الفصل الأول: صُنع الجزيئات: تلك الأشياء الخفية

  • ‘The sergeant beckoned the waitress’. F. O’Brien, The Dalkey Archive (Normal, Ill.: Dalkey Archive Press, 1993), 80.
  • ‘Did you ever study the Mollycule Theory’. Ibid. 81.
  • ‘Mollycules is a very intricate theorem’. Ibid. 81-2.
  • Primo Levi’s famous book is The Periodic Table (London: Abacus, 1986).
  • The quotations in the box are from ibid. 3, 58, 171; the translation is copyright Shocken Books Inc. (1975).
  • John Horgan’s book is The End of Science (London: Little, Brown & Co., 1997).
  • The several other recent books I refer to include the (otherwise excellent) M. Kaku, Visions (New York: Doubleday, 1997), and J. Maddox, What Remains to be Discovered (London: Macmillan, 1998).
  • Roald Hoffmann’s book is The Same and Not the Same (New York: Columbia University Press, 1995).
  • ‘a “low” chemistry, almost culinary’. P. Levi and T. Regge, Conversations (London: I. B. Tauris & Co., 1989).
  • Thomas Pynchon, Gravity’s Rainbow (London: Penguin, 1987).
  • The quotation in the box is from ibid. 249-50.
  • My book is H2O: A Biography of Water (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1999).
  • ‘the profession I studied in school’. P. Levi, The Monkey’s Wrench (London: Penguin, 1987), 142-3.
  • Primo Levi ‘put it this way’ in ibid. 144.
  • For the story of the aniline dye industry, see A. S. Travis, The Rainbow Makers (Bethlehem, Pa.: Lehigh University Press, 1993), and S. Garfield, Mauve (London: Faber & Faber, 2000).
  • ‘as you can imagine’. Levi, The Monkey’s Wrench, 144.
  • The papers reporting the synthesis of taxol are K. C. Nicolaou et al., ‘Total Synthesis of Taxol’, Nature, 367 (1994), 630; R. A. Holton et al., ‘First Total Synthesis of Taxol. 1: Functionalization of the B Ring’, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 116 (1994), 1597; R. A. Holton et al., ‘First Total Synthesis of Taxol. 2: Completion of the C and D Rings’, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 116 (1994), 1599.
  • Müller’s group describe their ‘big wheels’ in A. Müller et al., ‘Formation of a Ring-Shaped Reduced “Metal Oxide” with the Simple Composition [(MoO3)176(H2O)80H32]’, Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 37 (1988), 1220.

الفصل الثاني: العلامات الحيوية: جزيئات الحياة

  • ‘I am not going to answer this question’. J. B. S. Haldane, What Is Life? (Welwyn: Alcuin Press, 1949), 58.
  • ‘Nature is what we know’. Emily Dickinson (c.1863), The Complete Poems, ed. T. H. Johnson (London: Faber & Faber, 1975), 332.
  • ‘life is a pattern of chemical processes’. Haldane, What Is Life?, 61-2.
  • ‘the cause of most phenomena’. J. J. Berzelius (1812), Ofversigt af djurkemiens framsteg och narvarande tillstånd: A Report to the Swedish Academy of Science, Presented on 13 August 1810, translated into English by G. Brunnmark as A View of the Progress and Present State of Animal Chemistry (London, 1818), 4–8.
  • ‘This power to live’. Ibid.
  • Allan Wilson’s group reported their findings in R. L. Cann, M. Stoneking, and A. C. Wilson, ‘Mitochondrial DNA and Human Evolution’, Nature, 325 (1987)/31. This article was much criticized on methodological grounds: see H. Gee, Nature, 355 (1992), 583.
  • ‘Advances in directed evolution’. J. W. Szostak, D. P. Bartel, and P. L. Luisi, ‘Synthesizing Life’, Nature, 409 (2001), 387.

