An excellent resource for the study of Hinduism will be the forthcoming eighteen-volume Encyclopedia of Hinduism and Indic Religions, a project of the India Heritage Research Foundation. Useful current articles include ‘Hinduism’ by Alf Hiltebeitel in the Encyclopedia of Religion (ed. Mircea Eliade, London and New York: Macmillan, 1987), vol. vi, 633–60, and “Hinduism” by Simon Weightman in A New Handbook of Living Religions (ed. John Hinnells, Oxford: Blackwell, 1997). A periodical with a focus on Hinduism is the International Journal of Hindu Studies (Internet address: http://www.clas.ufl.edu/users/gthursby/ijhs/).
Introductory books by ‘insiders’: Nirad Chaudhuri, Hinduism: A Religion to Live By (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1979); T. N. Madan (ed.), Religion in India (Oxford and Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1991); Anantanand Rambachan, The Hindu Vision (Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1992); K. M. Sen, Hinduism (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1961); Arvind Sharma, Hinduism for Our Times (Oxford and Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1996).
Recent introductions by ‘outsiders’: Gavin Flood, An Introduction to Hinduism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996); Klaus Klostermaier, A Survey of Hinduism (New York: State University of New York Press, 1989).
Two useful books introducing aspects of the debate on early India: Romila Thapar, Interpreting Early India (Oxford and Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1992); Asko Parpola, Deciphering the Indus Script (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994).
Novels and stories by Hindus are invaluable as a source of information about Hinduism and Hindu society. In addition to Gods, Demons and Others and The Guide by R. K. Narayan, there are many others by authors including Mulk Raj Anand, Kamala Markandaya, U. R. Anantha Murthy, Anita Desai, and Gita Mehta.
Books on revelation and tradition: A. L. Basham, The Origins and Development of Classical Hinduism (Boston: Beacon, 1989); T. J. Hopkins, The Hindu Religious Tradition (Encino, CA: Dickenson, 1971); K. Sivaraman (ed.), Hindu Spirituality: Vedas Through Vedanta (New York: Crossroad, 1989)—this is also useful for Chapter 3; Brian K. Smith, Reflections on Resemblance, Ritual, and Religion (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989); M. Stutley and J. Stutley, A Dictionary of Hinduism: Its Mythology, Folklore and Development, 1500 BC–AD 1500 (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1977).
Introductions to Indian philosophy: M. Hiriyanna, Outlines of Indian Philosophy (London: George Allen and Unwin, 1958); Ninian Smart, Doctrine and Argument in Indian Philosophy (London: Allen and Unwin, 1964). Selected verses by Shankara, Ramanuja, and Madhva: Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan and Charles A. Moore (eds.), A Sourcebook in Indian Philosophy (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1967).
Translations of other Hindu scriptures: Wendy Doniger O’Flaherty (ed.), Textual Sources for the Study of Hinduism (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1988); Ainslee T. Embree (ed.), Sources of Indian Tradition, vol. i, 2nd edn. (New York: Columbia University Press, 1988).
For further discussion on karma and yoga, see Rambachan, The Hindu Vision, Sharma, Hinduism for Our Times, Flood, An Introduction to Hinduism, and Klostermaier, A Survey of Hinduism.
Retellings in English of stories of the gods and goddesses: Amar Chitra Katha, Rama, Tales of the Mother Goddess, Mahabharata (all India Book House); C. Rajagopalachari, Ramayana (Bombay: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, 1962); Wendy Doniger O’Flaherty, Hindu Myths (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1975); Serinity Young (ed.), An Anthology of Sacred Texts by and about Women (London: Pandora, 1993).
Rama, Sita, and the Devi in contemporary Hinduism: John Stratton Hawley and Donna Marie Wulff (eds), Devi: Goddesses of India (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996); Jacqueline Suthren Hurst, Sita’s Story (Norwich: Chansitor Publications, 1997); Paula Richman (ed.), Many Ramayanas: The Diversity of a Narrative Tradition in South Asia (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991); Mark Tully, No Full Stops in India, Chapter 4: ‘The Rewriting of the Ramayan’ (London: Penguin Books, 1991).
On the place of the Ramayana in Hindu nationalism: Peter van der Veer, Religious Nationalism: Hindus and Muslims in India (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994).
