الهوامش

مقدمة

(1)
See, for example, “The [Egyptian] Tyrant Must Go, but Beware What Comes Next,” Daily Mail (U.K.), January 31, 2011, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/debate/article-1352090/EGYPT-RIOTS-Hosni-Mubarak-beware-comes-next.html; “Tunisia May be a Democratic Beacon, but Islamists Will Profit,” Daily Star (Lebanon), February 1, 2011, http://www.dailystar.com.lb/Opinion/Commentary/Feb/01/Tunisia-may-be-a-democratic-beacon-but-Islamists-will-profit.ashx#ixzz1Sp82U5CF; “Will Tunisians Rue Their Revolution?,” Jewish Forward, February 2, 2011, http://www.forward.com/articles/135135/; and “Arabian Nightmare: Talk of an ‘Arab Spring’ for Democracy Is Dangerously Premature. An Islamist Takeover of the Middle East Is Just as Likely,” The Spectator (U.K.), February 28, 2011, http://www.spectator.co.uk/essays/all/6725963/arabian-nightmare.thtml.
(2)
Afrol News, “Tunisia Tops Competitive Rank in Africa,” June 17, 2009, http://www.afrol.com/articles/33565.
(3)
Agence France-Presse, “Islamists Urge National Reconciliation in Tunisia,” July 18, 2011, http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5hGT83MM5abyhd1ddTnyRYtUEH_8A?docId=CNG.8fb7d35155ba255c40a5a227fc0d8daf.c1.
(4)
Mary Beth Sheridan, “Egyptians Say Economy Tops Their List of Concerns, not Democracy,” Washington Post, June 4, 2011, http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/middle-east/egyptians-say-economy-tops-their-list-of-concerns-not-democracy/2011/06/04/AGUV31IH_story.html.
(5)
“After Their Revolutions for Peace, Crowd Violence Forces Football Match to Be Abandoned Between Egypt and Tunisia,” Daily Mail (U.K.), April 3, 2011, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1372844/After-revolutions-peace-crowd-violence-forces-football-match-abandoned-Egypt-Tunisia.html#ixzz1SpFMkSI9.
(6)
Tom Kington, “Refugees From Libya Attacked in Tunisian Desert,” The Guardian (London), May 25, 2011, http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/may/25/libya-refugees-gaddafi-regime-attacked.
(7)
Houda Trabelsi, “Tunisia Voter Registration Push Pays Off,” Magharebia.com, August 18, 2011, http://www.magharebia.com/cocoon/awi/xhtml1/en_GB/features/awi/features/2011/08/18/feature-03.
(8)
Giuliana Sgrena, “Chaos Reigns in Tunisian Politics,” Inter-Press Service, August 5, 2011, http://www.arabamericannews.com/news/index.php?mod=article&cat=ArabWorld&article=4566.

