المراجع

NB: ‘MasM’, in the chapter references that follow, identifies the most relevant parts of Boden, Mind as Machine.
(For the analytical table of contents of MasM, see the ‘Key Publications’ section of my website: “www.ruskin.tv/margaretboden”.)

الفصل الأول: ما الذكاء الاصطناعي؟

  • MasM chaps. 1.i.a, 3.ii–v, 4, 6.iii–iv, 10–11.
  • The quotations from Ada Lovelace are from: Lovelace, A. A. (1843), ‘Notes by the Translator’. Reprinted in R. A. Hyman (ed.) (1989), Science and Reform: Selected Works of Charles Babbage (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), 267–311.
  • Blake, D. V., and Uttley, A.M. (eds.) (1959), The Mechanization of Thought Processes, vol. 1 (London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office).
    This contains several important early papers, including descriptions of Pandemonium and Perceptrons and a discussion of AI and common sense.
  • McCulloch, W. S., and Pitts, W. H. (1943), ‘A Logical Calculus of the Ideas Immanent in Nervous Activity’, Bulletin of Mathematical Biophysics, 5: 115–33. Reprinted in S. Papert, ed. (1965), Embodiments of Mind (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), 19–39.
  • Feigenbaum, E. A., and Feldman, J. A., eds. (1963), Computers and Thought (New York: McGraw-Hill).
  • An influential collection of early papers on AI.

الفصل الثاني: كأن الذكاء العام هو الكأس المقدسة

  • MasM, sections. 6.iii, 7.iv, and chaps. 10, 11, 13.
  • Boukhtouta, A. et al. (2005), Description and Analysis of Military Planning Systems (Quebec: Canadian Defence and Development Technical Report).
  • Shows how AI planning has advanced since the early days.
  • Mnih, V., and D. Hassabis et al. (nineteen authors) (2015), ‘Human-Level Control Through Deep Reinforcement Learning’, Nature, 518: 529–33.
  • This paper by the DeepMind team describes the Atari game-player.
  • Silver, D., and D. Hassabis et al. (seventeen authors) (2017), ‘Mastering the Game of Go Without Human Knowledge’, Nature, 550: 354–9.
  • This describes the latest version of DeepMind’s (2016), AlphaGo program (for the earlier version, see Nature, 529: 484–9).
  • The quotation from Allen Newell and Herbert Simon is from their (1972) book Human Problem Solving (Englewood-Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall).
  • The quotation ‘new paradigms are needed’ is from LeCun, Y., Bengio, Y., and Hinton, G. E. (2015), ‘Deep Learning’, Nature, 521: 436–44.
  • Minsky, M. L. (1956), ‘Steps Toward Artificial Intelligence’. First published as an MIT technical report: Heuristic Aspects of the Artificial Intelligence Problem, and widely reprinted later.
  • Laird, J. E., Newell, A., and Rosenbloom, P. (1987), ‘Soar: An Architecture for General Intelligence’, Artificial Intelligence, 33: 1–64.

