المراجع

Every chapter of the book reflects concepts and methods presented in the volumes listed in the Further reading section. Here key references are quoted specific to the narrative material and to the examples of each chapter, enabling the interested reader to locate their sources.

الفصل الأول

  • M. G. Reynolds, B. H. Anh, V. H. Thu, J. M. Montgomery, D. G. Bausch, J. J. Shah et al., ‘Factors associated with nosocomial SARS-CoV transmission among healthcare workers in Hanoi, Vietnam, 2003’, BMC Public Health 6 (2006), 207–16.
  • R. Porter, The Greatest Benefit to Mankind (HarperCollins, 1997).
  • R. Saracci, ‘Introducing the history of epidemiology’, in J. Olsen, R. Saracci, and D. Trichopoulos (eds.), Teaching Epidemiology, 3rd edn. (Oxford University Press, 2009), pp. 1–19.
  • A. Morabia (ed.), History of Epidemiologic Methods and Concepts (Birkhäuser Verlag, 2004).
  • C. Buck, A. Llopis, E. Najera, and M. Terris (eds.), The Challenges of Epidemiology: Issues and Selected Readings (PAHO, 1988).
  • M. Porta (ed.), A Dictionary of Epidemiology (Oxford University Press, 2008), p. 81.
  • J. N. Morris, Uses of Epidemiology, 2nd edn. (Livingstone, 1964).

الفصل الثاني

  • World Health Organization, Basic Documents, 46th edn. (World Health Organization, 2007), p. 1.
  • A. S. Fauci, E. Braunwald, D. L. Kasper, S. L. Hauser, D. L. Longo, J. L. Jameson, and J. Loscalzo, Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine, 17th edn. (McGraw-Hill, 2008).
  • World Health Organization, International Classification of Diseases (http://www.who.int/classifications/icd/en/, accessed 2009).

الفصل الثالث

  • J. Perlea, Causality, 2nd edn. (Cambridge University Press, 2009).
  • S. Greenland (ed.), Evolution of Epidemiologic Ideas: Annotated Readings on Concepts and Methods (Epidemiology Resources, 1987).
  • These two references are also directly relevant to Chapter 4.

الفصل الرابع

  • Royal College of Physicians, Smoking and Health (Pitman, 1962). Advisory Committee to the Surgeon General of the Public Health Service, Smoking and Health (US Department of Health, Education and Welfare, 1964).
  • A. Bradford Hill, ‘The environment and disease: Association or causation?’, Proc R Soc Med 58 (1965), 295–300.
  • G. Rose, ‘Sick individuals and sick populations’, Int J Epidemiol 14 (1985), 32–8.
  • G. Rose, Rose’s Strategy of Preventive Medicine, with a commentary by K. T. Khaw and M. Marmot (Oxford University Press, 2008).
  • R. Pearl, ‘Tobacco smoking and longevity’, Science 87 (1938), 216-17.
  • R. Doll and A. Bradford Hill, ‘Smoking and carcinoma of the lung’, BMJ ii (1950), 739–48.
  • E. L. Wynder and E. A. Graham, ‘Tobacco smoking as a possible etiologic factor in bronchogenic carcinoma: A study of six hundred and eighty-four proved cases’, JAMA 143 (1950), 329–36.
  • M. L. Levin, H. Goldstein, and P. R. Gerhardt, ‘Cancer and tobacco smoking: A preliminary report’, JAMA 143 (1950), 336–8.
  • R. Doll, R. Peto, K. Wheatley, R. Gray, and I. Sutherland, ‘Mortality in relation to smoking: 40 years’ observations on male British doctors’, BMJ 309 (1994), 901–11.
  • R. Doll, R. Peto, J. Boreham, and I. Sutherland, ‘Mortality in relation to smoking: 50 years’ observations on male British doctors’, BMJ 328 (2004), 1519–27.
  • International Agency for Research on Cancer, Tobacco Smoke and Involuntary Smoking (International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2004).

