المراجع

All passages from the Bible are from the Revised Standard Version.

مقدمة

  • The opening quotations are taken from:
  • Marge Piercy, He, She and It (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1991; UK edn. as Body of Glass (London: Michael Joseph, 1992)).
  • Oscar Wilde, The Soul of Man under Socialism (Boston: John W. Luce, 1910); originally published in The Fortnightly Review, 55 (ns49) (February 1891): 292–319.
  • Immanuel Wallerstein, Utopistics: or Historical Choices of the Twenty-First Century (New York: The New Press, 1998).
  • Max Beerbohm, ‘In a Copy of More’s (or Shaw’s or Wells’s or Plato’s or Anybody’s) Utopia’, Max in Verse: Rhymes and Parodies by Max Beerbohm, collected and annotated by J. G. Riewald (Brattleboro, VT: The Stephen Greene Press, 1963), 54; ascribed to the period 1910–15.
  • Thomas Babington Macaulay, ‘Lord Bacon’, The Works of Lord Macauley, 6 vols (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1943).
  • Alphonse Marie Louis de Prat de Lamartine, Histoire des Girondins (Bruxelles: Société de Belge, 1850).
  • Thomas More’s Utopia was first published as Libellus vere aureus nec minus salutaris quam festivus de optimo reip[ublicae]statu, deq[ue] noua Insula Vtopia (Louvain, Belgium: Arte Theodorice Martini, 1516). There are many translations available: Utopia: A Revised Translation, Backgrounds, Criticism, 2nd edn., tr. and ed. Robert M. Adams (New York: W. W. Norton, 1992) includes considerable additional material about the book; and Utopia, tr. Paul Turner, revised edn. (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 2003) makes the satire and play on words of the text clear.
  • Leszek Kolakowski, ‘The Death of Utopia Reconsidered’, The Tanner Lectures on Human Value, vol. 4, ed. Sterling M. McMurrin (Salt Lake City, UT: University of Utah Press/Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983), 227–47; reprinted in his Modernity on Endless Trial (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990), 131–45. The lecture was delivered at the Australian National University, 22 June 1982.
  • Lyman Tower Sargent, ‘The Three Faces of Utopianism Revisited’, Utopian Studies, 5.1 (1994): 1–37.
  • Ruth Levitas, The Concept of Utopia (Hemel Hempstead: Philip Allan/Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1990).
  • Darko Suvin, ‘Defining the Literary Genre of Utopia: Some Historical Semantics, Some Genology, a Proposal and a Plea’, Studies in the Literary Imagination, 6 (Autumn 1973): 121–45; reprinted in his Metamorphoses of Science Fiction: On the Poetics and History of a Literary Genre (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1979), 37–62.

