century science. Nicely nuanced, without ever jeopardising his love of the subject.
  • Steven Rose The Making of Memory (Vintage 2003). A fine book on the neural events underlying memory, at its best on the social framework of science.
  • Ian Stewart and Jack Cohen Figments of Reality (CUP, 1997). An eclectic, witty and erudite look at consciousness. Entertaining and opinionated.
  • Peter Ward Out of Thin Air (Joseph Henry Press, 2006). A serious and original hypothesis about why dinosaurs were dominant for so long. Accessible and compelling.
  • Carl Zimmer Parasite Rex (The Free Press, 2000). A superb book on the importance of parasites, with an excellent section on the role of parasites in the evolution of sex.

المصادر الرئيسية

Francis Crick once complained that ‘There is no form of prose more difficult to understand and more tedious to read than the average scientific paper’. He had a point—but he did use the word ‘average’. At their best, scientific papers can be pure distillations of meaning, and capable of exercising as much pull on the mind as a work of art. I have tried to limit my list here to papers of that calibre: this is not an exhaustive list, but a selection of the papers that most influenced my thinking in writing this book. I’ve also added a few general reviews as entrées into the literature. Alphabetical order by chapter.

مقدمة

  • Russell R. J., Gerike U., Danson M. J., Hough D. W., Taylor G. L. Structural adaptations of the cold-active citrate synthase from an Antarctic bacterium. Structure 6: 351–61; 1998.

الفصل الأول: أصل الحياة

  • Fyfe W. S. The water inventory of the Earth: fluids and tectonics. Geological Society, London, Special Publications 78: 1–7; 1994.
  • Holm N. G., et al. Alkaline fluid circulation in ultramafic rocks and formation of nucleotide constituents: a hypothesis. Geochemical Transactions 7: 7; 2006.
  • Huber C., Wächtershäuser G. Peptides by activation of amino acids with CO on (Ni,Fe)S surfaces: implications for the origin of life. Science 281: 670–72; 1998.
  • Kelley D. S., Karson J. A., Fruh-Green G. L. et al. A serpentinite-hosted ecosystem: the Lost City hydrothermal field. Science 307: 1428–34; 2005.
  • Martin W., Baross J., Kelley D., Russell M. J. Hydrothermal vents and the origin of life. Nature Reviews in Microbiology 6: 805–14; 2008.
  • Martin W., Russell M. J. On the origin of biochemistry at an alkaline hydrothermal vent. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 362: 1887–925; 2007.
  • Morowitz H., Smith E. Energy flow and the organisation of life. Complexity 13: 51–9; 2007.
  • Proskurowski G., et al. Abiogenic hydrocarbon production at Lost City hydrothermal field. Science 319: 604–7; 2008.
  • Russell M. J., Martin W. The rocky roots of the acetyl CoA pathway. Trends in Biochemical Sciences 29: 358–63; 2004.
  • Russell M. First Life. American Scientist 94: 32–9; 2006.
  • Smith E., Morowitz H. J. Universality in intermediary metabolism. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 101: 13168–73; 2004.
  • Wächtershäuser G. From volcanic origins of chemoautotrophic life to bacteria, archaea and eukarya. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 361: 1787–806; 2006.

الفصل الثاني: دي إن إيه

  • Baaske P., et al. Extreme accumulation of nucleotides in simulated hydrothermal pore systems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 104: 9346–51; 2007.
  • Copley S. D., Smith E., Morowitz H. J. A mechanism for the association of amino acids with their codons and the origin of the genetic code. PNAS 102: 4442–7; 2005.
  • Crick F. H. C. The origin of the genetic code. Journal of Molecular Biology 38: 367–79; 1968.
  • De Duve C. The onset of selection. Nature 433: 581-2; 2005.
  • Freeland S. J., Hurst L. D. The genetic code is one in a million. Journal of Molecular Evolution 47: 238–48; 1998.
  • Gilbert W. The RNA world. Nature 319: 618; 1986.
  • Hayes B. The invention of the genetic code. American Scientist 86: 8–14; 1998.
  • Koonin E. V., Martin W. On the origin of genomes and cells within inorganic compartments. Trends in Genetics 21: 647–54; 2005.
  • Leipe D., Aravind L., Koonin E. V. Did DNA replication evolve twice independently? Nucleic Acids Research 27: 3389–401; 1999.
  • Martin W., Russell M. J. On the origins of cells: a hypothesis for the evolutionary transitions from abiotic geochemistry to chemoautotrophic prokaryotes, and from prokaryotes to nucleated cells. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B. 358: 59–83; 2003.
  • Taylor F. J. R., Coates D. The code within the codons. Biosystems 22: 177–87; 1989.
  • Watson J. D., Crick F. H. C. A structure for deoxyribose nucleic acid. Nature 171: 737-8; 1953.