الفصل الخامس

  • T. Francis et al., ‘An evaluation of the 1954 Poliomyelitis Vaccine Trials, Summary Report’, Am J Publ Health 45 (1955), 1–63.
  • F. M. Sacks, G. A. Bray, V. J. Carey, S. R. Smith, D. H. Ryan, S. D. Anton et al., ‘Comparison of weight-loss diet with different compositions of fat, protein and carbohydrates’, N Engl J Med 360 (2009), 859–73.
  • Medical Research Council, ‘Streptomycin treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis’, BMJ ii (1948), 769–82.
  • The Gambia Hepatitis Study Group, ‘The Gambia Hepatitis Intervention Study’, Cancer Res 47 (1987), 5782–7.
  • G. D. Kirk, E. Bah, and R. Montesano, ‘Molecular epidemiology of human liver cancer: Insights into etiology, pathogenesis and prevention from the Gambia, West Africa’, Carcinogenesis 27 (2006), 2070–82.
  • R. Doll, R. Peto, J. Boreham, and I. Sutherland, ‘Mortality in relation to smoking: 50 years’ observations on male British doctors’, BMJ 328 (2004), 1519–27.
  • The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study Group, ‘The effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence of lung cancer and other cancers in male smokers’, N Engl J Med 330 (1994), 1029–35.
  • M. J. Barry, ‘Screening for prostate cancer: The controversy that refuses to die’, N Engl J Med 360 (2009), 1351–4.

الفصل السادس

  • E. Riboli, K. J. Hunt, N. Slimani, P. Ferrari, T. Norat, M. Fahey et al., ‘European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)’, Public Health Nutrition 5 (6B, 2002), 1113–24.
  • C. A. Gonzalez, ‘The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)’, Public Health Nutr 9 (1A, 2006), 124–6.
  • J. Danesh, R. Saracci, G. Berglund, E. Feskens, K. Overvad, S. Panico et al., ‘Epic-Heart: The cardiovascular component of a prospective study of nutritional, lifestyle and biological factors in 520,000 middle-aged participants from 10 European countries’, Eur J Epidemiol 22 (2007), 129–41.
  • J. Olsen, M. Melbye, S. F. Olsen, T. I. A. Sørensen, P. Aaby, A. N. Nybo Andersen et al., ‘The Danish National Birth Cohort: Its background, structure and aim’, Scand J Public Health 29 (2001), 300–7.
  • UK Biobank, at http://www.ukbiobank.ac.uk, accessed 2009.
  • M. J. Pencina, R. B. D’Agostino Sr, M. G. Larson, J. M. Massaro, and R. S. Vasan, ‘Predicting the 30-year risk of cardiovascular disease: The Framingham heart study’, Circulation 119 (2009), 3078–84.
  • A. Morabia and R. Guthold, ‘Wilhelm Weinberg 1913 large retrospective cohort study: A rediscovery’, Am J Epidemiol 165 (2007), 727–33.
  • I. J. Selikoff, E. C. Hammond, and J. Churg, ‘Asbestos, smoking and neoplasia’, JAMA 204 (1968), 104–10.

الفصل السابع

  • R. Macbeth, ‘Malignant disease of the paranasal sinuses’, J Laringol 79 (1965), 592–612.
  • A. L. Herbst, H. Ulfelder, and D. C. Poskanzer, ‘Association of maternal stilbestrol therapy with tumor appearance in young women’, N Engl J Med 284 (1971), 878–81.
  • J. T. Boyd and R. Doll, ‘A study of the aetiology of carcinoma of the cervix uteri’, Brit J Cancer 18 (1964), 419–34.
  • N. Munoz, F. X. Bosch, S. de Sanjosé, L. Tafur, I. Izarzugaza, M. Gili et al., ‘The causal link between human papilloma virus and invasive cervical cancer: A population-based case-control study in Colombia and Spain’, Int J Cancer 52 (1992), 743–9.
  • E. L. Franco, F. Coutlée, and A. Fernczy, ‘Integrating human papillomavirus vaccination in cervical cancer control programmes’, Public Health Genomics 12 (2009), 352–61.
  • The Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium, ‘Genome-wide association study of 14,000 cases of seven common diseases and 3,000 shared controls’, Nature 447 (2007), 661–78.

