المراجع

مقدمة

  • B. Barry, Culture and Equality: An Egalitarian Critique of Multiculturalism (Polity Press, 2001).
  • W. Kymlicka, Multicultural Citizenship: A Liberal Theory of Minority Rights (Oxford University Press, 1995).
  • B. Parekh, Rethinking Multiculturalism: Liberalism and Cultural Diversity, 2nd edn. (Palgrave Macmillan, 2005).
  • A. Rattansi, ‘Changing the Subject? Racism, Culture and Education’, in J. Donald and A. Rattansi (eds.), ‘Race’, Culture and Difference (Sage, 1992).
  • P.-A. Taguieff, The Force of Prejudice (1987) (University of Minnesota Press, 2001).
  • C. Taylor, ‘The Politics of Recognition’, in A. Gutmann (ed.), Multiculturalism and the Politics of Recognition (Princeton University Press, 1994).
  • S. Vertovec, ‘Super-Diversity and its Implications’, Ethnic and Racial Studies, 30(6) (2007): 1024–54.

الفصل الأول

  • Y. Alibhai-Brown, After Multiculturalism (Foreign Policy Centre, 2000).
  • K. Banting, R. Johnston, W. Kymlicka, and S. Soroka, ‘Do Multiculturalism Policies Erode the Welfare State?’, in K. Banting and W. Kymlicka (eds.), Multiculturalism and the Welfare State: Recognition and Redistribution in Contemporary Democracies (Oxford University Press, 2006).
  • H. Entzinger, ‘The Rise and Fall of Multiculturalism: The Case of the Netherlands’, in C. Joppke and E. Morawska (eds.), Toward Assimilation and Citizenship: Immigrants in Liberal Nation-States (Palgrave Macmillan, 2003).
  • A. Favell, Philosophies of Integration: Immigration and the Idea of Citizenship in France and Britain, 2nd edn. (Palgrave Macmillan, 2001).
  • J. S. Fetzer and J. C. Soper, Muslims and the State in Britain, France and Germany (Cambridge University Press, 2005).
  • N. Fraser, ‘From Redistribution to Recognition? Dilemmas of Justice in a “Postsocialist” Age’, in N. Fraser, Justice Interruptus: Critical Reflections on the ‘Postsocialist’ Condition (Routledge, 1997).
  • T. Gitlin, The Twilight of Common Dreams: Why America is Wracked by Culture Wars (Metropolitan Books, 1995).
  • R. Hasan, Multiculturalism: Some Inconvenient Truths (Politico’s, 2010).
  • W. Kymlicka, Multicultural Odysseys (Oxford University Press, 2007).
  • K. Malik, From Fatwa to Jihad: The Salman Rushdie Affair and its Legacy (Atlantic Books, 2009).
  • B. Parekh, ‘Redistribution or Recognition? A Misguided Debate’, in S. May, T. Modood, and J. Squires (eds.), Ethnicity, Nationalism and Minority Rights (Cambridge University Press, 2004).
  • B. Prins and S. Saharso, ‘In the Spotlight: A Blessing and a Curse for Immigrant Women in the Netherlands’, Ethnicities, 8(3) (2008): 365–84.
  • M. Schain, ‘Minorities and Immigrant Incorporation in France’, in C. Joppke and S. Lukes (eds.), Multicultural Questions (Oxford University Press, 1999).
  • K. Schönwälder, ‘Germany: Integration Policy and Pluralism in a Self-conscious Country of Immigration’, in S. Vertovec and S. Wessendorf (eds.), The Multiculturalism Backlash: European Discourses, Policies and Practices (Routledge, 2010).
  • C. Taylor, ‘The Politics of Recognition’, in A. Gutmann (ed.), Multiculturalism and the Politics of Recognition (Princeton University Press, 1994).
  • S. Vertovec and S. Wessendorf (eds.), The Multiculturalism Backlash: European Discourses, Policies and Practices (Routledge, 2010).

