Full bibliographical details of the editions of Locke’s works that have been used in references are given in the list of abbreviations at the beginning of the book.
The Clarendon Press is at present engaged in publishing an edition of all Locke’s published writings and many of his unpublished manuscripts. The Essay concerning Human Understanding and (thus far) eight volumes of his Correspondence were the first to appear, superlatively edited by Peter Nidditch and E. S. de Beer respectively. A single volume of Selected Correspondence, edited by Mark Goldie (Oxford University Press), now makes some of the vividness and fascination of the full Correspondence accessible to a wider readership. A final volume, along with a full index to the Correspondence as a whole, will be issued shortly. These two works have since been joined by A Paraphrase and Notes on the Epistles of St Paul (ed. Arthur A. Wainwright, 2 vols., 1987), Some Thoughts on Education (ed. John W. & Jean S. Yolton, 1989), Drafts for the Essay concerning Human Understanding and other Philosophical Writings (ed. Peter H. Nidditch and G. A. J. Rogers, 1990), Locke on Money (2 vols., ed. Patrick Hyde Kelly, 1991), and The Reasonableness of Christianity (ed. John Higgins-Biddle, 1999). There are also excellent modern editions of the Two Treatises of Government (ed. Peter Laslett, Cambridge University Press, 2nd edn., 1988), Two Tracts on Government (ed. Philip Abrams, Cambridge University Press, 1968), Essays on the Law of Nature (ed. W. von Leyden, Clarendon Press, 1954), and a somewhat less satisfactory edition of the Letter on Toleration (ed. R. Klibansky and J. W. Gough, Clarendon Press, 1967). There are also very useful selections across the range of Locke’s views about politics in David Wootton’s Political Writings of John Locke (Penguin, 1993), a full and careful presentation of many of his incidental writings on politics in Locke, Political Essays, ed. Mark Goldie (Cambridge University Press, 1997), and a valuable selection of Locke’s Writings on Religion (ed. Victor Nuovo, Clarendon Press, 2002). Other published works of Locke are still most conveniently consulted in the 18th — or 19th — century editions of his Collected Works.
Maurice Cranston’s John Locke: A Biography (Longman, London, 1957) is informative but less vivid than Laslett’s Introduction to the Two Treatises. There is a major modern biography of Shaftesbury by K. H. D. Haley, The First Earl of Shaftesbury (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1968), and a remarkable (if not invariably reliable) study of Locke’s role in Shaftesbury’s political enterprises in the late Richard Ashcraft’s Revolutionary Politics and Locke’s Two Treatises of Government (Princeton University Press, 1986). The Introductions by von Leyden and Abrams are particularly illuminating on the development of Locke’s understanding of morality. The best systematic treatments of this are now provided by John Colman, John Locke’s Moral Philosophy (Edinburgh University Press, 1983) and A. John Simmons, The Lockean Theory of Rights (Princeton University Press, 1992); but see also, more broadly, Ian Harris, The Mind of John Locke (Cambridge University Press, 1994). Locke’s religious views are clearly (and on the whole approvingly) presented in M. S. Johnson, Locke on Freedom (Best Printing Co., Austin, Texas, 1978). They are also now widely discussed in studies of his political thinking (see, e.g., Dunn, 1969; Tully, 1980 and 1993; Marshall, 1994; Harris, 1994 below).