الفصل الثالث: المهمة الشاقة: صنع مواد من جزيئات

  • Space tethers are described in R. L. Forward and R. P. Hoyt, ‘Space Tethers’, Scientific American, 280/2 (February 1999), 86. For the broader picture on molecular materials, see P. Ball, Made to Measure: New Materials for the 21st Century (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1997).
  • The many varieties of spider silk are discussed in F. Vollrath, ‘Spider Webs and Silks’, Scientific American (March 1992), 70.
  • Making materials from artificial genes is described in D. A. Tirrell, M. J. Fournier, and T. L. Mason, ‘Genetic Engineering of Polymeric Materials’, MRS Bulletin (July 1991), 23.
  • The discovery of carbon nanotubes was reported in S. Iijima, ‘Helical Microtubules of Graphitic Carbon’, Nature, 354 (1991), 56.
  • For the story of the discovery of the fullerenes, see J. Baggott, Perfect Symmetry (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994).
  • The tentative step towards the production of nanotube fibres is described in B. Vigolo et al., ‘Macroscopic Fibers and Ribbons of Oriented Carbon Nanotubes’, Science, 290 (2000), 1331.

الفصل الرابع: في مسألة الأيض: الجزيئات والطاقة

  • The Second Law of Thermodynamics is discussed in depth in P. W. Atkins, The Second Law (New York: W. H. Freeman & Co., 1984).
  • Erwin Schrödinger, What Is Life? (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1944).
  • The work on artificial mimics of photosynthesis is described in G. Steinberg-Yfrach et al., ‘Conversion of Light Energy to Proton Potential in Liposomes by Artificial Photosynthetic Reaction Centres’, Nature, 385 (1997), 239; G. Steinberg-Yfrach et al., ‘Light-Driven Production of ATP Catalysed by F0F1-ATP Synthase in an Artificial Photosynthetic Membrane’, Nature, 392 (1998), 479.
  • ‘CH3C6H2(NO2)3 + Hg(CNO)2’. A. Huxley, Brave New World (London: Granada, 1977), 48.
  • The synthesis of explosive octanitrocubane is described in M.-X. Zhang, P. E. Eaton, and R. Gilardi, ‘Hepta- and Octanitrocubanes’, Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 39 (2000), 401.

الفصل الخامس: المحركات الدقيقة المفيدة: المحركات الجزيئية

  • Richard Feynman’s article ‘There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom’ appeared in Engineering and Science magazine (February 1960). More accessible versions are available in B. C. Crandall and J. Lewis (eds.), Nanotechnology: Research and Perspectives (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1992), or at http://www.zyvex.com/nanotech/feynman.html.
  • ‘we don’t have those tweezers’. P. Levi, The Monkey’s Wrench (London: Penguin, 1987), 144.
  • I wish I could point to a good general reference source for nanotechnology, but that is surprisingly difficult. K. Eric Drexler has done most to popularize the subject, albeit in a manner that owes as much to science fiction as to current science—see his Engines of Creation (London: Fourth Estate, 1990), and also K. E. Drexler, C. Peterson, and G. Pergamit (1994), Unbounding the Future (Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1994). And, for critical comment on Drexler’s vision of nanotechnology, see G. Stix, ‘Trends in Nanotechnology: Waiting for Breakthroughs’, Scientific American (April 1996), 94; and D. E. H. Jones, ‘Technical Boundless Optimism’, Nature, 374 (1995), 835. Ed Regis’s Nano! (New York: Bantam Books, 1995), is a readable account, but centres around Drexler’s vision. The volume by Crandall and Lewis (above) has some nice contributions, if slightly technical and now outdated. Michael Gross’s Travels to the Nanoworld (New York: Plenum, 1999), is well worth reading but sometimes idiosyncratic in its choices. The web site of Drexler’s Foresight Institute (http://www.foresight.org) does a good job of collating up-to-date popular and technical articles.
  • The work of Kinosita’s group is described in Y. Arai et al., ‘Tying a Molecular Knot with Optical Tweezers’, Nature, 399 (1999), 446.
  • The artificial molecular motor is described in N. Koumura, R. W. J. Zijlstra, R. A. van Delden, N. Harada, and B. L. Feringa, ‘Light-Driven Monodirectional Molecular Motor’, Nature, 401 (1999), 152.
  • Ross Kelly’s rotary motor is described in T. R. Kelly, H. De Silva, and R. A. Silva, ‘Unidirectional Rotary Motion in a Molecular System’, Nature, 401 (1999), 150.
  • The field of synthetic molecular motors and machines is reviewed in V. Balzani, A. Credi, F. M. Raymo, and J. F. Stoddart, ‘Artificial Molecular Machines’, Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 39 (2000), 3348–91.
  • The work of Stan Leibler’s group is described in F. J. Nédélec, T. Surrey, A. C. Maggs, and S. Leibler, ‘Self-Organization of Microtubules and Motors’, Nature, 389 (1997), 305.
  • Viola Vogel and colleagues reported their work in J. Dennis, J. Howard, and V. Vogel, ‘Molecular Shuttles: Directed Motion of Microtubules along Nanoscale Kinesin Tracks’, Nanotechnology, 10 (1999), 232.
  • The ATP synthase rotors made by Carlo Montemagno and colleagues are described in R. K. Soong et al., ‘Powering an Inorganic Nanodevice with a Biomolecular Motor’, Science, 290 (2000), 1555–8.