الفصل الثالث: اللغة، الإبداع، العاطفة

  • MasM, chaps. 7.ii, 9.x–xi, 13.iv, 7.i.d–f.
  • Baker, S. (2012), Final Jeopardy: The Story of WATSON, the Computer That Will Transform Our World (Boston: Mariner Books).
  • A readable, though uncritical, account of an interesting Big Data system.
    Graves, A., Mohamed, A.-R., and Hinton, G. E. (2013), ‘Speech Recognition with Deep Recurrent Neural Networks’, Proc. Int. Conf. on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, 6645–49.
  • Collobert, R. et al. (six authors) (2011), ‘Natural Language Processing (Almost) from Scratch’, Journal of Machine Learning Research, 12: 2493–537.
  • The quotation describing syntax as superficial and redundant is from Wilks, Y. A., ed. (2005), Language, Cohesion and Form: Margaret Masterman (1910–1986) (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), p. 266.
  • Bartlett, J., Reffin, J., Rumball, N., and Williamson, S. (2014), Anti-Social Media (London: DEMOS).
  • Boden, M. A. (2004), The Creative Mind: Myths and Mechanisms, 2nd edn. (London: Routledge).
  • Boden, M. A. (2010), Creativity and Art: Three Roads to Surprise (Oxford: Oxford University Press). This collection of twelve papers is largely about computer art.
  • Simon, H. A. (1967), ‘Motivational and Emotional Controls of Cognition’, Psychological Review, 74: 39–79.
  • Sloman, A. (2001), ‘Beyond Shallow Models of Emotion’, Cognitive Processing: International Quarterly of Cognitive Science, 2: 177–98.
  • Wright, I. P., and Sloman, A. (1997), MINDER: An Implementation of a Protoemotional Architecture, available at </ftp:/ftp.cs.bham.ac.uk/pub/tech-reports/1997/CSRP-97-01.ps.gz>.

الفصل الرابع: الشبكات العصبية الاصطناعية

  • MasM chaps. 12, 14.
  • Rumelhart, D. E., and J. L. McClelland, eds. (1986), Parallel Distributed Processing: Explorations in the Microstructure of Cognition, vol. 1: Foundations (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press).
  • The whole volume is relevant; but the past-tense learner (written by Rumelhart and McClelland) is described on pp. 216–71.
  • Clark, A. (2016), Surfing Uncertainty: Prediction, Action, and the Embodied Mind (Oxford: Oxford University Press). A review of Bayesian approaches in cognitive science.
  • See also the paper by LeCun et al., and the two references from Demis Hassabis’ team, cited under Chapter 2, earlier.
  • The two quotations about the network scandal are from Minsky, M. L., and Papert, S. A. (1988), Perceptrons: An Introduction to Computational Geometry, 2nd edn. (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), viii–xv and 247–80.
  • Philippides, A., Husbands, P., Smith, T., and O’Shea, M. (2005), ‘Flexible Couplings Diffusing Neuromodulators and Adaptive Robotics’, Artificial Life, 11: 139–60.
  • A description of GasNets.
  • Cooper, R., Schwartz, M., Yule, P., and Shallice, T. (2005), ‘The Simulation of Action Disorganization in Complex Activities of Daily Living’, Cognitive Neuropsychology, 22: 959–1004.
  • Describes a computer model of Shallice’s hybrid theory of action.
  • Dayan, P., and Abbott, L. F. (2001), Theoretical Neuroscience: Computational and Mathematical Modelling of Neural Systems (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press).
  • This volume does not discuss technological AI, but shows how ideas from AI are influencing the study of the brain.

الفصل الخامس: الروبوتات والحياة الاصطناعية

  • MasM chaps 4.v–viii and 15.
  • Beer, R. DS. (1990), Intelligence as Adaptive Behavior: An Experiment in Computational Neuroethology (Boston: Academic Press).
  • Webb, B. (1996), ‘A Cricket Robot’, Scientific American, 275(6): 94–9.
  • Brooks, R. A. (1991), ‘Intelligence without Representation’, Artificial Intelligence, 47: 139–59.
  • The seminal paper of situated robotics.
  • Kirsh, D. (1991), ‘Today the Earwig, Tomorrow Man?’, Artificial Intelligence, 47: 161–84.
  • A sceptical response to situated robotics.
  • Harvey, I., Husbands, P., and Cliff, D. (1994), ‘Seeing the Light: Artificial Evolution, Real Vision’, From Animals to Animats 3 (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), 392–401.
  • Describes the evolution of an orientation detector in a robot.
  • Bird, J., and Layzell, P. (2002), ‘The Evolved Radio and its Implications for Modelling the Evolution of Novel Sensors’, Proceedings of Congress on Evolutionary Computation, CEC-2002, 1836–41.
  • Turk, G. (1991), ‘Generating Textures on Arbitrary Surfaces Using Reaction-Diffusion’, Computer Graphics, 25: 289–98.
  • Goodwin, B. C. (1994), How the Leopard Changed Its Spots: The Evolution of Complexity (Princeton University Press).
  • Langton, C. G. (1989), ‘Artificial Life’, in C. G. Langton (ed.), Artificial Life (Redwood City: Addison-Wesley), 1–47. Revd. version in M. A. Boden, ed. (1996), The Philosophy of Artificial Life (Oxford: Oxford University Press), 39–94.
  • The paper that defined ‘artificial life’.