الفصل الثاني

  • R. Aly, ‘My Life as an Undercover Muse-lim’, The Guardian, 15 February 2010.
  • J. R. Bowen, Why the French Don’t Like Headscarves: Islam, the State and Public Space (Princeton University Press, 2007).
  • M. Dustin and A. Phillips, ‘Whose Agenda Is It? Abuses of Women and Abuses of “Culture” in Britain’, Ethnicities, 8(3) (2008): 405–24.
  • A. Hargreaves, Multi-Ethnic France: Immigration, Politics, Culture and Society, 2nd edn. (Routledge, 2007).
  • R. Hasan, Multiculturalism: Some Inconvenient Truths (Politico’s, 2010).
  • S. Okin, ‘Is Multiculturalism Bad for Women?’, in J. Cohen, M. Howard, and M. Nussbaum (eds.), Is Multiculturalism Bad for Women? (Princeton University Press, 1999).
  • B. Parekh, Rethinking Multiculturalism, 2nd edn. (Palgrave Macmillan, 2005).
  • A. Phillips, Multiculturalism without Culture (Princeton University Press, 2007).
  • O. Roy, Globalised Islam: The Search for a New Ummah (2002) (Columbia University Press, 2004).
  • R. Schweder, ‘“What about Female Genital Mutilation?” And “Why Understanding Culture Matters in the First Place”’, in R. Schweder, M. Minow, and H. R. Markus (eds.), Engaging Cultural Differences: The Multicultural Challenge in Liberal Democracies (Russell Sage Foundation, 2002).
  • J. W. Scott, The Politics of the Veil (Princeton University Press, 2007).
  • B. Siim and H. Skjeie, ‘Tracks, Intersections and Dead Ends: Multicultural Challenges to State Feminism in Denmark and Norway’, Ethnicities, 8(3) (2008): 322–44.
  • I. Traynor, ‘Feminist, Socialist, Devout Muslim: Woman Who Has Thrown Denmark into Turmoil’, The Guardian, 16 May 2007.

الفصل الثالث

  • P. Bagguley and Y. Hussain, Riotous Citizens: Ethnic Conflict in Multicultural Britain (Ashgate, 2008).
  • T. Cantle, Community Cohesion: A Report of the Independent Review Team (The Home Office, 2001).
  • A. Carling, ‘The Curious Case of the Mis-claimed Myth Claims: Ethnic Segregation, Polarisation and the Future of Bradford’, Urban Studies, 45(3) (2008): 553–89.
  • T. Clarke, Report of the Burnley Task Force (Burnley Task Force, 2002).
  • J. Denham, Building Cohesive Communities: A Report of the Ministerial Group on Public Order and Community Cohesion (The Home Office, 2002).
  • D. Duprez, ‘Urban Rioting as an Indicator of Crisis in the Integration Model for Ethnic Minority Youth in France’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 35(5) (2009): 753–70.
  • E. Engelen, ‘Through a Looking Glass, Darkly’, Ethnicities, 8(1) (2008): 128–33.
  • H. Entzinger, ‘Changing the Rules While the Game is On: From Multiculturalism to Assimilation in the Netherlands’, in Y. Bodemann and G. Yurdakul (eds.), Migration, Citizenship, Ethnos (Palgrave Macmillan, 2006).
  • H. Entzinger, ‘Different Systems, Similar Problems: The French Urban Riots from a Dutch Perspective’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 35(5) (2009): 815–34.
  • M. Farrar, The Struggle for ‘Community’ in a British Multi-Ethnic Inner City Area (Edwin Mellen, 2002).
  • N. Finney and L. Simpson, Sleepwalking into Segregation?: Challenging Myths about Race and Migration (Policy Press, 2009).
  • A. Hargreaves, Multi-Ethnic France: Immigration, Politics, Culture and Society, 2nd edn. (Routledge, 2007).
  • A. Korteweg, ‘The Murder of Theo van Gogh: Gender, Religion and the Struggle over Immigrant Integration in the Netherlands’, in Y. Bodemann and G. Yurdakul (eds.), Migration, Citizenship, Ethnos (Palgrave Macmillan, 2006).
  • M. Macey, ‘Gender, Class and Religious Influences on Changing Patterns of Pakistani Muslim Male Violence in Bradford’, Ethnic and Racial Studies, 22(5) (1999): 845–66.
  • K. Malik, From Fatwa to Jihad: The Rushdie Affair and its Legacy (Atlantic Books, 2009).
  • L. Mucchielli, ‘Autumn 2005: A Review of the Most Important Riot in the History of French Contemporary Society’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 35(5) (2009): 731–51.
  • H. Ouseley, Community Pride Not Prejudice (Bradford Vision, 2001).
  • C. Peach, ‘Does Britain Have Ghettoes?’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, New Series 22 (1996): 216–35.
  • D. Phillips, ‘Parallel Lives? Challenging Discourses of British Muslim Self-Segregation’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 24 (2006): 25–40.
  • D. Ritchie, One Oldham, One Future (Oldham Independent Review, 2001).
  • P. Sniderman and L. Hagendoorn, When Ways of Life Collide: Multiculturalism and its Discontents in the Netherlands (Princeton University Press, 2007).
  • J. Solomos and L. Back, Race, Politics and Social Change (Routledge, 1995).
  • A. Touraine, Can We Live Together? Equality and Difference (1997) (Polity Press, 2000).