الفصل الثالث: عملية البناء الضوئي

  • Allen J. F., Martin W. Out of thin air. Nature 445: 610–12; 2007.
  • Allen J. F. A redox switch hypothesis for the origin of two light reactions in photosynthesis. FEBS Letters 579: 963–68; 2005.
  • Dalton R. Squaring up over ancient life. Nature 417: 782–4; 2002.
  • Ferreira K. N. et al. Architecture of the photosynthetic oxygen-evolving center. Science 303: 1831–8; 2004.
  • Mauzerall D. Evolution of porphyrins—life as a cosmic imperative. Clinics in Dermatology 16: 195–201; 1998.
  • Olson J. M., Blankenship R. E. Thinking about photosynthesis. Photosynthesis Research 80: 373–86; 2004.
  • Russell M. J., Allen J. F., Milner-White E. J. Inorganic complexes enabled the onset of life and oxygenic photosynthesis. In Energy from the Sun: 14th International Congress on Photosynthesis, Allen J. F., Gantt E., Golbeck J. H., Osmond B. (editors). Springer 1193–8; 2008.
  • Sadekar S., Raymond J., Blankenship R. E. Conservation of distantly related membrane proteins: photosynthetic reaction centers share a common structural core. Molecular Biology and Evolution 23: 2001–7; 2006.
  • Sauer K., Yachandra V. K. A possible evolutionary origin for the Mn4 cluster of the photosynthetic water oxidation complex from natural MnO2 precipitates in the early ocean. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 99: 8631–6; 2002.
  • Walker D. A. The Z-scheme—Down Hill all the way. Trends in Plant Sciences 7: 183–5; 2002.
  • Yano J., et al. Where water is oxidised to dioxygen: structure of the photosynthetic Mn4Ca cluster. Science 314: 821–5; 2006.

الفصل الرابع: الخلية المعقدة

  • Cox C. J., et al. The archaebacterial origin of eukaryotes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 105: 20356–61; 2008.
  • Embley M. T., Martin W. Eukaryotic evolution, changes and challenges. Nature 440: 623–30; 2006.
  • Javaeux E. J. The early eukaryotic fossil record. In: Origins and Evolution of Eukaryotic Endomembranes and Cytoskeleton (Ed. Gáspár Jékely); Landes Bioscience 2006.
  • Koonin E. V. The origin of introns and their role in eukaryogenesis: a compromise solution to the introns-early versus introns-late debate? Biology Direct 1: 22; 2006.
  • Lane N. Mitochondria: key to complexity. In: Origin of Mitochondria and Hydrogenosomes (Eds Martin W, Müller M); Springer, 2007.
  • Martin W., Koonin E. V. Introns and the origin of nucleus-cytosol compartmentalisation. Nature 440: 41–5; 2006.
  • Martin W., Müller M. The hydrogen hypothesis for the first eukaryote. Nature 392: 37–41; 1998.
  • Pisani D., Cotton J. A., Mclnerney J. O. Supertrees disentangle the chimerical origin of eukaryotic genomes. Molecular Biology and Evolution 24: 1752–60; 2007.
  • Sagan L. On the origin of mitosing cells. Journal of Theoretical Biology 14: 255–74; 1967.
  • Simonson A. B., et al. Decoding the genomic tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 102: 6608–13; 2005.
  • Taft R. J., Pheasant M., Mattick J. S. The relationship between non-protein-coding DNA and eukaryotic complexity. BioEssays 29: 288–99; 2007.
  • Vellai T., Vida G. The difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 266: 1571–7; 1999.

الفصل الخامس: التكاثر الجنسي

  • Burt A. Sex, recombination, and the efficacy of selection: was Weismann right? Evolution 54: 337–51; 2000.
  • Butlin R. The costs and benefits of sex: new insights from old asexual lineages. Nature Reviews in Genetics 3: 311–17; 2002.
  • Cavalier-Smith T. Origins of the machinery of recombination and sex. Heredity 88: 125–41; 2002.
  • Dacks J., Roger A. J. The first sexual lineage and the relevance of facultative sex. Journal of Molecular Evolution 48: 779–83; 1999.
  • Felsenstein J. The evolutionary advantage of recombination. Genetics 78: 737–56; 1974.
  • Hamilton W. D., Axelrod R., Tanese R. Sexual reproduction as an adaptation to resist parasites. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 87: 3566–73; 1990.
  • Howard R. S., Lively C. V. Parasitism, mutation accumulation and the maintenance of sex. Nature 367: 554–7; 1994.
  • Keightley P. D., Otto S. P. Interference among deleterious mutations favours sex and recombination in finite populations. Nature 443: 89–92; 2006.
  • Kondrashov A. Deleterious mutations and the evolution of sexual recombination. Nature 336: 435–40; 1988.
  • Otto S. P., Nuismer S. L. Species interactions and the evolution of sex. Science 304: 1018–20; 2004.
  • Szollosi G. J., Derenyi I., Vellai T. The maintenance of sex in bacteria is ensured by its potential to reload genes. Genetics 174: 2173–80; 2006.