الفصل الأول: نهاية العلمانية التونسية

(1)
Shashank Bengali, “Old Media Hands Remain in New Tunisia,” Miami Herald, May 29, 2011, http://www.sentinelle-tunisie.com/medias/item/old-media-hands-remain-in-new-tunisia.
(2)
Alfred E. Montesquiou, “Tunisia Economy Thrives Amid Restrictive Politics,” Associated Press, October 29, 2009, http://etaiwannews.com/etn/news_content.php?id=1094558&lang=eng_news&cate_img=35.jpg&cate_rss=news_Business.
(3)
Monia Ghanmi, “Porn Site Popularity Worries Tunisians,” magharabia.com, April 27, 2011, http://www.magharebia.com/cocoon/awi/xhtml1/en_GB/features/awi/features/2011/04/27/feature-03.
(4)
Sayed Mahmoud, “Tunisian Bookstore Sees Demand Rise for Revolutionary and Islamist Publications,” Al-Ahram Online (Egypt), July 19, 2011, http://english.ahram.org.eg/~/NewsContentP/18/16763/Books/Tunisian-bookstore-sees-demand-rise-for-revolution.aspx.
(5)
Agence France-Press, “Quarter of Tunisians Living in Poverty: Official,” May 28, 2011, http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Quarter+of+Tunisians+living+in+poverty%3A+official-a01612467096.
(6)
John R. Bradley, Behind the Veil of Vice: The Business and Culture of Sex in the Middle East (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010), p. 77.
(7)
Human Rights Watch, “Tunisia: Police Inaction Allowed Assault on Film Screening,” June 30, 2011, http://www.hrw.org/fr/news/2011/06/30/tunisia-police-inaction-allowed-assault-film-screening.
(8)
Houda Trabelsi, “Salafist Ideology Threatens Tunisian Artists,” Magharebia.com, July 29, 2011, http://www.magharebia.com/cocoon/awi/xhtml1/en_GB/features/awi/features/2011/04/29/feature-04.
(9)
Barnabasaid, “Christians Flee as Islamist Influence Grows in Tunisia,” June 6, 2011, http://barnabasfund.org/US/News/Archives/Christians-flee-as-Islamist-influence-grows-in-Tunisia.html.
(10)
The Telegraph (London), “Tunisian Fundamentalists Burn Down Brothels,” February 19, 2011, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/africaandindianocean/tunisia/8335341/Tunisian-fundamentalists-burn-down-brothels.html.
(11)
Jamel Arfaoui, “Secularism Stirs Fresh Debate in Tunisia,” Magharebia.com, March 16, 2011, http://www.magharebia.com/cocoon/awi/xhtml1/en_GB/features/awi/features/2011/03/16/feature-03.
(12)
Bouazza Ben Bouazza, “Tunisia: Government, Islamist Party Condemn Grisly Slaying of Catholic Priest,” Associated Press, February 19, 2009, http://www.startribune.com/templates/Print_This_Story?sid=116530588.
(13)
Ibid.
(14)
A video of the attack was posted on YouTube here: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hXr9Crc_RLc&feature=player_embedded.
(15)
Jennifer Lipman, “Arsonists Attack Tunisian Synagogue,” Jewish Chronicle (U.K.), February 1, 2011, http://www.thejc.com/news/world-news/44533/arsonists-attack-tunisian-synagogue.
(16)
The Associated Press, “Tunisian Police Fire Tear Gas on Islamist Protest,” April 29, 2011, http://arabnews.com/middleeast/article377578.ece.
(17)
Hichem Borni, “Tunisian Protesters Demand Headscarves,” United Press International, April 2, 2011, http://www.upi.com/News_Photos/News/Tunisian-protesters-demand-headscarves/4844/2/.
(18)
Meriem Zeghidi, “Is Tunisian Culture Under Threat From Islamists?,” France-24, June 30, 2011, http://observers.france24.com/content/20110630-tunisia-culture-under-threat-islamists-attack-cinema-theatre-tunis.
(19)
Agence France-Press, “Tunisia’s Internet Agency Agrees to Block Porn,” June 14, 2011, http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5hjgvniVzuE7YmFIresEi6lkwWQ5w?docId=CNG.b3569aafd06fe78f58be73c5faaa97a5.4a1.
(20)
Human Rights Watch, “Tunisia: Police Inaction Allowed Assault on Film Screening,” June 30, 2011.
(21)
For a fuller discussion of Habib Bourguiba and his feminist legacy, see chap. 2, “Islamic Feminism,” in Bradley, Behind the Veil of Vice.
(22)
Eric Pace, “Habib Bourguiba, Led Tunisia to Independence From France,” New York Times, April 7, 2000, http://www.library.cornell.edu/colldev/mideast/bourgnyt.htm.
(23)
Ibid.
(24)
Gautam Naik, “Tunisia Wins Population Battle, and Others See a Policy Model,” Wall Street Journal, August 8, 2003, http://online.wsj.com/article/0,SB106028926761045100-search,00.html?collection=wsjie%2F30day&vql_string=tunisia%3Cin%3E%28article%2Dbody%29.
(25)
Ibid.
(26)
Quoted in Suha Sabbagh, Arab Women: Between Defiance and Restraint (New York: Olive Branch Press, 1998), p. 34. See also Richard H. Curtis, “Tunisia’s Family Planning Success Underlies Its Economic Progress,” Washington Report on Middle East Affairs, December 1999, http://www.wrmea.com/backissues/1196/9611072.htm.
(27)
Sabbagh, Arab Women: Between Defiance and Restraint, p. 34.
(28)
Montesquiou, “Tunisia Economy Thrives Amid Restrictive Politics,” id=1094558&lang=eng_news&cate_img=35.jpg&cate_rss=news_Business.
(29)
Vincenzo Nigro, “Tunisia, il golpe italiano: ‘Sì, scegliemmo Ben Alì,’” La Repubblica (Italy), October 11, 1999, http://www.repubblica.it/online/fatti/afri/nigro/nigro.html.
(30)
Elizabeth Day, “Fedia Hamdi’s Slap Which Sparked a Revolution ‘Didn’t Happen,’” The Guardian (London), April 23, 2001, http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/apr/23/fedia-hamdi-slap-revolution-tunisia.
(31)
Montesquiou, “Tunisia Economy Thrives Amid Restrictive Politics”.
(32)
John Thorne, “Pre-Revolution Tunisians Were Growing Gloomier, Poll Shows,” The National (Abu Dhabi), June 27, 2011, http://www.thenational.ae/news/worldwide/africa/pre-revolution-tunisians-were-growing-gloomier-poll-shows.
(33)
Borzou Daragahi, “Neighbors in Tunisia Express Disgust Over Former First Lady’s Family,” Los Angeles Times, January, 2007, http://articles.latimes.com/2011/jan/17/world/la-fg-tunisia-villas-20110117.
(34)
The National (Abu Dhabi), “What WikiLeaks Revealed About Leila Ben Ali’s Excesses in Tunisia,” May 7, 2011, http://www.thenational.ae/news/worldwide/africa/what-wikileaks-revealed-about-leila-ben-alis-excesses-in-tunisia.
(35)