الفصل الأول

  • The quotations at the head of the chapter are from Teleclides’s Amphictyonies, quoted in Athenaeus, The Learned Banqueters, VI: 268b-d, ed. and tr. S. Douglas Olson, 7 vols (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2008), 3: 235; and Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca Historiae, 58, tr. in Ernest Barker, From Alexander to Constantine (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1956), 63.
  • Lewis Mumford, The Story of Utopias (New York: Boni and Liveright, 1922; reprinted New York: Viking Press, 1962 with a new ‘Preface’ by the author).
  • Lyman Tower Sargent, ‘The Three Faces of Utopianism Revisited’, Utopian Studies, 5.1 (1994): 1–37.
  • Hesiod, ‘Works and Days’, Theogony Works and Days Testimonia, ed. and tr. Glenn W. Most (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2006; Loeb Classical Library 57).
  • Ovid, Metamorphoses, I: 89–112, tr. Mary M. Innes (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1955).
  • Lucian, The Works of Lucian of Samosata, Complete with Exceptions Specified in the Preface, tr. H. W. Fowler and F. G. Fowler (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1905).
  • A. L. Morton, The English Utopia (London: Lawrence and Wishart, 1952).
  • Virgil, tr. H. Rushton Fairclough, 2 vols, revised edn. (London: Heinemann, 1965).
  • Plutarch, ‘Lycurgus’, in Plutarch’s Lives, tr. Bernadotte Perrin, 11 vols (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1914), 1.
  • Plato, The Republic, ed. G. R. F. Ferrari, tr. Tom Griffith (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000).
  • ‘The Sweet Potato Mountains’, quoted in George Milburn, The Hobo’s Hornbook: A Repertory for a Gutter Jongleur (New York: Ives Washington, 1930).
  • The slave story comes from B. A. Botkin (ed.), Lay My Burden Down: A Folk History of Slavery (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1945).
  • Edward Bellamy, Looking Backward: 2000–1887 (Boston, MA: Ticknor and Company, 1888). Modern editions include those edited by Alex MacDonald (Peterborough, Canada: Broadview Press, 2003) and by Matthew Beaumont (London: Penguin, 2007). Bellamy revised his utopia in Equality (New York: D. Appleton, 1897).
  • Marge Piercy, Woman on the Edge of Time (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1976).
  • William Morris, ‘Looking Backward’, The Commonweal, 5.180 (June 1889): 194-5; reprinted in May Morris, William Morris: Artist, Writer, Socialist, vol. 2, Morris as a Socialist with an Account of William Morris as I Knew Him by Bernard Shaw (Oxford: Blackwell, 1936), 501–7.
  • William Morris, News from Nowhere; or, An Epoch of Rest, Being Some Chapters from a Utopian Romance (Boston, MA: Roberts Bros., 1890). Modern editions include those edited by James Redmond (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1970) and by Krishan Kumar (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995).
  • Tom Moylan, Demand the Impossible: Science Fiction and the Utopian Imagination (London: Methuen, 1986).
  • Lucy Sargisson, Contemporary Feminist Utopianism (London: Routledge, 1996).
  • Lyman Tower Sargent, ‘The Problem of the “Flawed Utopia”: A Note on the Costs of Utopia’, Dark Horizons: Science Fiction and the Dystopian Imagination, ed. Raffaella Baccolini and Tom Moylan (London: Routledge, 2003), 225–31.
  • Joanna Russ, ‘What Can a Heroine Do? Or Why Women Can’t Write’, in Images of Women in Fiction; Feminist Perspectives, ed. Susan Koppelman Cornillon (Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green University Popular Press, 1972), 3–20; reprinted in her To Write Like a Woman: Essays in Feminism and Science Fiction (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1995), 79–93.
  • Ernest Callenbach, Ecotopia: The Notebooks and Reports of William Weston (Berkeley, CA: Banyan Tree Books, 1975; reprinted New York: Bantam, 1977).

الفصل الثاني

  • Arthur Eugene Bestor, Jr, Backwoods Utopias: The Sectarian and Owenite Phases of Communitarian Socialism in America, 1663–1829 (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1950; 2nd edn. 1970).
  • Lyman Tower Sargent, ‘The Three Faces of Utopianism Revisited’, Utopian Studies, 5.1 (1994): 1–37.
  • ‘The Rule of S. Benedict’, Documents of the Christian Church, ed. Henry Bettenson, 2nd edn. (London: Oxford University Press, 1963).
  • Henry Near, ‘Utopian and Post-Utopian Thought: The Kibbutz as Model’, Communal Societies, 5 (1985): 41–58.
  • Lyman Tower Sargent, ‘The Ohu Movement in New Zealand: An Experiment in Government Sponsorship of Communal Living in the 1970s’, Communal Societies, 19 (1999): 49–65.
  • Federation of Egalitarian Communities, http://www.thefec.org/ ‘Principles’ accessed 10 May 2010.
  • Rosabeth Moss Kanter, Commitment and Community: Communes and Utopias in Sociological Perspective (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1972).
  • Henry Demarest Lloyd, quoted in Caro Lloyd, Henry Demarest Lloyd, 1847–1903: A Biography, 2 vols (New York: Putnam, 1912), II: 66-7.
  • Hakim Bey [Peter Lamborn Wilson], T. A. Z.: The Temporary Autonomous Zone, Ontological Anarchy, Poetic Terrorism, 2nd edn. with a new preface (ix–xii) (Brooklyn, NY: Autonomedia, 2003).
  • George McKay (ed.), DiY Culture: Party and Protest in Nineties Britain (London: Verso, 1998).
  • Jill Dolan, ‘Performance, Utopia, and the “Utopian Performative”’, Theatre Journal, 53.3 (October 2001): 455–79; revised as ‘“A Femme, a Butch, a Jew”: Feminist Autobiographical Solo Performance’, in her Utopia in Performance: Finding Hope at the Theater (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2005), 35–62, 180–5.

