Boden, M. A. (2006), Mind as
Machine: A History of Cognitive Science, 2 vols. (Oxford:
Oxford University Press).
With the exception of deep learning and the Singularity,
every topic mentioned in this Very Short
Introduction is discussed at greater length in Mind as Machine.
Russell, S., and Norvig, P. (2013), Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach, 3rd edn.
This is the leading textbook on AI.
Frankish, K., and Ramsey, W., eds. (2014), Cambridge Handbook of Artificial
Intelligence (Cambridge: Cambridge University
Describes the various areas of AI, less technically than
Russell and Norvig (2013).
Whitby, B. (1996), Reflections on
Artificial Intelligence: The Social, Legal, and Moral
Dimensions (Oxford: Intellect
A discussion of aspects of AI that are too often
Husbands, P., Holland, O., and Wheeler, M. W., eds. (2008),
The Mechanical Mind in History
(Cambridge, MA: MIT Press).
The fourteen chapters (and five interviews with AI/A-Life
pioneers) describe early work in AI and
Clark, A. J. (1989), Microcognition: Philosophy, Cognitive Science, and Parallel
Distributed Processing (Cambridge, MA: MIT
An account of the differences between symbolic AI and
neural networks. Today’s neural networks are much more complex than
those discussed here, but the main points of comparison still
Minsky, M. L. (2006), The Emotion
Machine: Commonsense Thinking, Artificial Intelligence, and the
Future of the Human Mind (New York: Simon &
This book, by one of the founders of AI, uses AI ideas to
illuminate the nature of everyday thought and
Hansell, G. R., and Grassie, W., eds. (2011), H +/−: Transhumanism and Its Critics
Statements and critiques of the transhumanist philosophy
supported, and the transhumanist future predicted, by some AI
Dreyfus, H. L. (1992), What
Computers Still Can’t Do: A Critique of Artificial
Reason, 2nd edn. (New York: Harper and
The classic attack, based in Heideggerian philosophy, of
the very idea of AI. (Know your enemies!)