David Gauthier-Villars, “How ‘the Family’ Controlled Tunisia,” Wall Street Journal, June 20, 2011, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748703752404576178523635718108.html.
(36)
Ibid.
(37)
Ibid.
(38)
Christopher Dickey, “A Dictator Dispatched,” Newsweek, January 23, 2011, http://www.newsweek.com/2011/01/23/a-dictator-dispatched.html.
(39)
Colin Randall, “Tunisian Revolution Claims Victim in French Cabinet as Foreign Minister Quits,” The National (Abu Dhabi), February 28, 2011, http://www.thenational.ae/news/worldwide/europe/tunisian-revolution-claims-victim-in-french-cabinet-as-foreign-minister-quits.
(40)
Gauthier-Villars, “How ‘the Family’ Controlled Tunisia.”
(41)
David D. Kirkpatrick, “Behind Tunisia Unrest, Rage Over Wealth of Ruling Family,” New York Times, January 13, 2011, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/14/world/africa/14tunisia.html?_r=2&ref=africa.
(42)
Associated Press, “Tunisian Ex-Leader: I Was ‘Tricked’ Into Leaving,” June 21, 2001, http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2011/06/21/ap/middleeast/main20072872.shtml.
(43)
France-24, “Ben Ali Trial in Absentia a ‘Charade,’ Critics Say,” Agence France-Presse, June 21, 2011, http://www.france24.com/en/20110621-ben-ali-case-charade-tunisians-theft-embezzlement-trial-absentia-joke#.
(44)
Reuters, “Tunisia’s Islamist Party Denies It’s Behind Riots,” July 19, 2011, http://www.jpost.com/Headlines/Article.aspx?id=230058.
(45)
This biographical sketch is drawn from Azzam S. Tamimi, Rachid Ghannouchi: A Democrat Within Islamism (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001) .
(46)
Ibid., p. 6.
(47)
Ibid., p. 11.
(48)
Ibid., p. 19.
(49)
Ibid., p. 21.
(50)
Ibid., p. 26.
(51)
Martin Kramer, “A U.S. Visa for an Islamist Extremist?,” Washington Institute for Near East Studies, June 21, 1994, http://www.martinkramer.org/sandbox/reader/archives/a-u-s-visa-for-rachid-ghannouchi/.
(52)
Tamimi, Rachid Ghannouchi: A Democrat Within Islamism, p. 96.
(53)
Ibid., p. 60.
(54)
Linda G. Jones, “Portrait of Rachid Al-Ghannoushi,” Middle East Report (No. 153), July-August 1988.
(55)
Arthur Bright, “Islamist Leader Rachid Ghannouchi Returns to Tunisia. What’s His Next Move?” Christian Science Monitor, January 30, 2001, http://www.csmonitor.com/World/terrorism-security/2011/0130/Islamist-leader-Rachid-Ghannouchi-returns-to-Tunisia.-What-s-his-next-move.
(56)
Associated Press, “Tunisian Islamist Leader: I’m No Khomeini,” January 31, 2011, http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2011/01/30/world/main7300475.shtml.
(57)
Rachid Al-Ghannoushi and Linda G. Jones, “Deficiencies in the Islamic Movement,” Middle East Report Online (July-August 1988).
(58)
“Tunisian Islamist Leader: I’m No Khomeini,” The Associated Press, January 31, 2011.
(59)
Bassam Tibi, “Islamists Approach Europe: Turkey’s Islamist Danger,” Middle East Forum, Winter 2009, http://www.meforum.org/2047/islamists-approach-europe.
(60)
Guy Sorman, “Is Islam Compatible With Capitalism?: The Middle East’s Future Depends on the Answer,” City Journal (New York), Summer 2011, http://www.city-journal.org/2011/21_3_muslim-economy.html.
(61)
Nazanine Moshiri, “Interview with Rachid Ghannouchi,” Al-Jazeera English, February 7, 2011, http://english.aljazeera.net/news/africa/2011/02/2011233464273624.html.
(62)
Muqtedar Khan, “Islamists and the Problem of Double Discourse,” Huffington Post, June, 30 2011, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/muqtedar-khan/islamists-and-the-problem_b_887314.html..
(63)
“The Rest of the Old Guard Must Go,” Spiegel Online (Germany), January 24, 2011, http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/0,1518,741291,00.html.
(64)
Rajaa Basley, “The Future of Al-Nahda in Tunisia,” Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, April 20, 2011, http://carnegieendowment.org/2011/04/20/future-of-al-nahda-in-tunisia/ic.
(65)
Marc Lynch, “Tunisia’s New Al-Nahda,” Foreign Policy, June 29, 2011, http://lynch.foreignpolicy.com/posts/2011/06/29/tunisias_new_al_nahda; Giuliana Sgrena, “Islamic Force Rises in Tunisia,” Inter-Press Service, July 31, 2011, http://www.ipsnews.net/news.asp?idnews=56694.
(66)
I was handed one of the flyers offering free instruction by a Tunisian friend.
(67)
Graham Usher, “The Reawakening of Nahda in Tunisia,” Middle East Research and Information Project, April 30, 2011, http://www.merip.org/mero/mero043011.
(68)
Spiegel Online (Germany), “The Rest of the Old Guard Must Go.”
(69)
Andrew Gilligan, “Tunisia: Birthplace of the Arab Spring Fears Islamist Insurgence,” The Telegraph (London), May 28, 2011, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/africaandindianocean/tunisia/8543674/Tunisia-Birthplace-of-the-Arab-Spring-fears-Islamist-insurgence.html.
(70)
Moshiri, “Interview with Rachid Ghannouchi.”
(71)
Associated Press, “Tunisian Islamist Leader: I’m No Khomeini.”
(72)
Tamimi, Rachid Ghannouchi: A Democrat Within Islamism, p. 87.
(73)
Ibid., p. 158.
(74)
Herald Sun (Australia), “Beer and Bikinis ‘Not Under Threat’ in Tunisia,” July 21, 2011, http://www.heraldsun.com.au/news/breaking-news/beer-and-bikinis-not-under-threat-in-tunisia/story-e6frf7jx-1226095492735.
(75)
Gilligan, “Tunisia: Birthplace of the Arab Spring Fears Islamist Insurgence.”
(76)
Trabelsi, “Salafist Ideology Threatens Tunisian Artists.”
(77)
Agence France-Presse, “Islamists Restore Order Amid Tunisia Violence,” May 8, 2011, http://www.rawstory.com/rs/2011/05/08/islamists-restore-order-amid-tunisia-violence/.
(78)
The Telegraph (London), “Tunisia Extremists Firebomb Home of ‘Blasphemous’ TV Station Head,” October 15, 2011, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/africaandindianocean/tunisia/8828556/Tunisia-extremists-firebomb-home-of-blasphemous-TV-station-head.html.
(79)
Alexandra Sandels, “Islamist Protesters March in Tunisia, Riot Police Fire Tear Gas,” Los Angeles Times, October 14, 2011, http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/world_now/2011/10/tunisia-islamists-demonstration-nessma-tv-persepolis-elections-salafism.html.

