John Clute and Peter Nicholls’s New Encyclopedia of Science Fiction (London: Orbit, 1993) and John Clute’s Science Fiction: The Illustrated Encyclopedia (London: Near Fine, 1995) are essential reference works. Three valuable histories of science fiction are Brian W. Aldiss and David Wingrove’s Trillion Year Spree (Kelly Brook: House of Stratus, 2001); Edward James’s Science Fiction in the Twentieth Century (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994); and Brian Stableford’s The Sociology of Science Fiction (San Bernardino: Borgo Press, 2007). Among numerous other useful reference works are M. Keith Booker and Anne-Marie Thomas (eds.), The Science Fiction Handbook (Malden, MA, and Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009); Mark Bould et al. (eds.), The Routledge Companion to Science Fiction (London and New York: Routledge, 2009); Edward James and Farah Mendelson (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to Science Fiction (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003); and David Seed (ed.), A Companion to Science Fiction (Oxford: Blackwell, 2005). Joanna Russ’s comments on science fiction can be found in The Country You Have Never Seen (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2007). Istvan Csicsery-Ronay, The Seven Beauties of Science Fiction (Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 2008) presents a series of far-reaching essays on SF. Phil Hardy’s Overlook Film Encyclopedia (New York: Overlook Press, 1995) is a valuable reference work.
الفصل الأول: رحلات إلى الفضاء
John Rieder, Colonialism and the Emergence of Science Fiction (Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 2009) explores the relation between science fiction and empire. Arthur C. Clarke’s essays and reviews on science fiction are collected in Greetings, Carbon-Based Bipeds! (London: Voyager, 1999). A valuable source on 2001 is James Agel’s The Making of Kubrick’s 2001 (New York: New American Library, 1970). J. G. Ballard’s comments on inner space are collected in his A User’s Guide to the Millennium (London: Flamingo, 1997).
الفصل الثاني: لقاء الكائنات الفضائية
Useful commentary on the SF films of the 1950s can be found in Peter Biskind, Seeing Is Believing: How Hollywood Taught Us to Stop Worrying and Love the Fifties (New York: Henry Holt, 1983). Jenny Wolmark, Aliens and Others (Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1993) explores the relation of the alien to gender, as does Patricia Meltzer, Alien Constructions (Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 2006). Gwyneth Jones’s explanation of her Aleutians can be found in her Deconstructing the Starships (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1999). Walter E. Meyer, Aliens and Linguistics (Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1980) discusses the languages of different aliens in SF.
الفصل الثالث: الخيال العلمي والتكنولوجيا
Lewis Mumford’s Technics and Civilization (1934) has been reprinted by Chicago University Press (2010). Graeme Gilloch, Myth and Metropolis (London: Polity Press, 1997) gives valuable commentary on Walter Benjamin and the city. Roger Luckhurst, Science Fiction (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2005) focuses its history on technology. Gary Westfahl, The Mechanics of Wonder (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1998) discusses in detail Hugo Gernsback’s role in the evolution of SF. Marc Angenot’s introduction to the semiotics of SF can be found in his essay ‘The Absent Paradigm’, Science Fiction Studies, 6(1) (March 1979), pp. 9–19. Isaac Asimov, Asimov on Science Fiction (New York: Doubleday, 1981) collects essays on technology in SF and related topics. David Hartwell and Kathryn Cramer (eds.), The Ascent of Wonder (London: Orbit, 1994) collects examples of hard science fiction, as does their subsequent volume, The Hard SF Renaissance (Pleasantville, NY: Dragon Press, 2002). Vivian Sobchack, Screening Space, 2nd edn. (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 2001) gives essential commentary on relevant science fiction films. Chris Hables Gray (ed.), The Cyborg Handbook (New York and London: Routledge, 1995) contains many important pieces on this subject. Donna Haraway’s famous ‘A Cyborg Manifesto: Science, Technology, and Socialist-Feminism in the Late Twentieth Century’ originally appeared in Simians, Cyborgs and Women: The Reinvention of Nature (London and New York: Routledge, 1991), pp. 149–81; it has subsequently appeared in numerous collections. Scott Bukatman, Terminal Identity (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1993) explores the emergence of the virtual subject in postmodernism. J. P. Telotte, Replications (Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1995) surveys robotics in the SF cinema, and David Porush, The Soft Machine (New York and London: Methuen, 1985) discusses a range of texts dealing with cybernetics. Mark Dery, Escape Velocity (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1996) discusses the cyberculture of the late 20th century.