الفصل الثامن

  • P. Vinten-Johansen, H. Brody, N. Paneth, S. Rachman, and M. Rip, Cholera, Chloroform, and the Science of Medicine: A Life of John Snow (Oxford University Press, 2003).
  • J. Müller-Nordhorn, S. Binting, S. Roll, and S. N. Willich, ‘An update on regional variation in cardiovascular mortality within Europe’, Eur Heart J 29 (2008), 1316–26.
  • A. Keys, Seven Countries: A Multivariate Analysis of Death and Coronary Heart Disease (Harvard University Press, 1980).
  • A. Bruneau and C. Duchesne, ‘Outbreak of mumps, Montreal, October 1998 to March 1999, with a particular focus on a school’, Canada Communicable Disease Report 26 (2000), 69–71.
  • C. Fraser, C. A. Donnelly, S. Cauchemez, W. P. Hanage, M. D. Van Kerkhove, T. D. Hollingsworth et al., ‘Pandemic potential of a strain of Influenza A(H1N1): Early findings’, Science 324 (2009), 1557–61.
  • M. Marmot and P. Elliott, ‘Coronary heart disease epidemiology: From aetiology to public health’, in M. Marmot and P. Elliott (eds.), Coronary Heart Disease Epidemiology: From Aetiology to Public Health, 2nd edn. (Oxford University Press, 2005), pp. 4–7.
  • A. Lopez, C. AbouZar, K. Shibuya, and L. Gollogly, ‘Keeping count: Births, deaths, and causes of death’, Lancet 370 (2007), 1744–6.
  • D. M. Parkin, S. L. Whelan, J. Ferlay, L. Teppo, and D. B. Thomas, Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, Vol. VIII (International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2003).
  • National Center for Health Statistics, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (http://www.cdc.gov/nahnes/, accessed 2009).
  • R. Saracci and P. Vineis, ‘Disease proportions attributable to environment’, Environ Health 6 (2007), 38–41.
  • World Health Organization, Global Burden of Disease (http://www. who.int/healthinfo/global_burden_disease/en/index.html, accessed 2009).

الفصل التاسع

  • P. Juni, L. Nartey, S. Reichenbach, R. Sterchi, P. A. Dieppe, and M. Egger, ‘Risk of cardiovascular events and Rofecoxib: Cumulative meta-analysis’, Lancet 364 (2004), 2021–9.
  • C. M. Rembold, ‘Number needed to screen: Development of a statistic for disease screening’, BMJ 317 (1998), 307–12.
  • P. Vineis, P. Schulte, and A. J. McMichael, ‘Misconception about the use of genetic tests in populations’, Lancet 357 (2001), 709–12.
  • G. Rose, Rose’s Strategy of Preventive Medicine, with a commentary by K. T. Khaw and M. Marmot (Oxford University Press, 2008).
  • C. P. Cannon, ‘Can the polypill save the world from heart disease?’, Lancet 373 (2009), 1313-14.
  • P. Martens and A. J. McMichael, Environmental Change, Climate and Health: Issues and Research Methods (Cambridge University Press, 2002).
  • A. McMichael, S. Friel, A. Nyong, and C. Corvalan, ‘Global environmental change and health: Impacts, inequalities, and the health sector’, BMJ 336 (2008), 191–4.
  • National Health Service, National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) (http://www.nice.org.uk/, accessed 2009).
  • M. F. Drummond, B. O’Brien, G. L. Stoddart, and G. W. Torrance, Methods for the Economic Evaluation of Health Care Programmes (Oxford University Press, 1997).

الفصل العاشر

  • T. Hope, Medical Ethics: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford University Press, 2004).
  • Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS), International Ethical Guidelines for Epidemiological Studies (CIOMS, 2009).
  • United Nations, Millennium Development Goals (United Nations, 2000).
  • World Health Organization Commission on Social Determinants of Health, Closing the Gap in a Generation (World Health Organization, 2008).
  • Food and Agricultural Organization, The State of Food Insecurity in the World (Food and Agricultural Organization, 2009).
  • P. Vineis and R. Saracci, ‘Gene-environment interactions and public health’, in R. Detels, R. Beaglehole, M. A. Lansing, and M. Gulliford (eds.), Oxford Textbook of Public Health (Oxford University Press, 2009), vol. 3, pp. 957–70.
  • D. H. Moynihan, ‘The fight against disease mongering: generating knowledge for action’, PLOS Medicine 3 (2006), e191.
  • I. Kant, in A. Zweig (ed.), Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals (Oxford University Press, 2003).
  • R. Saracci, ‘Epidemiology: A science for justice in health’, Int J Epidemiol 36 (2007), 265–8.
  • J. Rawls, A Theory of Justice (Oxford University Press, 1972), p. 3.

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