الفصل الثاني: مستقبل مصر الإسلامي

(1)
For a detailed discussion of male prostitution in Luxor, see chap. 6, “Lost Dignity,” in John R. Bradley, Inside Egypt: The Land of the Pharaohs on the Brink of a Revolution (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008).
(2)
“Foreign Women Threaten Social Fabric of Luxor,” Al-Bawaba, February 3, 2007, http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-chat/1793954/posts.
(3)
Hamza Hendawi, “Reform of Egypt’s Police Hits a Wall: The Police,” Associated Press, September 18, 2011, http://www.google.com/hostednews/ap/article/ALeqM5ijDBVLcbcU29FKD89PjVmzdQx_Lw?docId=bb5fc4b396774295b00163de4930f06a.
(4)
Yaroslav Trofimov, “Egypt’s Rulers Stoke Xenophobia,” August 10, 2011, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424053111904480904576498333697580942.html.
(5)
Hamza Hendawi, “Crime Wave Grips Egypt, Absence of Police Blamed,” Associated Press, April 5, 2011, http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/42427900/ns/world_news-mideast_n_africa/t/crime-wave-grips-egypt-absence-police-blamed/; Linda S. Heard, “Alexandrians Between Freedom and Anarchy,” Arab News (Saudi Arabia), April 18, 2011, http://arabnews.com/opinion/columns/article364923.ece?service=print.
(6)
Hannah Allam, “Leadership Vacuum in Suez Illustrates Egypt’s Instability,” McClatchy Newspapers, September 13, 2011, http://www.mcclatchydc.com/2011/04/19/v-print/112444/leadership-vacuum-in-suez-illustrates.html.
(7)
Irfan Al-Alawi, “Egyptian Extremism Sees Salafis Attacking Sufi Mosques,” The Guardian (London), April 11, 2011, http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/belief/2011/apr/11/salafis-attack-sufi-mosques.
(8)
Yasmine Fathi, “Protests Against Christian Governor Escalate, Salafists Dominate,” Al-Ahram Online (Egypt), April 18, 2011, http://english.ahram.org.eg/NewsContent/1/64/10319/Egypt/Politics-/Protests-against-Christian-governor-escalate,-Sala.aspx.
(9)
Al-Masry Al-Youm, “Friday of Unity, People’s Will,” July 29, 2011, http://www.almasryalyoum.com/en/node/481565.
(10)
Yoroslav Trofimov, “Egyptians Turn Against Liberal Protesters,” Wall Street Journal, August 2, 2011, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424053111904292504576482563347097284.html.
(11)
Heba Hesham, “Nearly 90 Percent Trust SCAF to Lead Transitional Period, says Poll,” The Daily News (Egypt), October 11, 2011, http://thedailynewsegypt.com/people/nearly-90-percent-trust-scaf-to-lead-transitional-period-says-poll.html.
(12)
Oren Kessler, “Egypt Bars Terror Group From Forming Political Party,” Jerusalem Post, September 21, 2011, http://www.jpost.com/MiddleEast/Article.aspx?id=238793.
(13)
Patrick Martin, “Egypt Overturns Political Ban on Islamist Group with Terrorist Past,” Globe and Mail, October 11, 2011, http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/world/africa-mideast/egypt-overturns-political-ban-on-islamist-group-with-terrorist-past/article2197311/.
(14)
See Bradley, Inside Egypt, p. 121.
(15)
Matt Bradley, “Emergency-Law Extension Worries Egyptian Activists,” Wall Street Journal, September 14, 2011, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424053111903532804576568611926699764.html.
(16)
Mostafa Ali, “Military Council Fails to Defuse Mounting Tales of Torture in Egypt,” Al-Ahram Online (Egypt), August 29, 2011, http://english.ahram.org.eg/NewsContent/1/64/19748/Egypt/Politics-/Military-council-fails-to-defuse-mounting-tales-of.aspx.
(17)
Samar Al-Atrush, “Mubarak ‘Farce’ Trial Stumbles,” Middle East Online, September 6, 2011, http://www.middle-east-online.com/english/?id=47943.
(18)
Deutsche Presse-Agentur, “Rights Group: Less Freedom of Expression in Post-Mubarak Egypt,” September 25, 2011, http://www.monstersandcritics.com/news/middleeast/news/article_1665001.php/Rights-group-Less-freedom-of-expression-in-post-Mubarak-Egypt.
(19)
Kristen Cook, “In Egypt’s Tahrir Square, Women Attacked at Rally on International Women’s Day,” Christian Science Monitor, March 8, 2011, http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Middle-East/2011/0308/In-Egypt-s-Tahrir-Square-women-attacked-at-rally-on-International-Women-s-Day.
(20)
BBC News Online, “Egypt Women Protesters Forced to Take ‘Virginity Tests’,” March 24, 2011, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-12854391.
(21)
Pew Research Center, “Muslim Publics Divided on Hamas and Hezbollah,” December 2, 2010, http://pewresearch.org/pubs/1814/muslim-public-opinion-hamas-hezbollah-al-qaeda-islam-role-in-politics-democracy?src=prc-latest&proj=peoplepress.
(22)
Dan Murphy, “Egypt Revolution Unfinished, Qaradawi tells Tahrir Masses,” Christian Science Monitor, February 18, 2011, http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Middle-East/2011/0218/Egypt-revolution-unfinished-Qaradawi-tells-Tahrir-masses.
(23)
Bloomberg, “Egyptians Back Sharia Law, End of Israel Treaty, Poll Shows,” April 26, 2011, http://www.arabianbusiness.com/egyptians-back-sharia-law-end-of-israel-treaty-poll-shows-396178.html.
(24)
Walid Phares, “Muslim Brotherhood Riding the Crest of Arab Spring,” Newsmax, June 3, 2011, http://www.newsmax.com/WalidPhares/muslimbrotherhood-arabspring-gadhafi/2011/06/03/id/398700.
(25)
World Tribune, “Young Activists See Muslim Brotherhood Alliance With Military Regime,” March 28, 2011, http://www.worldtribune.com/worldtribune/WTARC/2011/me_egypt0351_03_28.asp.
(26)
Sonia Farid, “Letter From Cairo: The One-Article Constitution,” Al-Arabiya Online (Saudi Arabia), June 9, 2011, http://english.alarabiya.net/articles/2011/06/09/152625.html.
(27)
Phares, “Muslim Brotherhood Riding the Crest of Arab Spring.”
(28)
Maggie Michael, “Egypt’s Brotherhood Party Details Platform Akin to that of Iran,” Associated Press, October 11, 2007, http://articles.boston.com/2007-10-11/news/29234166_1_egypt-s-brotherhood-draft-platform-parliament.
(29)
Investigative Project, “Egyptian Islamists Target Bikinis, Pyramids,” September, 1, 2011, http://www.investigativeproject.org/3139/egyptian-islamists-target-bikinis-pyramids.
(30)
Khaled Abu Toameh, “The Muslim Brotherhood-Salafi Alliance: Will Egypt Become an Islamic Republic?” Hudson Institute, August 5, 2011, http://www.hudson-ny.org/2330/egypt-islamic-republic.
(31)
Washington Times, “Obama’s Islamist Partners in Egypt,” May 9, 2011, http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2011/may/9/obamas-islamist-partners-in-egypt/; Maggie Michael, “Egypt’s Brotherhood Party Details Platform Akin to that of Iran,” Associated Press, October 11, 2007, http://articles.boston.com/2007-10-11/news/29234166_1_egypt-s-brotherhood-draft-platform-parliament.
(32)
Arab American Institute, “Arab Attitudes: 2011,” July 2011, http://www.aaiusa.org/reports/arab-attitutes-2011.