الفصل الرابع: المدن الفاضلة (يوتوبيا) والمدن الفاسدة (ديستوبيا)
Darko Suvin, Positions and Presuppositions in Science Fiction (London: Macmillan, 1988) contains his definition of utopias. His approach is followed in Tom Moylan, Scraps of the Untainted Sky (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2000). Krishan Kumar, Utopia and Anti-Utopia in Modern Times (Oxford: Blackwell, 1987) relates key modern utopias and dystopias to their political context. Philip E. Wegner, Imaginary Communities (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2002) covers a much broader time span and also relates utopian writings to history. John Carey (ed.), The Faber Book of Utopias (London: Faber, 2000) gathers some classic examples of the genre. Pamela Sargent (ed.), Women of Wonder: Science Fiction Stories by Women about Women (New York: Random House, 1975), and More Women of Wonder: Science Fiction Novelettes by Women about Women (New York: Vintage, 1976) were pioneering anthologies in their field. Joanna Russ discusses the predicament of the female SF writer in To Write Like a Woman (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1995), and Ursula Le Guin’s main comments on science fiction are collected in The Language of the Night (New York: Putnam, 1979). Eric Leif Davin, Partners in Wonder (Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2006) questions the received image of women’s presence in science fiction 1926–65, arguing that it was far more extensive than widely supposed. Michel Foucault’s 1967 paper ‘Of Other Spaces’ is available at http://foucault.info/documents/heteroTopia/foucault.heteroTopia.en.html (accessed 10 January 2011).
الفصل الخامس: الخيال العلمي والزمن
H. G. Wells, The Discovery of the Future (London: Polytechnic of North London Press, 1989) reprints his famous essay. John Gosling, Waging ‘The War of the Worlds’ (Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2009) discusses the radio adaptation of Wells’s famous novel. Nicholas Ruddick, The Fire in the Stone (Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 2009) surveys the mainly Darwinian tradition of prehistoric fiction. I. F. Clarke, Voices Prophesying War, 2nd edn. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992) gives an historical survey of future wars from 1763 to 3749. Related in subject, H. Bruce Franklin, War Stars (New York: Oxford University Press, 1988) examines the history of the super-weapon in American fiction. Paul Brians, Nuclear Holocausts (Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 1987), with its 2008 edition at http://www.wsu.edu/~brians/nuclear/, are essential guides to fiction from 1895 onwards that deals with atomic war. Susan Sontag’s essay ‘The Imagination of Disaster’ first appeared in Against Interpretation (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1966) and has since been published in numerous collections. Samuel Delany, Silent Interviews and The Jewel-Hinged Jaw, revised edn. (Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 1994 and 2009) collect most of Delany’s writings on SF. George E. Slusser and Colin Greenland (eds.), Storm Warnings (Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 1987) assembles essays on how SF confronts the future; and Fredric Jameson, Archaeologies of the Future (London and New York: Verso, 2005) presents a sophisticated Marxist interpretation of utopian and other SF. W. Warren Wagar, Terminal Visions (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1982) is an important study of apocalyptic fiction.
الفصل السادس: مجال الخيال العلمي
Mike Ashley, The Time Machines, Transformations, and Gateways to Forever (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2000, 2005, and 2007) together make up the standard history of science fiction magazines. Michael Moorcock (ed.), New Worlds: An Anthology (London: Flamingo, 1983) gathers a cross-section of representative pieces from his journal. Mark Bould and China Mieville (eds.), Red Planets (London: Pluto Press, 2009) contains some of Mieville’s statements on SF. Nalo Hopkinson and Uppinder Mehan (eds.), So Long Been Dreaming (Vancouver: Arsenal Pulp Press, 2004) is an important collection of postcolonial science fiction. Sheree R. Thomas and Martin Simmons’s Dark Matter (New York: Time Warner, 2000) and Sheree R. Thomas’s Dark Matter: Reading the Bones (New York: Time Warner, 2005) together constitute ground-breaking collections of African American science fiction. Studies of religion in SF include Frederick A. Kreuziger, The Religion of Science Fiction (Bowling Green, OH: Popular Press, 1982) and on its relation to philosophy, see Stephen R. L. Clark, How To Live Forever (London and New York: Routledge, 1995) and Susan Schneider (ed.), Science Fiction and Philosophy (Malden, MA, and Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009). Bruce Sterling (ed.), Mirrorshades (Westminster, MD: Arbor House, 1986) is the formative cyberpunk anthology. Darko Suvin, Metamorphoses of Science Fiction (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1979) contains Suvin’s classic formulations on this body of fiction. Patrick Parrinder (ed.), Learning from Other Worlds (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2000) is a collection of critical essays on Suvin’s writings. Carl Freedman, Critical Theory and Science Fiction (Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 2000) contains his discussion of the ‘cognition effect’. The main critical journals on science fiction are Science Fiction Studies and Extrapolation in the USA, Foundation: The International Review of Science Fiction in Britain.