Michael Ayers’s superb two-volume study Locke. Epistemology and Ontology (Routledge, 1991) stands head and shoulders above all other modern philosophical treatments of his philosophy as a whole. Amongst other helpful works, written from a wide variety of perspectives, are John W. Yolton, Locke and the Compass of Human Understanding (Cambridge University Press, 1970); Roger Woolhouse, Locke’s Philosophy of Science and Knowledge (Basil Blackwell, Oxford, 1971); Richard I. Aaron, John Locke, 3rd edn. (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1971); James Gibson, Locke’s Theory of Knowledge and its Historical Relations (Cambridge University Press, 1917); Kathleen Squadrito, Locke’s Theory of Sensitive Knowledge (University Press of America, Washington, DC, 1978); J. L. Mackie, Problems from Locke (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1976); Jonathan Bennett, Locke, Berkeley, Hume: Central Themes (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1971) and Learning from Six Philosophers, 2 vols. (Oxford University Press, 2001), principally in Vol. 2; Peter A. Schouls, The Imposition of Method (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1980); and the essays collected in I. C. Tipton (ed.), Locke on Human Understanding (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1977). See now, too, Peter Schouls, Reasoned Freedom: John Locke and Enlightenment (Cornell University Press, 1992) and several of the chapters in Vere Chappell (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Locke (Cambridge University Press, 1994). There are a number of important articles by Michael Ayers (see particularly ‘Locke versus Aristotle on Natural Kinds’, Journal of Philosophy, May 1981; ‘Mechanism, Superaddition and the Proof of God’s Existence in Locke’s Essay’, Philosophical Review, April 1981; ‘The Ideas of Power and Substance in Locke’s Philosophy’, Philosophical Quarterly, January 1975). The central importance for Locke of men’s responsibility for their own beliefs is brought out very elegantly in John Passmore, ‘Locke and the Ethics of Belief’, Proceedings of the British Academy, 1978. The relation between his conception of men’s natural cognitive powers and the challenges with which History confronts them is discussed in J. Dunn, ‘“Bright Enough for all our Purposes”: John Locke’s Conception of a Civilised Society’, Notes and Records of the Royal Society, 43 (1989). On his conception of education, see (in addition to the edition of J. W. and J. S. Yolton, 1989) Nathan Tarcov, Locke’s Education for Liberty (University of Chicago Press, 1984). On Locke’s conceptions of persons and their identity, see Ruth Mattern, ‘Moral Science and the Concept of Persons in Locke’, Philosophical Review, January 1980, and David Wiggins, ‘Locke, Butler and the Stream of Consciousness and Men as a Natural Kind’, in A. O. Rorty (ed.), The Identities of Persons (University of California Press, Berkeley, 1976). For the formation of Locke’s own identity, see J. Dunn, ‘Individuality and Clientage in the Formation of Locke’s Social Imagination’, in Reinhard Brandt (ed.), John Locke (W. de Gruyter, Berlin and New York, 1981). The originality and influence of Locke’s conception of language is discussed magisterially in Hans Aarsleff, From Locke to Saussure (Athlone Press, London, 1982).
The best introductions to Locke’s political thought are Geraint Parry, Locke (George Allen and Unwin, 1978) and Richard Ashcraft, Locke’s Two Treatises of Government (George Allen and Unwin, 1987); but compare Ruth W. Grant, John Locke’s Liberalism (University of Chicago Press, 1987). The Two Treatises itself is discussed in J. Dunn, The Political Thought of John Locke (Cambridge University Press, 1969). There are now also extremely valuable overall treatments of the Two Treatises in A. John Simmons, The Lockean Theory of Rights and On the Edge of Anarchy (Princeton University Press, 1992). Its analysis of property is best treated in James Tully, A Discourse of Property (Cambridge University Press, 1980). But compare Tully’s recent collection, An Approach to Political Philosophy. Locke in Contexts (Cambridge University Press, 1993), Jeremy Waldron’s careful and forceful, The Right to Private Property (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1988), C. B. Macpherson, The Political Theory of Possessive Individualism (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1962), the Introduction to Istvan Hont and Michael Ignatieff (eds.), Wealth and Virtue (Cambridge University Press, 1983), and Matthew Kramer, John Locke and the Origins of Private Property (Cambridge University Press, 1997). Political obligation is discussed by W. von Leyden, Hobbes and Locke (Macmillan, London, 1981); compare J. Dunn, Political Obligation in its Historical Context (Cambridge University Press, 1980), chapter 3. On toleration see especially the essays by Dunn and Goldie in O. P. Grell, Jonathan