الفصل الثالث: الثورة الوهَّابية المضادة

(1)
Jean-Francois Seznec, “Foreign Policy: Bahrain Spells Trouble for US Policy,” February 18, 2011, http://www.npr.org/2011/02/18/133861647/foreign-policy-bahrain-spells-trouble-for-us-policy.
(2)
Associated Press, “Iranian Commander Warns Saudi of Domestic Unrest,” May 1, 2011, http://www.boston.com/news/world/middleeast/articles/2011/05/01/iranian_commander_warns_saudi_of_deployment_risk/.
(3)
Fars News Agency (Iran), “Spokesman Blasts Clinton’s Controversial Claims About Iran,” March 21, 2011, http://english.farsnews.com/newstext.php?nn=9001010152.
(4)
Marc Lynch, “Tunisia’s New Al-Nahda,” Foreign Policy, June 29, 2011, http://lynch.foreignpolicy.com/posts/2011/06/29/tunisias_new_al_nahda.
(5)
Osama El-Mahdy, “Shias Accuse Saudi Arabia of Mobilizing Salafis to Disrupt Egypt’s Unity,” Al-Masry Al-Youm, April 10, 2011, http://www.almasryalyoum.com/en/node/393693; Osama Al-Mahdy, “Protest Before Saudi Embassy Against Financing Salafis,” Al-Masry Al-Youm, May 17, 2011, http://www.almasryalyoum.com/en/node/440967.
(6)
Al-Masry Al-Youm (Cairo), “Saudi Minister Threatens to Expel Foreign Laborers, Egyptians Included,” May 30, 2011, http://www.almasryalyoum.com/en/node/457639.
(7)
Reuters, “Saudi Handout Unlikely to Fuel Inflation, Says Official,” March 25, 2011, http://www.thepeninsulaqatar.com/business-news/146740-saudi-handout-unlikely-to-fuel-inflation-says-official.html.
(8)
Glen Carey, “Saudi Arabia Defies Turmoil as Guardian of Status Quo,” Bloomberg, May 18, 2011, http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-05-17/saudi-arabia-defies-mideast-upheaval.html.
(9)
Declan Walsh, “Faith, Charity, and the Money Trail to Pakistan’s Islamist Militants,” The Guardian (London), August 21, 2007, http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2007/aug/21/pakistan.declanwalsh; idem.; “Saudi Arabian Charity in Pakistan Offers Education—Or Is It Extremism?,” The Guardian (London), June 29, 2011, http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/jun/29/saudi-charity-pakistan-extremism.
(10)
Brian M. Downing, “Pakistan Marches to Saudi Tune,” Asia Times Online, June 3, 2011, http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Middle_East/MF03Ak02.html.
(11)
Martin Walker, “Money and the Arab Spring,” United Press International, May 31, 2011, http://www.upi.com/Top_News/Analysis/Walker/2011/05/31/Walkers-World-Money-and-the-Arab-Spring/UPI-70851306838220/#ixzz1O6XBZOw0.
(12)
Jamie Doward and Phillipa Stewart, “U.K. Training Saudi Forces Used to Crush Arab Spring,” The Guardian (London), May 28, 2011, http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/may/28/uk-training-saudi-troops.
(13)
Susan B. Glasser, “‘Martyrs’ in Iraq Mostly Saudis,” Washington Post, May 15, 2005, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/05/14/AR2005051401270.html.
(14)
Muhammed Al-Salami, “Kingdom Amends Media Laws,” Arab News (Saudi Arabia), April 29, 2011, http://www.arabnews.com/saudiarabia/article377672.ece.
(15)
Neil MacFarquhar, “Saudi Arabia Scrambles to Limit Region’s Upheaval,” New York Times, May 27, 2011, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/05/28/world/middleeast/28saudi.html?_r=2.
(16)
For more on this trip, see John R. Bradley, Saudi Arabia Exposed: Inside a Kingdom in Crisis (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005), pp. 53–65.
(17)
Monia Ghanmi, “Tribalism Yields to Solidarity in Tunisia,” Magharebia.com, July 20, 2011, http://www.magharebia.com/cocoon/awi/xhtml1/en_GB/features/awi/reportage/2011/05/20/reportage-01.
(18)
Ibid.
(19)
Ujala Sehgal, “How the U.S. Came to Negotiate With the Taliban,” Atlantic, July 18, 2011, http://www.theatlanticwire.com/global/2011/06/why-us-now-negotiating-taliban/38972/.
(20)
Annie Gowen and Asaad Majeed, “Attacks Across Iraq Kill More Than Eighty,” Washington Post, August 15, 2011, http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/middle-east/more-than-70-killed-in-attacks-across-iraq/2011/08/15/gIQAHYtWGJ_story.html.
(21)
BBC News Online, “August Was ‘Deadliest Month’ for U.S. in Afghan War,” August 30, 2011, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-14720918.
(23)
Hakim Almasmari, “Yemen Claims Opposition Figures Behind Assassination Attempt,” CNN, August 19, 2011, http://edition.cnn.com/2011/WORLD/meast/08/19/yemen.charges/.
(24)
United Press International, “Trial of Yemen Al-Qaeda No. 2 Ends, Verdict on April 26,” April 18, 2006, http://www.monstersandcritics.com/news/middleeast/news/article_1156279.php/Trial_of_Yemen_al-Qaeda_No_2_ends_verdict_on_April_26.
(25)
Michel Cousins, “Kingdom-Yemen Emergency Talks Set Over Border Fence,” Arab News (Saudi Arabia), February 10, 2004, http://archive.arabnews.com/?page=1&section=0&article=39304&d=10&m=2&y=2004.
(26)
For more on this trip, see: John R. Bradley, “Bad Fences,” New Republic, March 1, 2004, http://www.tnr.com/article/bad-fences.
(27)
Ibid.
(28)
Jeb Boone, “Yemen’s Saleh Cedes Al-Qaeda Hotbed to Militants. Why?,” Christian Science Monitor, May 31, 2011, http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Middle-East/2011/0531/Yemen-s-Saleh-cedes-Al-Qaeda-hotbed-to-militants.-Why; “Al-Qaida Seizes Another Large City in Southeast Yemen,” Xinhua News Agency, June 2, 2011, http://news.xinhuanet.com/english2010/world/2011-06/02/c_13906217.htm.
(29)
SABA News Agency (Yemen), “Yemeni Official Warns of Civil War,” August 20, 2011, http://www.sabanews.net/en/news246340.htm.
(30)
Agence-France Presse, “Yemen Qaeda Cuts off Boy’s Hand,” September 9, 2011, http://www.news24.com/World/News/Yemen-Qaeda-cuts-off-boys-hand-20110925.
(31)
Bradley, “Bad Fences.”
(32)
Frank Gardner, “Yemen’s New Anti-Terror Strategy,” BBC News Online, December 16, 2003, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/3326121.stm.
(33)
“Urgent Statement by the Leadership of the Southern Democratic Assembly (TAJ-South Yemen) to the International Community,” November 30, 2005, http://www.soutalgnoub.com/data29.htm.
(34)
Giles Foden, “Ace of Base,” The Guardian (London), November 18, 2003, http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2003/nov/18/turkey.alqaida1.