الفصل الرابع

  • B. Arneil, Diverse Communities: The Problem with Social Capital (Cambridge University Press, 2006).
  • L. Back, New Ethnicities and Urban Culture: Racisms and Multiculture in Young Lives (UCL Press, 1996).
  • K. Banting and W. Kymlicka, ‘Canada, Not America’, Prospect, March 2004.
  • K. Banting and W. Kymlicka, ‘Multiculturalism and the Welfare State: Setting the Context’, in K. Banting and W. Kymlicka (eds.), Multiculturalism and the Welfare State: Recognition and Redistribution in Contemporary Democracies (Oxford University Press, 2006).
  • T. Blair, ‘Britishness and Multiculturalism’, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/migrationtemp/1536354/Full-text-of Blairs-multiculturalism-speech.
  • S. Clarke, R. Gilmour, and S. Garner, ‘Home, Identity and Community Cohesion’, in M. Wetherell, M. Lafleche, and R. Berkeley (eds.), Identity, Ethnic Diversity and Community Cohesion (Sage, 2007).
  • S. Clarke, S. Garner, and R. Gilmour, ‘Imagining the Other/Figuring Encounter: White English Middle Class and Working Class Identifications’, in M. Wetherell (ed.), Identity in the 21st Century: New Trends in Changing Times (Palgrave Macmillan, 2009).
  • Commission on Integration and Cohesion, Our Shared Future (Commission on Integration and Cohesion, 2007).
  • G. Dench, K. Gavron, and M. Young, The New East End: Kinship, Race and Conflict (Profile Books, 2006).
  • R. Forrest and A. Kearns, ‘Social Cohesion, Social Capital and the Neighbourhood’, Urban Studies 38(12) 2001: 2125–43.
  • S. Garner, ‘Home Truths: The White Working Class and the Racialization of Social Housing’, in K. Sveinsson (ed.), Who Cares about the White Working Class? (Runnymede Trust, 2009).
  • K. Gavron, ‘Acknowledged Identities: A Common Endeavour or Wider Hostilities’, in M. Wetherell, M. Lafleche, and R. Berkeley (eds.), Identity, Ethnic Diversity and Community Cohesion (Sage, 2007).
  • A. Gilchrist, Community Development and Community Cohesion: Bridges or Barricades? (Community Development Foundation, 2004).
  • D. Goodhart, ‘Too Diverse?’, Prospect, February 2004.
  • P. Hall, ‘Social Capital in Britain’, British Journal of Political Science, 28 (1999): 417–61.
  • M. Hickman, H. Crowley, and N. Mai, Immigration and Social Cohesion in the UK: The Rhythms and Realities of Everyday Life (Joseph Rowntree Foundation, 2008).
  • M. Hudson, J. Phillips, K. Ray, and H. Barnes, Social Cohesion in Diverse Communities (Joseph Rowntree Foundation, 2007).
  • M. Keith, ‘Between Being and Becoming? Rights, Responsibilities and the Politics of Multiculture in the New East End’, Sociological Research Online, 13(5) (2008).
  • N. Letki, ‘Does Diversity Erode Social Cohesion? Social Capital and Race in British Neighbourhoods’, Political Studies, 56: 99–126.
  • R. Moore, ‘Careless Talk: A Critique of Dench, Gavron and Young’s The New East End’, Critical Social Policy, 28(3) (2008): 349–60.
  • B. Parekh, ‘What Are Civilized Rules?’, Prospect, March 2004.
  • R. Putnam, Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community (Simon and Schuster, 2000).
  • R. Putnam and L. Feldstein, Better Together: Restoring the American Community (Simon and Schuster, 2003).
  • A. Rattansi, ‘Who’s British?: Prospect and the New Assimilationism’, in R. Berkeley (ed.), Cohesion, Community and Citizenship (Runnymede Trust, 2002).
  • P. Taylor-Gooby, ‘Is the Future American? Or, Can Left Politics Preserve European Welfare States from Erosion through Growing “Racial” Diversity?’, Journal of Social Policy, 34(4) (2005): 661–72.
  • R. Zetter, D. Griffiths, N. Sigona, D. Flynn, T. Pasha, and R. Beynon, Immigration, Social Cohesion and Social Capital: What Are the Links? (Joseph Rowntree Foundation, 2006).