الفصل الثالث

  • James Belich, Replenishing the Earth: The Settler Revolution and the Rise of the Anglo-World, 1783–1939 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009).
  • Robert L. Wright (ed.), Irish Emigrant Ballads and Songs (Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green University Popular Press, 1975).
  • ‘The Non-progressive Great Spirit—“Traditionalism in the Modern World”’, Akwesasne Notes, 5 (1973).
  • John Winthrop, Life and Letters of John Winthrop, 2 vols (Boston, MA: Ticknor and Fields, 1864–7).
  • Roger Williams, Key into the Language of America (1643), quoted in George H. Williams, Wilderness and Paradise in Christian Thought: The Biblical Experience in the History of Christianity and the Paradise Theme in the Theological Idea of the University (New York: Harper, 1962), 103.
  • Nadine Gordimer, ‘Living in the Interregnum’, The New York Review of Books, 29.21 and 22 (20 January 1983): 21-2, 24–9; based on the James Lecture at the New York Institute for the Humanities, 14 October 1982.

الفصل الرابع

  • The quotations at the head of the chapter come from Father Sangermano, A Description of the Burmese Empire Compiled Chiefly from Native Documents by the Revd. Father Sangermano and Translated From His MS by William Tandy, D. D. (Rome, printed for the Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland/John Murray, 1833; reprinted Rangoon: The Government Press, 1885), pp. 8-9; and from the Tao Te Ching (80th chapter) as quoted in Joseph Needham with research assistance of Wang Ling, vol. 2 of History of Scientific Thought of Science and Civilisation in China (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1956).
  • On the proposed constitutions, see Koon-ki T. Ho, ‘Several Thousand Years in Search of Happiness: The Utopian Tradition in China’, Oriens Extremus (Germany), 30 (1983–6): 19–35.
  • On K’ang Yu-wei, see Kung-Chuan Hsiao, A Modern China and a New World: K’ang Yu-wei, Reformer and Utopian, 1858–1927 (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1975).
  • Donald Keene, ‘The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter’, Monumenta Nipponica, 11.1 (January 1956): 329–55; ‘Introduction’ (329); translation with notes (330–54).
  • Rubáiyát of Omar Khayyám, tr. Edward FitzGerald (London: Penguin, 1989). Originally published as Rubáiyát of Omar Khayyám, The Astronomer-Poet of Persia. Translated into English Verse (London: Bernard Quaritch, 1859); an alternative modern translation is by Peter Avery and John Heath-Stubbs (London: Penguin, 2004).
  • Ibn Tufail, The Journey of the Soul: The Story of Hai bin Yaqzan, as told by Abu Bakr Muhammad bin Tufail, tr. Riad Kocache (London: Octagon Press, 1982). Also as Ibn Tufayl, Hayy Ibn Yaqzan: A Philosophical Tale, tr. Simon Ockley (London: Chapman and Hall, 1929); and tr. Lenn Evan Goodman (New York: Twayne, 1972).
  • Ayatollah Sayyed Ruhollah Mousavi Khomeini, Islamic Government, tr. Joint Publications Research Service (New York: Manor Books, 1979).
  • On the Islamist utopias, see Christian Szyska, ‘On Utopian Writing in Nasserist Prison and Laicist Turkey’, Welt des Islams, 35.1 (April 1995): 95–125; and Sohrab Behdad, ‘Islamic Utopia in Pre-Revolutionary Iran: Navvab Safavi and the Fadai’an-e Eslam [Crusaders of Islam]’, Middle Eastern Studies, 33.1 (January 1997): 40–65.
  • Simon Gikandi, quoted in the Times Literary Supplement, no. 5392 (4 August 2006): 21.