الفصل السادس: الحركة

  • Amos L. A., van den Ent F., Lowe J. Structural/functional homology between the bacterial and eukaryotic cytoskeletons. Current Opinion in Cell Biology 16: 24–31; 2004.
  • Frixione E. Recurring views on the structure and function of the cytoskeleton: a 300 year epic. Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 46: 73–94; 2000.
  • Huxley H. E., Hanson J. Changes in the cross striations of muscle during contraction and stretch and their structural interpretation. Nature 173: 973–1954.
  • Huxley H. E., A personal view of muscle and motility mechanisms. Annual Review of Physiology 58: 1–19; 1996.
  • Mitchison T. J. Evolution of a dynamic cytoskeleton. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 349: 299–304; 1995.
  • Nachmias V. T., Huxley H., Kessler D. Electron microscope observations on actomyosin and actin preparations from Physarum polycephalum, and on their interaction with heavy meromyosin subfragment I from muscle myosin. Journal of Molecular Biology 50: 83–90; 1970.
  • OOta S., Saitou N. Phylogenetic relationship of muscle tissues deduced from superimposition of gene trees. Molecular Biology and Evolution 16: 856–67; 1999.
  • Piccolino M. Animal electricity and the birth of electrophysiology: The legacy of Luigi Galvani. Brain Research Bulletin 46: 381–407; 1998.
  • Richards T. A., Cavalier-Smith T. Myosin domain evolution and the primary divergence of eukaryotes. Nature 436: 1113–18; 2005.
  • Swank D. M., Vishnudas V. K., Maughan D. W. An exceptionally fast actomyosin reaction powers insect flight muscle. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 103: 17543–7; 2006.
  • Wagner P. J., Kosnik M. A., Lidgard S. Abundance distributions imply elevated complexity of post-paleozoic marine ecosystems. Science 314: 1289–92; 2006.

الفصل السابع: الإبصار

  • Addadi L., Weiner S. Control and Design Principles in Biological Mineralisation. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 3: 153–69; 1992.
  • Aizenberg J., et al. Calcitic microlenses as part of the photoreceptor system in brittlestars. Nature 412: 819–22; 2001.
  • Arendt D., et al. Ciliary photoreceptors with a vertebrate-type opsin in an invertebrate brain. Science 306: 869–71; 2004.
  • Deininger W., Fuhrmann M., Hegemann P. Opsin evolution: out of wild green yonder? Trends in Genetics 16: 158-9; 2000.
  • Gehring W. J. Historical perspective on the development and evolution of eyes and photoreceptors. International Journal of Developmental Biology 48: 707–17; 2004.
  • Gehring W. J. New perspectives on eye development and the evolution of eyes and photoreceptors. Journal of Heredity 96: 171–84; 2005.
  • Nilsson D. E., Pelger S. A pessimistic estimate of the time required for an eye to evolve. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 256: 53–8; 1994.
  • Panda S., et al. Illumination of the melanopsin signaling pathway. Science 307: 600–604; 2005.
  • Piatigorsky J. Seeing the light: the role of inherited developmental cascades in the origins of vertebrate lenses and their crystallins. Heredity 96: 275–77; 2006.
  • Shi Y., Yokoyama S. Molecular analysis of the evolutionary significance of ultraviolet vision in vertebrates. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 100: 8308–13; 2003.
  • Van Dover C. L., et al. A novel eye in ‘eyeless’ shrimp from hydrothermal vents on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Nature 337: 458–60; 1989.
  • White S. N., et al. Ambient light emission from hydrothermal vents on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Geophysical Research Letters 29: 341–4; 2000.