الفصل السادس: توصيل الرسائل: الاتصالات الجزيئية

  • The endocrine system and other systems of biomolecular communication are discussed in S. Aldridge, Magic Molecules: How Drugs Work (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998).
  • For an excellent discussion of neurotoxins and mind-altering drugs, see J. Mann, Murder, Magic, and Medicine (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992).
  • For an overview of supramolecular chemistry, see J.-M. Lehn, Supramolecular Chemistry (Weinheim: VCH, 1995). A less technical introduction is given in J.-M. Lehn and P. Ball, ‘Supramolecular Chemistry’, in N. Hall (ed.), The New Chemistry (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000).
  • The ‘signal-transducing’ synthetic molecular receptor is described in R. Krauss, H.-G. Weinig, M. Seydack, J. Bendig, and U. Koert, ‘Molecular Signal Transduction through Conformational Transmission of a Perhydroanthracene Transducer’, Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 39 (2000), 1835.

الفصل السابع: الكمبيوتر الكيميائي: المعلومات الجزيئية

  • John Hopfield speaks about biological existence theorems in the text of a talk entitled ‘Biological information processing and molecular nanocomputing’, given at the Nature conference on nanotechnology, Tokyo, January 1992.
  • The work of Leslie Orgel and others on replicating molecules is discussed in L. Orgel, ‘Molecular Replication’, Nature, 358 (1992), 203.
  • Günter von Kiedrowski reported his molecular replicators in G. von Kiedrowski, ‘A Self-Replicating Hexadeoxynucleotide’, Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 25 (1986), 932.
  • Nadrian Seeman’s DNA cages are described in J. Chen and N. C. Seeman, ‘Synthesis from DNA of a Molecule with the Connectivity of a Cube’, Nature, 350 (1991), 631; Y. Zhang and N. C. Seeman, ‘The Construction of a DNA Truncated Octahedron’, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 116 (1994), 1661.
  • Chad Mirkin and colleagues reported their DNA-based method of nanoparticle assembly in C. A. Mirkin, R. L. Letsinger, R. C. Mucic, and J. J. Storhoff, ‘A DNA-Based Method for Rationally Organizing Nanoparticles into Macroscopic Materials’, Nature, 382 (1996), 607.
  • The peptides that recognize different semiconductor surfaces are described in S. R. Whaley, D. S. English, E. L. Hu, P. F. Barbara, and A. M. Belcher, ‘Selection of Peptides with Semiconductor Binding Specificity for Directed Nanocrystal Assembly’, Nature, 405 (2000), 665.
  • The molecule-based logic devices built by Jim Heath and coworkers are described in C. P. Collier et al., ‘Electronically Configurable Molecular-Based Logic Gates’, Science, 285 (1999), 391.
  • The rotaxane-based logic device is reported in A. Credi, V. Balzani, S. J. Langford, and J. F. Stoddart, ‘Logic Operations at the Molecular Level: An XOR Gate Based on a Molecular Machine’, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 119 (1997), 2679.
  • The measurement of the electrical conductivities of single molecules is described in M. A. Reed, C. Zhou, C. J. Muller, T. P. Burgin, and J. M. Tour, ‘Conductance of a Molecular Junction’, Science, 278 (1997), 252; M. A. Reed and J. M. Tour, ‘Computing with Molecules’, Scientific American (June 2000), 86. Molecules that perform arithmetic are described in A. P. de Silva and N. D. McClenaghan, ‘Proof-of-Principle of Molecular-Scale Arithmetic’, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 122 (2000), 3965.
  • Leonard Adleman’s proposal for DNA computing is described in L. M. Adleman, ‘Molecular Computation of Solutions to Combinatorial Problems’, Science, 266 (1994), 1021; L. M. Adleman, ‘Computing with DNA’, Scientific American (August 1994), 54.

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