الفصل الخامس

  • K. Ajebgo, Diversity and Citizenship: Curriculum Review (DfES, 2007).
  • M. Alam (ed.), Made in Bradford (Route Books, 2008).
  • C. Alexander, The Art of Being Black (Oxford University Press, 1996).
  • P. Bagguley and Y. Hussain (eds.), Riotous Citizens: Ethnic Conflict in Multicultural Britain (Ashgate, 2008).
  • R. Ballard (ed.), Desh Pardesh: The South Asian Presence in Britain (Hurst, 1994).
  • T. Blair, ‘Multiculturalism and Britishness’, (www.telegraph.co.uk/news, 9 December 2006).
  • G. Brown, ‘The Future of Britishness’, Speech at the Fabian Britishness Conference, 14 January 2006, http://www.fabiansociety.org.uk/press_office/news.
  • C. Caldwell, Reflections on the Revolution in Europe: Immigration, Islam and the West (Allen Lane, 2009).
  • L. Colley, Britishness in the 21st Century (Millenium Lecture, London School of Economics and Foreign and Commonwealth Office, 1999).
  • R. Colls, ‘In Search of British Values’, Prospect, October 2007.
  • J. Esposito and D. Mogahed, Who Speaks for Islam? What a Billion Muslims Really Believe (Gallup Press, 2007).
  • M. Farrar, ‘Leeds Footsoldiers and London Bombs’, (http://www.OpenDemocracy.net), 21 July 2005.
  • S. Glyn, ‘Bengali Muslims: The New East End Radicals?’, Ethnic and Racial Studies, 23(6) (2002): 969–88.
  • A. Heath, J. Martin, and G. Elgenius, ‘Who Do We Think We Are? The Decline of Traditional Identities’, in A. Park (ed.), British Social Attitudes: The 23rd Report (Sage, 2007).
  • E. Hobsbawm, ‘In Search of British Values’, Prospect, October 2007.
  • Home Office and Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Young Muslims and Extremism www.times-archive.co.uk/online specials/cabinet.pdf.
  • S. Huntington, The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of the World Order (Simon and Schuster, 1996).
  • W. Laquer, The Last Days of Europe: Epitaph for an Old Continent (Thomas Dunne, 2007).
  • A. Lentin, ‘The Intifada of the Banlieues’, (http://www.OpenDemocracy.net), 17 November 2005.
  • P. Lewis, Young, British and Muslim (Continuum, 2007).
  • S. Malik, ‘My Brother the Bomber: The Inside Story of 7/7 Leader Mohammad Siddique Khan’, Prospect, June 2007.
  • D. Marquand, ‘“Bursting with Skeletons”: Britishness after Empire’, in A. Gamble and T. Wright (eds.), Britishness: Perspectives on the Britishness Question (Wiley-Blackwell, 2009).
  • A. Mondal, Young British Muslim Voices (Greenwood, 2008).
  • A. Rattansi, ‘On Being and Not Being Brown/Black British: Racism, Class and Sexuality in Post-Imperial Britain’, in J.-A. Lee and J. Lutz (eds.), Situating ‘Race’ and Racisms in Time, Space, and Theory (Queen’s Unversity Press, 2005).
  • O. Roy, Globalised Islam: The Search for a New Ummah (2002) (Columbia University Press, 2004).
  • D. Watson, ‘Citizenship Lessons “Nationalistic and Politically Skewed”’, (http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tolnews/uk/education/article5476080).
  • F. Zakaria, ‘The Jihad against the Jihadis: How Moderate Muslim Leaders Waged War on Extremists—and Won’, Newsweek, 22 February 2010.
  • S. Zubaida, ‘Is There a Muslim Society?’, Economy and Society, 24(2) (1995): 151–88.
  • S. Zubaida, ‘The London Bombs: Iraq or the “Rage of Islam”?’, (http://www.OpenDeomcracy.net), 2 August 2005.