الفصل الثامن: الدم الحار

  • Burness G. P., Diamond J., Flannery T. Dinosaurs, dragons, and dwarfs: the evolution of maximal body size. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 98: 14518–23; 2001.
  • Hayes J. P., Garland J. The evolution of endothermy: testing the aerobic capacity model. Evolution 49: 836–47; 1995.
  • Hulbert A. J., Else P. L. Membranes and the setting of energy demand. Journal of Experimental Biology 208: 1593–99; 2005.
  • Kirkland J. I., et al. A primitive therizinosauroid dinosaur from the Early Cretaceous of Utah. Nature 435: 84–7; 2005.
  • Klaassen M., Nolet B. A. Stoichiometry of endothermy: shifting the quest from nitrogen to carbon. Ecology Letters 11: 1–8; 2008.
  • Lane N. Reading the book of death. Nature 448: 122–5; 2007.
  • O’Connor P. M., Claessens L. P. A. M. Basic avian pulmonary design and flow-through ventilation in non-avian theropod dinosaurs. Nature 436: 253–6; 2005.
  • Organ C. L., et al. Molecular phylogenetics of Mastodon and Tyrannosaurus rex. Science 320: 499; 2008.
  • Prum R. O., Brush A. H. The evolutionary origin and diversification of feathers. Quarterly Review of Biology 77: 261–95; 2002.
  • Sawyer R. H., Knapp L. W. Avian skin development and the evolutionary origin of feathers. Journal of Experimental Zoology 298B: 57–72; 2003.
  • Seebacher F. Dinosaur body temperatures: the occurrence of endothermy and ectothermy. Paleobiology 29: 105–22; 2003.
  • Walter I., Seebacher F. Molecular mechanisms underlying the development of endothermy in birds (Gallus gallus): a new role of PGC-1α? American Journal of Physiology Regul Integr Comp Physiol 293: R2315–22, 2007.

الفصل التاسع: الوعي

  • Churchland P. How do neurons know? Daedalus Winter 2004; 42–50.
  • Crick F., Koch C. A framework for consciousness. Nature Neuroscience 6: 119–26; 2003.
  • Denton D. A., et al. The role of primordial emotions in the evolutionary origin of consciousness. Consciousness and Cognition 18: 500–514; 2009.
  • Edelman G., Gally J. A. Degeneracy and complexity in biological systems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 98: 13763–68; 2001.
  • Edelman G. Consciousness: the remembered present. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 929: 111–22; 2001.
  • Gil M., De Marco R. j., Menzel R. Learning reward expectations in honeybees. Learning and Memory 14: 49–96; 2007.
  • Koch C., Greenfield S. How does consciousness happen? Scientific American October 2007; 76–83.
  • Lane N. Medical constraints on the quantum mind. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 93: 571–5; 2000.
  • Merker B. Consciousness without a cerebral cortex: A challenge for neuroscience and medicine. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30: 63–134; 2007.
  • Musacchio J. M. The ineffability of qualia and the word-anchoring problem. Language Sciences 27: 403–35; 2005.
  • Searle J. How to study consciousness scientifically. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 353: 1935–42; 1998.
  • Singer W. Consciousness and the binding problem. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 929: 123–46; 2001.

الفصل العاشر: الموت

  • Almeida A., Almeida J., Bolaños J. P., Moncada S. Different responses of astrocytes and neurons to nitric oxide: the role of glycolytically-generated ATP in astrocyte protection. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 98: 15294–99; 2001.
  • Barja G. Mitochondrial oxygen consumption and reactive oxygen species production are independently modulated: implications for aging studies. Rejuvenation Research 10: 215–24; 2007.
  • Bauer et al. Resveratrol improves health and survival of mice on a high-calorie diet. Nature 444: 280-81; 2006.
  • Bidle K. D., Falkowski P. G. Cell death in planktonic, photosynthetic microorganisms. Nature Reviews in Microbiology 2: 643–55; 2004.
  • Blagosklonny M. V. An anti-aging drug today: from senescence-promoting genes to anti-aging pill. Drug Discovery Today 12: 218–24; 2007.
  • Bonawitz N. D., et al. Reduced TOR signaling extends chronological life span via increased respiration and upregulation of mitochondrial gene expression. Cell Metabolism 5: 265–77; 2007.
  • Garber K. A mid-life crisis for aging theory. Nature 26: 371–4; 2008.
  • Hunter P. Is eternal youth scientifically plausible? EMBO Reports 8: 18–20; 2007.
  • Kirkwood T. Understanding the odd science of aging. Cell 120: 437–47; 2005.
  • Lane N. A unifying view of aging and disease: the double-agent theory. Journal of Theoretical Biology 225: 531–40; 2003.
  • Lane N. Origins of death. Nature 453: 583–5; 2008.
  • Tanaka M., et al. Mitochondrial genotype associated with longevity. Lancet 351: 185-6; 1998.

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