الفصل السادس: لكن هل هو ذكاء حقًّا؟

  • MasM chaps. 7.i.g, 16.
  • Turing, A. M. (1950), ‘Computing Machinery and Intelligence’, Mind, 59: 433–60.
  • The quotations regarding ‘the hard problem’ are from Chalmers, D. J. (1995), ‘Facing up to the Problem of Consciousness’, Journal of Consciousness Studies, 2: 200–19.
  • The quotation by J. A. Fodor is from his (1992), ‘The Big Idea: Can There Be a Science of Mind?’, Times Literary Supplement, 3 July: 5–7.
  • Franklin, S. (2007), ‘A Foundational Architecture for Artificial General Intelligence’, in B. Goertzel and P. Wang (eds.), Advances in Artificial General Intelligence: Concepts, Architectures, and Algorithms (Amsterdam: IOS Press), 36–54.
  • Dennett, D. C. (1991), Consciousness Explained (London: Allen Lane). Sloman, A., and Chrisley, R. L. (2003), ‘Virtual Machines and Consciousness’, in O. Holland (ed.), Machine Consciousness (Exeter Imprint Academic), Journal of Consciousness Studies, special issue, 10(4): 133–72.
  • Putnam, H. (1960), ‘Minds and Machines’, in S. Hook (ed.), Dimensions of Mind: A Symposium (New York: New York University Press), 148–79.
  • The quotation about Physical Symbol Systems is from Newell, A., and Simon, H. A. (1972), Human Problem Solving (Englewood-Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall).
  • Gallagher, S. (2014), ‘Phenomenology and Embodied Cognition’, in L. Shapiro (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Embodied Cognition (London: Routledge), 9–18.
  • Dennett, D. C. (1984), Elbow Room: The Varieties of Free Will Worth Wanting (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press).
  • Millikan, R. G. (1984), Language, Thought, and Other Biological Categories: New Foundations for Realism (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press).
  • An evolutionary theory of intentionality.

فصل السابع: التفرد

  • Kurzweil, R. (2005), The Singularity is Near: When Humans Transcend Biology (London: Penguin).
  • Kurzweil, R. (2008), The Age of Spiritual Machines: When Computers Exceed Human Intelligence (London: Penguin).
  • Bostrom, N. (2005), ‘A History of Transhumanist Thought’, Journal of Evolution and Technology, 14(1): 1–25.
  • Shanahan, M. (2015), The Technological Singularity (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press).
  • Ford, M. (2015), The Rise of the Robots: Technology and the Threat of Mass Unemployment (London: Oneworld Publications).
  • Chace, C. (2018), Artificial Intelligence and the Two Singularities (London: Chapman and Hall/CRC Press).
  • Bostrom, N. (2014), Superintelligence: Paths, Dangers, Strategies (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
  • Wallach, W. (2015), A Dangerous Master: How to Keep Technology from Slipping Beyond Our Control (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
  • Brynjolfsson, E., and McAfee, A. (2014), The Second Machine Age: Work, Progress, and Prosperity in a Time of Brilliant Technologies (New York: W. W. Norton).
  • Wilks, Y. A., ed. (2010), Close Engagements with Artificial Companions: Key Social, Psychological, Ethical, and Design Issues (Amsterdam: John Benjamins).
  • Boden, M. A. et al. (fourteen authors) (2011), ‘Principles of Robotics: Regulating Robots in the Real World’, available on EPSRC website: <www.epsrc.ac.uk/research/ourportfolio/themes/>.

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