الفصل الخامس

  • Dracontius is quoted in Eleanor S. Duckett, Latin Writers of the Fifth Century (New York: Henry Holt, 1930), 85.
  • Judith Shklar, ‘The Political Theory of Utopia: From Melancholy to Nostalgia’, Utopias and Utopian Thought, ed. Frank E. Manuel (Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 1967/London: Souvenir Press, 1973), 101–15.
  • ‘Book of Jubilees’, ‘The Sibylline Book of Oracles’, and ‘II Baruch’ can be found in R. H. Charles, The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament in English with Introductions and Critical and Explanatory Notes to the Several Books, 2 vols (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1913).
  • Lactantius, The Divine Institutes, tr. Rev. William Fletcher, D. D. The Ante-Nicene Fathers: Translations of the Writings of the Fathers down to A. D. 325, American reprint of the Edinburgh Edition, ed. Rev. Alexander Roberts, D. D., and James Donaldson, LL.D, revised and chronologically arranged, with Brief Prefaces and Occasional Notes by A. Cleveland Coxe, D. D. Volume VII, Lactantius, Venantius, Victorinus, Dionysius, Apostolic Teaching and Constitutions. Homily, and Liturgies, authorized edn. (Edinburgh: T&T Clark/Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1990 reprint), 219-20.
  • Tim LaHaye and Jerry B. Jenkins, Left Behind: A Novel of Earth’s Last Days (Wheaton, IL: Tyndale House Publishers, 1995). There are twelve sequels plus graphic novels, videos, video games, books for children, and related products. See http://www.leftbehind.com (accessed 10 May 2010) for all the books and related materials.
  • The Voyage of St Brendan: RepresentaUtopias and Utopian Thoughttive Versions of the Legend in English Translation, ed. W. R. J. Barron and Glyn S. Burgess (Exeter: University of Exeter Press, 2002; 2nd edn. 2005). On the Irish voyages, see Tom Moylan, ‘Irish Voyages and Visions: Pre-Figuring, Re-Configuring Utopia’, Utopian Studies, 18.3 (2007): 299–323. On Prester John, see Vsevolod Slessarev, Prester John: The Letter and the Legend (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1959).
  • ‘The Apocalypse of Paul’, tr. J. K. Elliott, in Apocryphal New Testament (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993).
  • Krishan Kumar, Religion and Utopia (Canterbury: Centre for the Study of Religion and Society, University of Kent at Canterbury, 1985; Pamphlet Library No. 8).
  • Thomas Molnar, Utopia: The Perennial Heresy (New York: Sheed and Ward, 1967/London: Tom Stacey, 1972).
  • Reinhold Niebuhr, The Nature and Destiny of Man, 2 vols (New York: Charles Scribner, 1941; reprinted Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 1996).
  • Paul Tillich, ‘The Political Meaning of Utopia’, tr. William J. Crout, Walter Bense, and James L. Adams, in his Political Expectation (New York: Harper and Row, 1971), 125–80.
  • Martin Buber, Paths in Utopia, tr. R. F. C. Hull (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1949/New York: Macmillan, 1950).