Israel, and Nicholas Tyacke (eds.), From Persecution to Toleration (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1991), and Alex Tuckness, ‘Rethinking the Intolerant Locke’, American Journal of Political Science, 46, 2002. Two major recent systematic studies of his work as a whole from a historical point of view are Ian Harris, The Mind of John Locke and John Marshall, John Locke, Resistance, Religion and Responsibility (Cambridge University Press, 1994). Both authors (alongside John Milton and Victor Nuovo) also have extremely valuable essays in M. A. Stewart (ed.), English Philosophy in the Age of Locke (Clarendon Press, 2000). There are several helpful articles in J. W. Yolton (ed.), John Locke. Problems and Perspectives (Cambridge University Press, 1969); see especially Ashcraft and Aarsleff. The most penetrating discussion of the evolution of Locke’s own political commitments is to be found in Ashcraft’s study, Revolutionary Politics (Princeton University Press, 1986), in a number of studies by Mark Goldie, notably, ‘John Locke and Anglican Royalism’, Political Studies, March 1983, and in the Introduction to Laslett’s edition of the Two Treatises. There is a thoughtful and politically alert analysis of Locke’s understanding of the conditions for governmental legitimacy in Peter Josephson’s, The Great Art of Government: Locke’s Use of Consent (University of Kansas Press, 2002): compare Kirstie McClure, Judging Rights: Lockean Politics and the Limits of Consent (Cornell University Press, 1996). For the pressing issue of how far Locke succeeded or failed in doing justice to the formidably different practical predicaments and interests of women, see especially Carole Pateman, The Sexual Contract (Polity, 1988), and A. John Simmons, ‘The Conjugal and the Political in Locke’, Locke Studies, 1 (2001), responding to Ruth Sample’s, ‘Locke on Political Authority and Conjugal Authority’, The Locke Newsletter, 31, 2000.
The writings of the main target of the Two Treatises, Sir Robert Filmer, are available in convenient modern editions by Peter Laslett (Basil Blackwell, Oxford, 1949) and Johann P. Somerville (Cambridge University Press, 1991). The distinctiveness of Filmer’s views is best brought out in James Daly, Sir Robert Filmer and English Political Thought (University of Toronto Press, 1979). The background to his thinking can be approached through Gordon J. Schochet, Patriarchalism in Political Thought (Basil Blackwell, Oxford, 1975). The relations between the political theory of Locke and his 18th century successors are discussed in J. Dunn, ‘The Politics of Locke in England and America in the Eighteenth Century’, Political Obligation, chapter 4, and ‘From Applied Theology to Social Analysis: The break between John Locke and the Scottish Enlightenment’, in Hont and Ignatieff (eds.), Wealth and Virtue, in Stephen Dworetz’s somewhat brash, The Unvarnished Doctrine (Duke University Press, 1990), and in Michael Zuckert’s learned and intelligent Natural Rights and the New Republicanism (Princeton University Press, 1995). I have attempted to assess the varying longevity and weight of Locke’s impact upon subsequent political thinking in ‘What is Living and What is Dead in Locke’s Political Thought’, in Dunn, Interpreting Political Responsibility (Polity, 1990), ‘The Contemporary Political Significance of John Locke’s Conception of Civil Society’, in Sudipta Kaviraj and Sunil Khilnani (eds.), Civil Society: History and Possibilities (Cambridge University Press, 2001), and ‘Measuring Locke’s Shadow’, in Locke’s Letter on Toleration and Two Treatises of Government (ed. Ian Shapiro, Yale University Press, 2003). There are important modern studies on Locke’s political theory in French (notably those of Jean-Fabien Spitz), German, Japanese, and Italian. An annual periodical, The Locke Newsletter (up to 2000), now Locke Studies, published by Roland Hall, Department of Philosophy, University of York, provides regular information on current research into Locke’s life and thought. Its first issue was an invaluable bibliography, since republished in a fuller form as Roland Hall and Roger Woolhouse, Eighty Years of Locke Scholarship. A Bibliographical Guide (Edinburgh University Press, 1983).
Six works which illuminate the background to important aspects of Locke’s writings are Michael Hunter, Science and Society in Restoration England (Cambridge University Press, 1981); Quentin Skinner, The Foundations of Modern Political Thought (2 vols., Cambridge University Press, 1978); Richard Tuck, Natural Rights Theories: Their Origins and Development (Cambridge University Press, 1979); and Philosophy and Government 1572–1651 (Cambridge University Press, 1993); John W. Yolton, John Locke and the Way of Ideas (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1956); Richard H. Popkin, The History of Scepticism from Erasmus to Spinoza (University of California Press, Berkeley, 1979).