(35)
Nicholas Blanford, “Are Iran and Al-Qaeda Vying for Influence in Yemen?,” Christian Science Monitor, July 13, 2004, http://www.csmonitor.com/2004/0713/p11s01-wome.html.
(36)
BBC News Online, “‘Net Closes’ Around Yemen Rebels,” July 5, 2004, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/3868221.stm.
(37)
Associated Press, “U.S. Imam Wanted in Yemen Over Al-Qaeda Suspicions,” November 11, 2009, http://www.asharq-e.com/news.asp?section=1&id=18774.
(38)
Ginny Hill, “Yemen Divided on Vice and Virtue,” BBC News Online, August 11, 2008, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/7546907.stm.
(39)
Iona Craig and Tom Coghlan, “Arab Spring Reaches Full Bloom,” The Times (London), June 7, 2011, http://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/features/arab-spring-reaches-full-bloom/story-e6frg6z6-1226070465743.
(40)
Jeb Boone, “Yemen’s Protests Hijacked: Yemen’s Youth Have Lost Control of the Revolution They Began,” Global Post, July 3, 2011, http://www.globalpost.com/dispatch/news/regions/middle-east/110702/yemen-protests-hijacked.
(41)
Xinhua News Agency (China), “Twenty-three Yemeni Opposition Leaders Withdraw From National Council,” August 20, 2011, http://news.xinhuanet.com/english2010/world/2011-08/20/c_131062174.htm.
(42)
Pepe Escobar, “Exposed: The US-Saudi Libya Deal,” Asia Times Online, April 2, 2011, http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Middle_East/MD02Ak01.html.
(43)
Ibid.
(44)
David D. Kirkpatrick, “Libya Allying With Islamists, Qaddafi Son Says,” New York Times, August 3, 2011, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/08/04/world/africa/04seif.html?pagewanted=all.
(45)
Strafor, “Libya’s Opposition Leadership Comes Into Focus,” March 20, 2011, http://www.stratfor.com/analysis/20110307-libyas-opposition-leadership-comes-focus.
(46)
David D. Kirkpatrick, “Hopes for a Qaddafi Exit, and Worries of What Comes Next,” New York Times, March 21, 2011, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/22/world/africa/22tripoli.html?_r=3&hp.
(47)
Charles Levinson, “Ex-Mujahedeen Help Lead Libyan Rebels,” Wall Street Journal, April 2, 2011, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748703712504576237042432212406.html.
(48)
Washington Times, “Topic: Libyan Islamic Fighting Group,” undated,http://www.washingtontimes.com/topics/libyan-islamic-fighting-group/.
(49)
Deutsche Welle (Germany), “Libyan Islamists Stand to Gain With or Without Gadhafi,” March 24, 2011, http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,14934994,00.html.
(50)
Praveen Swami, “Libyan Rebel Commander Admits His Fighters Have Al-Qaeda Links,” The Telegraph (London), March 25, 2011, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/africaandindianocean/libya/8407047/Libyan-rebel-commander-admits-his-fighters-have-al-Qaeda-links.html.
(51)
France-24, “Shifting Loyalties Among Libya’s Islamists,” August 10, 2011, http://www.france24.com/en/20110805-libya- uprising-islamists-rebels-ntc-gaddafi-fighters-transition-council-shifting-allies; Lindsey Hilsum, “Meeting the Families Left Behind by Gaddafi’s Prison Massacre,” Channel 4 News (U.K.), http://blogs.channel4.com/world-news-blog/meeting-the-families-left-behind-by-gaddafis-prison-massacre/15306.
(52)
Gamal Nkrumah, “Benghazi Nears the Brink?,” Al-Ahram Weekly Online (Egypt), March 17–23, 2011, http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/2011/1039/re1.htm.
(53)
Christiane Amanpour, “‘My People Love Me’: Muammar Gaddafi Denies Demonstrations Against Him Anywhere in Libya,” ABC News, February 28, 2011, http://abcnews.go.com/International/christiane-amanpour-interviews-libyas-moammar-gadhafi/story?id=13019942.
(54)
Richard Spencer, “Libya: The West and Al-Qaeda on the Same Side,” The Telegraph (London), March 18, 2011, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/africaandindianocean/libya/8391632/Libya-the-West-and-al-Qaeda-on-the-same-side.html.
(55)
The National (Abu Dhabi), “Tribe of Murdered Libyan General Promises It Will Seek Justice for His Death,” August 4, 2011, http://www.thenational.ae/news/worldwide/africa/tribe-of-murdered-libyan-general-promises-it-will-seek-justice-for-his-death.
(56)
George Friedman, “Re-examining the Arab Spring,” Stratfor, August 15, 2011, http://www.stratfor.com/weekly/20110815-re-examining-arab-spring.
(57)
Associated Press, Dario Lopez and Karin Laub, “Libyan Rebels Say They Are Attacking Tripoli,” August 20, 2011, http://www.kansascity.com/2011/08/20/3088727/libyan-rebels-say-they-are-attacking.html.
(58)
Lisa Karpova, “NATO War Crimes, the Murder of Journalists,” Pravda.com, August 3, 2011, http://english.pravda.ru/opinion/columnists/03-08-2011/118651-NATO_war_crimes_murder_of_journalists-0/.
(59)
One such rally in July 2011 can be seen here: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jWzNhk3zv4U.
(60)
Jonathan Brown, “Rebels Claim Victory—But Did the Brits Win It?,” The Independent (U.K.), August 23, 2011, http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/africa/rebels-claim-the-victory-ndash-but-did-the-brits-win-it-2342152.html; Barbara Starr, “Foreign Forces in Libya Helping Rebel Forces Advance,” CNN, August 24, 2011, http://edition.cnn.com/2011/WORLD/africa/08/24/libya.foreign.forces/.
(61)
Klifford Krauss, “The Scramble for Access to Libya’s Oil Wealth Begins,” New York Times, August 22, 2011, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/08/23/business/global/the-scramble-for-access-to-libyas-oil-wealth-begins.html.
(62)
Charles Levinson, “Minister in Tripoli Blasts Qatari Aid to Militia Groups,” Wall Street Journal, October 12, 2011, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052970203499704576625441762600166.html.
(63)
Stephen J. Sniegoski, The Transparent Cabal: The Neoconservative Agenda, War in the Middle East, and the National Interest of Israel (Norfolk, Virginia: IHS Press, 2008).
(64)
“Libya: Draft Constitutional Charter for the Transitional Stage,” https://www.documentcloud.org/documents/238344-libya-draft-constitutional-charter-for-the.html.