الفصل السادس

  • Lyman Tower Sargent, ‘Utopia and the Late Twentieth Century: A View from North America’, in Utopia: The Search for the Ideal Society in the Western World, ed. Roland Schaer, Gregory Claeys, and Lyman Tower Sargent (New York: The New York Public Library/Oxford University Press, 2000), 333–45.
  • The quotations from Karl Popper come from ‘Utopia and Violence’, Hibbert Journal, 46 (January 1948): 109–16; reprinted in World Affairs, 149.1 (Summer 1986): 3–9, and in his Conjectures and Refutations: The Growth of Scientific Knowledge (London: Routledge Classics, 2002), 477–88.
  • Richard Mollica, quoted in Philip Gourevitch, ‘Letter from Rwanda: After the Genocide’, The New Yorker, 71 (18 December 1995): 84.
  • Ralf Dahrendorf, ‘Out of Utopia: Toward a Reorientation of Sociological Analysis’, American Journal of Sociology, 64 (September 1958): 115–27.
  • Judith Shklar, ‘The Political Theory of Utopia: From Melancholy to Nostalgia’, Utopias and Utopian Thought, ed. Frank E. Manuel (Boston: Beacon Press, 1967/London: Souvenir Press, 1973), 101–15.
  • Leszek Kolakowski, ‘The Death of Utopia Reconsidered’, The Tanner Lectures on Human Value, vol. 4, ed. Sterling M. McMurrin (Salt Lake City, UT: University of Utah Press/Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983), 227–47; reprinted in his Modernity on Endless Trial (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990), 131–45. The lecture was delivered at the Australian National University, 22 June 1982.
  • H. G. Wells, Men Like Gods (London: Cassell, 1923).
  • Jacob Talmon, Utopianism and Politics (London: Conservative Political Centre, 1957).
  • Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan, ed. Richard Tuck (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991).
  • George Kateb, ‘Utopia and the Good Life’, in Utopias and Utopian Thought, ed. Frank E. Manuel (Boston: Beacon Press, 1967/ London: Souvenir Press, 1973), 239–59.
  • Adam Smith, The Theory of Moral Sentiments, ed. D. D. Raphael and A. L. Macfie (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 1982).
  • Immanuel Kant, quoted in Isaiah Berlin, The Crooked Timber of Humanity: Chapters in the History of Ideas, ed. Henry Hardy (London: John Murray, 1990), epigram p. v.
  • Arthur Koestler, ‘The Yogi and the Commissar’, Horizon, 5.30 (June 1942): 381–92; reprinted in The Yogi and the Commissar (London: Jonathan Cape, 1945).
  • Barbara Goodwin and Keith Taylor, The Politics of Utopia: A Study in Theory and Practice (London: Hutchinson, 1982).
  • Quentin Skinner, Liberty Before Liberalism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998).
  • Ernst Bloch, The Principle of Hope, tr. Neville Plaice, Stephen Plaice, and Paul Knight, 3 vols (Oxford: Blackwell, 1986).
  • M. I. Finley, ‘Utopianism Ancient and Modern’, in The Critical Spirit: Essays in Honor of Herbert Marcuse, ed. Kurt Wolff and Barrington Moore, Jr (Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 1967).
  • Frederick L. Polak, The Image of the Future: Enlightening the Past, Orientating the Present, Forecasting the Future, tr. Elise Boulding, 2 vols (Leyden, The Netherlands: A. W. Sythoff/New York: Oceana, 1961).
  • Fredric Jameson, ‘Comments’, Utopian Studies, 9.2 (1998): 74–7. Jameson is responding to a special issue of the journal devoted to his work.
  • The quotations from Zygmunt Bauman come from Socialism: The Active Utopia (New York: Holmes and Meier, 1976); ‘Conclusion: Utopia with No Topos’, in his Society under Siege (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2002), 222–41, 251-2; and Does Ethics Have a Chance in a World of Consumers? (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2008).
  • Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri, Empire (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2000).
  • David Harvey, Spaces of Hope (Berkeley: University of California Press/Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2000).

الفصل السابع

  • Karl Mannheim, Ideology and Utopia: An Introduction to the Sociology of Knowledge, tr. Louis Wirth and Edward Shils (New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1936; new edn. London: Routledge, 1991). The English edition brings together his Ideologie und Utopie (Bonn: Cohen, 1929) and other essays by Mannheim.
  • Paul Tillich, ‘On Ideology and Utopia’, tr. Steven P. Bucher and Denise Siemssen, in Knowledge and Politics: The Sociology of Knowledge Dispute, ed. Volker Meja and Nico Stehr (London: Routledge, 1990), 107–12.
  • The quotations from Paul Ricoeur are from Lectures on Ideology and Utopia, ed. George H. Taylor (New York: Columbia University Press, 1986); ‘Ideology and Ideology Critique’, Phenomenology and Marxism, ed. Bernhard Waldenfels, Jan M. Broekman, and Ante Pažanin, tr. J. Claude Evans (Boston, MA: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1984), 134–64; and ‘Imagination in Discourse and Action’, The Human Being in Action: The Irreducible Element in Man. Part II: Investigations at the Intersection of Philosophy and Psychiatry, ed. Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka, vol. 7 of Analecta Husserliana: The Yearbook of Phenomenological Research (Dordrecht: Reidel, 1978).

خاتمة

  • The quotations at the beginning of the chapter are from Archibald MacLeish, ‘Preface to an American Manifesto’, Forum, 91.4 (April 1934): 195–8; and Leszek Kolakowski, quoted in George Urban, ‘A Conversation with Leszek Kolakowski, The Devil in History’, Encounter, 56.1 (January 1981).
  • Lyman Tower Sargent, ‘The Necessity of Utopian Thinking: A Cross-National Perspective’, Thinking Utopia: Steps into Other Worlds, ed. Jörn Rüsen, Michael Fehr, and Thomas W. Rieger (New York: Berghahn Books, 2005), 1–14.
  • Albert Camus, Neither Victims nor Executioners, tr. Dwight Macdonald (Chicago: World Without War Publications, 1972).
  • John Rawls, The Law of Peoples (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999).
  • M. I. Finley, ‘Utopianism Ancient and Modern’, The Critical Spirit; Essays in Honor of Herbert Marcuse, ed. Kurt Wolff and Barrington Moore, Jr (Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 1967), 3–20.

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