الخاتمة

  • A. Amin, ‘Ethnicity and the Multicultural City: Living with Diversity’, Environment and Planning A, 34 (2002): 959–80.
  • ‘Bagehot’, ‘In Praise of Multiculturalism’, The Economist, 16 June 2007.
  • M. Bernal, Black Athena: The Afro-Asiatic Roots of Classical Civilization (Free Association Books, 1987).
  • A. Giddens, ‘Misunderstanding Multiculturalism’, The Guardian, 14 October 2006.
  • N. Glazer, We Are All Multiculturalists Now (Harvard University Press, 1997).
  • J. Goody, The East in the West (Cambridge University Press, 1996).
  • J. Goody, The Theft of History (Cambridge University Press, 2006).
  • J. Goody, The Eurasian Miracle (Polity Press, 2010).
  • R. Grillo, Contesting Diversity in Europe: Alternative Regimes and Moral Orders (Max Planck Institute MMG Working Paper 10_02, 2010).
  • M. Hewstone, N. Tausch, J. Hughes, and E. Cairns, ‘Prejudice, Intergroup Contact and Identity: Do Neighbourhoods Matter?’, in M. Wetherell, M. Lafleche, and R. Berkeley (eds.), Identity, Ethnic Diversity and Community Cohesion (Sage, 2007).
  • D. Hibbert, ‘Cosmopolitanism at the Local Level: The Development of Transnational Neighbourhoods’, in S. Vertovec and R. Cohen (eds.), Conceiving Cosmopolitanism: Theory, Context and Practice (Oxford University Press, 2002).
  • D. Hollinger, Postethnic America: Beyond Multiculturalism, 2nd edn. (Basic Books, 2000).
  • C. Mouffe, ‘Democracy, Power and the “Political”’, in S. Benhabib (ed.), Democracy and Difference: Contesting the Boundaries of the Political (Princeton University Press, 1996).
  • B. Parekh, Rethinking Multiculturalism: Liberalism and Cultural Diversity, 2nd edn. (Palgrave Macmillan, 2005).
  • B. Parekh, A New Politics of Identity: Political Principles for an Interdependent World (Palgrave Macmillan, 2008).
  • Runnymede Trust Commission, The Future of Multi-Ethnic Britain (Profile Books, 2000).
  • A. Schachar, Multicultural Jurisdictions: Cultural Differences and Women’s Rights (Cambridge University Press, 2001).
  • K. Schmid, M. Hewstone, J. Hughes, R. Jenkins, and E. Cairns, ‘Residential Segregation and Intergroup Contact: Consequences for Intergroup Relations, Social Capital and Social Identity’, in M. Wetherell (ed.), Theorizing Identities and Social Action (Palgrave Macmillan, 2009).
  • A. Sen, ‘Culture and Human Rights’, in his Development as Freedom (Oxford University Press, 1999).
  • A. Sen, The Argumentative Indian: Writings on Indian History, Culture and Identity (Picador, 2005).
  • J. Tully, ‘Struggles over Recognition and Redistribution’, Constellations, 7(4) (2000): 469–82.
  • J. Tully, ‘Recognition and Dialogue: The Emergence of a New Field’, Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy, 7(3) (2004): 84–106.
  • A. Varshney, Ethnic Conflict and Civic Life: Hindus and Muslims in India, 2nd edn. (Yale University Press, 2003).
  • S. Vertovec and S. Wessendorf (eds.), The Multiculturalism Backlash: European Discourses, Policies and Practices (Routledge, 2010).
  • P. Wood and C. Henry, The Intercultural City: Planning for Diversity Advantage (Earthscan, 2008).

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