الفصل الرابع: حِلْف الشيعة

(1)
“Geopolitically Strategic Yemen Has Become a Focus of Local Iranian-Saudi Arabian Strife,” terrorism-info.org, October 1, 2009, http://www.terrorism-info.org.il/malam_multimedia/English/eng_n/html/iran_e025.htm; Stratfor, “Iran: A Naval Deployment and the Houthi Rebellion,” November 16, 2009, http://www.stratfor.com/memberships/148952/analysis/20091116_iran_naval_deployment_and_houthi_rebellion.
(2)
See Joshua Teitelbaum’s classic study, Holier Than Thou: Saudi Arabia’s Islamic Opposition (Washington, DC: Washington Institute for Near East Policy, 2000).
(3)
Jay Solomon, “Challenger Mousavi Has Conservative Past,” Wall Street Journal, June 17, 2009, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB124519676619521077.html.
(4)
Adam Rozell and Jishua Haber, “Confront the Saudis for Teaching Hate,” New York Post, July 2, 2008, http://www.nypost.com/p/news/opinion/opedcolumnists/confront_the_saudis_for_teaching_wPPh0MRumWpIxK2d9k7R2I.
(5)
David Amess, “Arab Spring Needs Iranian Summer to Survive,” United Press International, July 6, 2011, http://www.upi.com/Top_News/Analysis/Outside-View/2011/07/06/Outside-View-Arab-Spring-needs-Iranian-Summer-to-survive/UPI-10751309954560/#ixzz1UtvyniR4.
(6)
Anthony Shadid, “A Syrian Beacon Pays Price for Its Dissent,” New York Times, April 27, 2011, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/04/28/world/middleeast/28daraa.html?pagewanted=all.
(7)
Ryan Mauro, “The Mullah’s Rescue Assad,” FrontPage Magazine, April 13, 2011, http://frontpagemag.com/2011/04/13/iran-comes-to-assad%E2%80%99s-rescue/.
(8)
Reuters, “Tehran Ready to Give Syria $5.8 Billion: Report,” July 15, 2011, http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/07/15/us-syria-iran-idUSTRE76E3C720110715.
(9)
Ibid.
(10)
Reuters, “Turkey Says It Seized Illegal Iran Arms Shipment,” March 31, 2011, http://www.newsmax.com/Newsfront/Turkey-Iran-arms-seized/2011/03/31/id/391351.
(11)
Natacha Yazbeck, “Hezbollah Urges Syrians to Back Assad Regime,” Agence France-Presse, May 25, 2011, http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5jFv4_d9yBq5WmgGkDd0_VttkWPTg?docId=CNG.6d368e1b8c6c3ad77e8681f96fb6d5ee.301.
(12)
For more on socially liberal Damascus, see ch. 1, “Dissent in Damascus,” in John R. Bradley, Behind the Veil of Vice: The Business and Culture of Sex in the Middle East (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010).
(13)
These are my personal observations from a visit to Syria in 2008. For a report on how the number of Syrian women who don the veil and niqab has increased in the recent years, and how this led to the initial ban in schools and universities, see: Robert Weller, “Syria Bans Female Teachers From Wearing Veils,” Huffington Post, June 30, 2010, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/robert-weller/syria-bans-female-teacher_b_630134.html..
(14)
Associated Press, “Syria Relaxes Veil Ban for Teachers,” April 6, 2011, http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/apr/06/syria-relax-veil-ban-teacher.
(15)
Ynetnews (Israel), “Syria: Prisoners Freed, Protesters Arrested,” March 26, 2011, http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-4047912,00.html.
(16)
United Press International, “Observers: Protests Could Turn Sectarian,” July 19, 2011, http://www.upi.com/Top_News/World-News/2011/07/19/Observers-Protests-could-turn-sectarian/UPI-39481311075233/#ixzz1V4uTKvQT.
(17)
Zaid Abu Fadel, “Sectarianism Dominates the Movement Against Syria’s Government,” Arab-American News, July 25, 2011, http://www.arabamericannews.com/news/index.php?mod=article&cat=ArabWorld&article=4398.
(18)
Ibid. See also Adrian Blomfield, “Syrian Opposition Admits Armed Insurgents Are Operating on Fringe of Uprising Against Assad Regime,” The Telegraph (London), August 6, 2011, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/8686582/Syrian-opposition-admits-armed-insurgents-are-operating-on-fringe-of-uprising-against-Assad-regime.html.
(19)
RTTNews, “Massive Pro-Govt. Rallies in Syria as Assad Orders New Amnesty,” June 21, 2011, http://www.rttnews.com/Content/PoliticalNews.aspx?Id=1650686&SM=1.
(20)
Al-Jazeera English, “Saudi Arabia Calls for Syrian Reforms,” August 8, 2011, http://english.aljazeera.net/news/middleeast/2011/08/201187213922184761.html.
(21)
Martin Chulov, “Syria: Assad Must Resign, Says Obama,” The Guardian (London), August 19, 2011, http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/aug/18/syria-assad-must-resign-obama.
(22)
Nour Ali, “Defiant Assad Addresses Syria on TV as U.N. Arrives in Damascus,” The Guardian (London), August 22, 2011, http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/aug/21/syrian-president-assad-addresses-nation.
(23)
Oren Kessler, “Religion—The Overlooked Motive Behind Syria’s Uprising,” Jerusalem Post, May 20, 2011, http://www.jpost.com/Features/InThespotlight/Article.aspx?id=221408.
(24)
Some of the material on Iran’s ethnic groups contained in this chapter first appeared in a different form as part of a longer essay I wrote on the subject for The Washington Quarterly. See John R. Bradley, “Iran’s Ethnic Tinderbox,” The Washington Quarterly 30:1 (Winter 2006-07): 181–190, © 2006-07 by The Center for Strategic and International Studies and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, www.tandfonline.com. Reprinted with permission.
(25)
Brenda Shaffer, “Iran’s Volatile Ethnic Mix,” International Herald Tribune, June 2, 2006, http://www.iht.com/articles/2006/06/02/opinion/edshaffer.php.
(26)
Guy Dinmore, “U.S. Marines Probe Tensions Among Iran’s Minorities,” Financial Times, February 24, 2006, p. 2.
(27)
Seymour M. Hersh, “The Iran Plans,” New Yorker, April 17, 2006, p. 30.
(28)
Dinmore, “U.S. Marines Probe Tensions.”
(29)
Amir Taheri, “Iran: Ethnic Woes,” New York Sun, February 6, 2006, http://www.benadorassociates.com/article/19305.
(30)
Abbas William Samii, “Ethnic Tensions Could Crack Iran’s Firm Resolve Against the World,” Christian Science Monitor, May 30, 2006, http://www.csmonitor.com/2006/0530/p09s02-coop.html.
(31)
Associated Press, “Iran’s President: U.S. Will Fail to Provoke Ethnic Differences,” May 24, 2006.
(32)
Associated Press, “Iran Blames U.K. for Bombings,” January 25, 2008, http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2006-01-25-iranbombings_x.htm.
(33)
British Ahwazi Friendship Society, “Iran: Parliamentary Think Tank Warns of Ethnic Unrest,” January 5, 2006.
(34)
“Ahwazi: Iranian Regime Has Killed Thousands of Ahwazis,” July 20, 2011, Asharq Al-Awsat, http://www.unpo.org/article/12925.
(35)
Residents of Khuzestan, interviews with author, March 2006. The villagers asked that their names not be used and the location of their village not be specified.
(36)
Amnesty International, “Iran: Need for Restraint as Anniversary of Unrest in Khuzestan Approaches,” April 13, 2006, http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/ENGMDE130402006?open&of=ENG-IRN.
(37)
BBC News Online, “Iran Bans Al-Jazeera After Riots,” April 19, 2005, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/4459033.stm.
(38)
John R. Bradley, “Ethnicity Versus Theocracy,” Al-Ahram Weekly (Egypt), March 16, 2006, http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/2006/786/re7.htm.
(39)
Ibid.
(40)
Ibid.
(41)
Associated Press, “Al-Qaeda Leader Urges Attacks on Gulf Oil Facilities,” December 7, 2005, http://www.rferl.org/featuresarticle/2005/12/3c997d85-35f1-4854-9eec-ccd483c981ef.html.
(42)
Taheri, “Iran: Ethnic Woes.”