Most general books, such as those by Rambachan The Hindu Vision, Flood, An Introduction to Hinduism, and Klostermaier, A Survey of Hinduism, contain accounts of Hindu worship, including puja and pilgrimage. See also Christopher Fuller, The Camphor Flame: Popular Hinduism and Society in India (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992).
The other books listed here are excellent for gaining an understanding of the way the divine is perceived and expressed in Hindu iconography and architecture: Diana Eck, Darsan: Seeing the Divine Image in India (Chambersburg, PA: Anima, 1981); George Michell, The Hindu Temple: An Introduction to its Meaning and Forms (Chicago and London: Chicago University Press, 1988); Alistair Shearer, The Hindu Vision: Forms of the Formless (London: Thames and Hudson, 1993).
Examples of bhakti poetry can be found in the books of readings by Embree (Sources of Indian Tradition) and O’Flaherty (Textual Sources for the Study of Hinduism). Orientalist accounts of Hinduism are presented in P. J. Marshall, The British Discovery of Hinduism in the Eighteenth Century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1970). The lectures and writings of neo-Hindu reformers are quoted extensively in Glyn Richards, A Sourcebook of Modern Hinduism (London: Curzon Press, 1985).
For discussions of American transcendentalism in the nineteenth century with reference to India, see Arthur Christy, The Orient in American Transcendentalism (New York: Columbia University Press, 1932) and Carl T. Jackson, The Oriental Religions and American Thought: Nineteenth-century Explorations (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1971).
For the history of the period, see H. Kulke and D. Rothermund, A History of India (London and New York: Routledge, 1990), and for religious movements and personalities, see Flood, An Introduction to Hinduism, for a brief account. A useful book on sati is the one edited by J. S. Hawley (ed.), Sati, the Blessing and the Curse: The Burning of Wives in India (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994). See also ‘The Deorala Sati’ in Tully, ibid. A useful introduction to Gandhi is provided by Bhikhu Parekh’s Gandhi (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997).
On women: Kishwar, Madhu, and Ruth Vanita (eds.), In Search of Answers: Indian Women’s Voices from Manushi (London: Zed Books, 1984, reprinted New Delhi: Horizon India Books, 1991); Radha Kumar, The History of Doing: An Illustrated Account of Movements for Women’s Rights and Feminism in India, 1800–1990 (New Delhi: Kali for Women, 1993); Julia Leslie (ed.), Roles and Rituals for Hindu Women (London: Pinter Press, 1991); Sara S. Mitter, Dharma’s Daughters (New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1991); Susie Tharu and K. Lalita (eds), Women Writing in India, 600 BC to the Early Twentieth Century (London: Pandora Press, 1991).
On dalits: Barbara R. Joshi (ed.), Untouchable: Voices of the Dalit Liberation Movement (London: Zed Books, 1984); Mark Juergensmeyer, Religion as Social Vision: The Movement Against Untouchability (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1982); Dilip Hiro, The Untouchables of India, Report no. 26 (Minority Rights Group, 1975). See also ‘Ram Chander’s Story’ in Tully, No Full Stops in India.
Books on Hindus and Hinduism beyond India: Richard Burghart (ed.), Hinduism in Great Britain: The Perpetuation of Religion in an Alien Cultural Milieu (London: Tavistock, 1987); John Y. Fenton, Transplanting Religious Traditions: Asian Indians in America (New York: Praeger, 1988); Robert Jackson and Eleanor Nesbitt, Hindu Children in Britain (Stoke-on-Trent: Trentham Books, 1993); Hugh Tinker, The Banyan Tree: Overseas Emigrants from India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1977); Steven Vertovec, Hindu Trinidad: Religion, Ethnicity and Socio-economic Change (London: Macmillan Caribbean, 1992); Raymond Brady Williams (ed.), A Sacred Thread: Modern Transmission of Hindu Traditions in India and Abroad (Chambersburg, PA: Anima, 1992).
Internet address of Hinduism Today: www.HinduismToday.kauai.hi.us/ashram/htoday.
North American Hindu organizations are listed on the following web site: http://www.hindunet.org/.
The general books and articles referred to for Chapter 1 all contain discussions of the meaning of ‘Hinduism’. An additional book presenting a range of contemporary perspectives is Hinduism Reconsidered edited by G. D. Sontheimer and H. Kulke (Delhi: Manohar, 1991).