مصادر الصور

  • (1-1) From O. Benfey, ‘Precursors and Cocursors of the Mendeleev Table: The Pythagorean Spirit in Element Classification’, Bulletin for the History of Chemistry, 13-14, 60–66, 1992-1993, figure on p. 60. By permission from the publisher.
  • (1-2) From A–L. Lavoisier, Traite Elementaire de Chimie, Cuchet, Paris, 1789, p. 192.
  • (2-2) From D. I. Mendeleev, ‘Sootnoshenie svoistv s atomnym vesom elementov’, Zhurnal Russkeo Fiziko-Khimicheskoe Obshcestv, 1, 60–77, 1869, table on p. 70.
  • (3-1) From L. Gmelin, Handbuch der anorganischen chemie 4th ed, Heidelberg, 1843, vol 1, p. 52.
  • (4-1) From A. E. Beguyer De Chancourtois, ‘Vis Tellurique: Classement naturel des corps simples ou radicaux, obtenu au moyen d’un systeme de classification helicoidale et numerique’, Comptes Rendus de L’Academie, 54, 757–761, 840–843, 967–971, 1862. Redrawn in J. van Spronsen, The Periodic System of the Chemical Elements, the First One Hundred Years, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1969, p. 99. By permission from the publisher.
  • (4-2) From J. A. R. Newlands, ‘On Relations among the Equivalents’, Chemical News, 7, 70–72, 1863, table on p. 71.
  • (4-3) From G. D. Hinrich, Programm der Atomechanik oder die Chemie eine Mechanik de Pantome, Augustus Hageboek, Iowa City, IA, 1867. As simplified by J. van Spronsen, The Periodic System of the Chemical Elements, the First One Hundred Years, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1969. By permission from the publisher.
  • (4-4) From J. Lothar Meyer, Die modern theorien und ihre Bedeutung fur die chemische Statisik, Breslau (Wroclaw), 1864, p. 135.
  • (4-5) From J. Lothar Meyer, unpublished system of 1868.
  • (6-1) AIP Emilio Segrè Visual Archives, W. F. Meggers Gallery of Nobel Laureates.
  • (7-2) From G. N. Lewis, unpublished memorandum of March 28, 1902.
  • (7-3) From A. Stranges, Electrons and Valence, Texas A&M University Press, College Station, TX, 1982, p. 213. By permission from the publisher.
  • (7-4) From W. Langmuir, ‘Arrangement of Electrons in Atoms and Molecules’, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 41, 868–934, 1919, p. 874.
  • (8-1) AIP Emilio Segrè Visual Archives, Weber Collection.
  • (8-2) From E. Clementi, Computational Aspects of Large Chemical Systems, Lecture Notes in Chemistry, vol 19, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980, p. 12. By permission from the publisher.
  • (8-3) From R. Chang, Physical Chemistry for the Chemical Biological Sciences, University Science Books, Sausalito, CA, 2000, p. 576. By permission from the publisher.

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