الفصل الخامس: دروس من جنوب شرق آسيا

(1)
Peter Boyle, “Malaysia: ‘Politics Has Become More Dangerous,’” Green Left Review, July 10, 2011, http://www.greenleft.org.au/node/48117.
(2)
John Mintz and Douglas Farah, “In Search of Friends Among the Foes,” Washington Post, September 11, 2004, http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A12823-2004Sep10?language=printer. See also Seth Mandel, “A Primer on the International Institute of Islamic Thought: The Terror-Supporting Intellectual Façade of the Muslim Brotherhood,” NewsReelBlog, January 28, 2011, http://www.newsrealblog.com/2011/01/28/a-primer-on-the-international-institute-of-islamic-thought-the-terror-supporting-intellectual-facade-of-the-muslim-brotherhood/.
(3)
BBC News Online, “Profile: Mahathir Mohamad,” October 31, 2003, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/2059518.stm.
(4)
Richard Lloyd Parry, “Attacks After Malaysian Court Rules Christians Can Worship Allah,” The Times (London), January 9, 2010, http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/asia/article6980360.ece.
(5)
Bernama News Agency (Malaysia), “Bernama Journalist’s Account of Bersih Rally,” July 31, 2011, http://www.malaysiandigest.com/features/28251-bernama-journalists-accounts-of-bersih-rally.html.
(6)
Michael Jansen, “Saudis Trying to Choke Arab Spring,” Irish Times, June 1, 2011, http://www.irishtimes.com/newspaper/world/2011/0601/1224298205470.html.
(7)
Martin van Bruinessen, “Wahhabi Influences in Indonesia, Real and Imagined.” Summary of a paper presented at the Journée d’Etudes du CEIFR et MSH sur le Wahhabisme (2002), http://www.let.uu.nl/~martin.vanbruinessen/personal/publications/Wahhabi%20influences%20in%20Indonesia.htm.
(8)
The information contained in this section on southern Thailand is drawn from a dispatch I wrote based on a monthlong trip to the region in 2004. See John R. Bradley, “Waking Up to the Terror Threat in Southern Thailand,” Straits Times (Singapore), May 27, 2004, http://yaleglobal.yale.edu/content/waking-terror-threat-southern-thailand.
(9)
BBC News One, “Thai Mosque Killings Criticised,” July 28, 2004, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/3932323.stm.
(10)
Tyrell Haberkorn, “In Bangkok: Remembering the Tak Bai Massacre,” OpenDemocracy.net, November 3, 2009, http://www.opendemocracy.net/tyrell-haberkorn/in-bangkok-remembering-tak-bai-massacre.
(11)
Ron Corben, “Disappearance of Thai Lawyer Still Not Solved,” Asia Calling (Thailand), March 26, 2011, http://www.asiacalling.org/en/news/thailand/1932-disappearance-of-thai-lawyer-still-not-solved.
(12)
Country Studies, “Pancasila,” http://countrystudies.us/indonesia/86.htm.
(13)
Sholto Byrnes, “One Nation Undivided Under God,” New Statesman (U.K.), August 9, 2010, http://www.newstatesman.com/asia/2010/08/indonesia-muslim-suharto-east.
(14)
Ibid .
(15)
Bruinessen, “Wahhabi Influences in Indonesia.”
(16)
Simon Montlake, “In Indonesian Election, Secular Parties Confirm Appeal,” Christian Science Monitor, April 9, 2009, http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Asia-Pacific/2009/0409/p06s10-woap.html.
(17)
Bruinessen, “Wahhabi Influences in Indonesia.”
(18)
International Crisis Group, “Indonesia: ‘Christianisation’ and Intolerance,” November 24, 2010, http://www.crisisgroup.org/en/regions/asia/south-east-asia/indonesia/B114-indonesia-christianisation-and-intolerance.aspx.
(19)
Dr. Adam Burke shared his personal experience of peace building in Aceh in the years after the Asian tsunami through a researcher for this book.
(20)
Karishma Vaswani, “On Patrol With Aceh’s Sharia Police,” BBC News Online, February 2, 2010, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/8491195.stm.
(21)
Papenidea, “History of Aceh, the Veranda of Mecca,” http://papanidea.com/2011/07/history-of-aceh-the-veranda-of-mecca/.
(22)
Al Islam: The Official Site of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community, “The Promised Messiah, a Prophet to Unite Mankind in the Latter Days,” http://www.alislam.org/topics/messiah/index.php.
(23)
International Crisis Group, “Indonesia: Implications of the Ahmadiyah Decree,” July 7, 2008, http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/4872251e2.html.
(24)
“Joint Decree of the Minister of Religious Affairs, the Attorney General and the Minister of the Interior of the Republic of Indonesia,” reprinted by The Persecution: Religious Persecution of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community, 2006, http://www.thepersecution.org/world/indonesia/docs/skb.html.
(25)
International Crisis Group, “Indonesia: Implications of the Ahmadiyah Decree.”
(26)
Lee Hudson Teslik, “Profile: Abu Bakar Bashir,” Council on Foreign Relations, June 14, 2006, http://www.cfr.org/indonesia/profile-abu-bakar-bashir-k-baasyir/p10219.
(27)
Australian Associated Press, “CIA Used ‘Micro Nuclear’ Bomb in Bali: Bashir,” August 29, 2006, http://www.smh.com.au/news/world/bashir-blames-bali-on-cia-bomb/2006/08/29/1156816891620.html.
(28)
Scot Atran, “The Emir: An Interview with Abu Bakar Bashir, Alleged Leader of the Southeast Asian Jemaah Islamiyah Organization,” Jamestown Foundation, December 16, 2005, http://www.jamestown.org/programs/gta/single/?tx_ttnews[tt_news]=562&tx_ttnews[backPid]=26&cHash=f0e77f13a0.
(29)
Farah Stockman, “Cleric’s Trial Tests U.S. Anti-Terror Fight,” Boston Globe, March 2, 2005, http://www.boston.com/news/nation/articles/2005/03/02/clerics_trial_tests_us_antiterror_fight/.
(30)
Evan Williams, “Hamzah Haz Interview Transcript,” Australian Broadcasting Corporation, October 23, 2010, http://www.abc.net.au/foreign/stories/s710402.htm.
(31)
Brad Nelson and Yohanes Sulaiman, “Bashir’s Downfall Reflects Waning Influence of Radicals,” Jakarta Post, June 30, 2011, http://www.thejakartaglobe.com/opinion/bashirs-downfall-reflects-waning-influence-of-radicals/449753.
(32)
Heru Andriyanto, “Judgment Day for Bashir in Terror Trial,” Jakarta Post, June 16, 2011, http://www.thejakartaglobe.com/indonesia/judgment-day-for-bashir-in-terror-trial/447214.
(33)
Indonesia Matters, “Wahabi & Wahhabism,” November 11, 2008, http://www.indonesiamatters.com/1610/wahabi-wahhabism/.
(34)
Byrnes, “One Nation Undivided Under God.”
(35)
BBC News Online, “Competing Muslim Brotherhood Visions for Egypt,” March 3, 2011, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/programmes/newsnight/9412967.stm.
(36)
Jennifer Pak, “Rise of Strict Islam Exposes Tensions in Malaysia,” BBC News Online, August 26, 2011, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-radio-and-tv-14649841.

الفصل السادس: وماذا بعد؟

(1)
Max Boot, “Are We All Neocons Now?,” Commentary, January 28, 2011, http://www.commentarymagazine.com/2011/01/28/are-we-all-neocons-now/.
(2)
Hassane Zerrouky, “The Future of Arab Revolts: Interview with Samir Amin,” Monthly Review, August 11, 2011, http://mrzine.monthlyreview.org/2011/amin110811.html.
(3)
Shadi Hamid, “How Islamists Will Change Politics, and Vice Versa,” Foreign Affairs, May/June 2011, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/67696/shadi-hamid/the-rise-of-the-islamists.
(4)
Bruce Thornton, “Liberating Libya for Jihadists,” FrontPageMag .com, August 30, 2011, http://frontpagemag.com/2011/08/30/liberating-libya-for-jihadists/2/.
(5)
Andrés Cala, “Inspired by Arab Spring, Spain’s Youthful 15-M Movement Spreads in Europe,” Christian Science Monitor, May 20, 2011, http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Europe/2011/0520/Inspired-by-Arab-Spring-Spain-s-youthful-15-M-movement-spreads-in-Europe.
(6)
AlifArabia.com, “Arab Spring in America?,” August 21, 2011, http://alifarabia.com/2011/08/21/an-arab-spring-in-the-united-states/.
(7)
John-Paul Ford Rojas, “London Riots: Lidl Water Thief Jailed for Six Months,” The Telegraph (London), August 11, 2011, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/crime/8695988/London-riots-Lidl-water-thief-jailed-for-six-months.html.
(8)
Alex Jones Show, “Ron Paul: Rick Perry Is the Globalist Choice for 2012,” Interview, August 31, 2011, http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=Qfni3McvYns.
(9)
John Lanchester, “The Non-Scenic Route to the Place We’re Going Anyway,” London Review of Books, September 8, 2011, http://www.lrb.co.uk/v33/n17/john-lanchester/the-non-scenic-route-to-the-place-were-going-anyway.

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