المراجع

الفصل الأول: الأعمال الفنية الحداثية

  • James Joyce, Ulysses, ed. Walter Gabler et al. (London: The Bodley Head, 1986), 1–8, 3.
  • Hugh Kenner, Ulysses (London: George Allen and Unwin, 1982), 34, 35.
  • Louis Vauxcelles, in Gil Blas, 14 November 1908, in Edward F. Fry, Cubism (London: Thames and Hudson, 1966), 50.
  • John Golding, Cubism: A History and an Analysis 1907–1914 (London: Faber and Faber, 1959), 10.
  • Kirk Varnedoe and Adam Gopnik (eds.), High and Low: Modern Culture and Popular Art, exh. cat. (New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1991), 292.
  • Stephen Hinton (ed.), Kurt Weill: The Threepenny Opera (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990), 5f, 24, 27, 188. The alternative version of the execution scene can be found in The Threepenny Opera, tr. Ralph Mannheim and John Willet (London: Methuen, 1979), 121f.
  • F. S. Flint, in The Times, cit. Alan Young, Dada and After: Extremist Modernism and English Literature (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1981), 49.
  • Cit. Elizabeth Cowling, Picasso: Style and Meaning (London: Phaidon, 2002), 2.
  • Cowling, ibid., 26.
  • Cf. Marinetti’s ‘Destruction of Syntaxt: Imagination without Strings-Words in Freedom’ (1913), in Umbro Apollonio (ed.), Futurist Manifestos (London: Thames and Hudson, 1973), 96.

الفصل الثاني: الحركات الحداثية والتقليد الثقافي

  • Kandinsky, On the Spiritual in Art, cit. Debbie Lewer (ed.), Post Impressionism to World War II (Oxford: Blackwell, 2006), 101.
  • Desmond MacCarthy, preface to the catalogue of the 1910 exhibition, in J. B. Bullen (ed.), Post-Impressionists in England (London and New York: Routledge, 1988), 98.
  • Matisse, ‘Notes of a Painter’ (1908), in Jack D. Flam, Matisse on Art (London: Phaidon, 1978), 37.
  • As Jack D. Flam points out in Matisse: The Man and His Art 1869–1918 (London: Thames and Hudson, 1986), 250–2.
  • Quotations from Roger Fry, ‘The French Group’ (1912) come from Bullen op. cit., 352–4. Also rpt. in Vassili Kolocotroni et al. (eds.), Modernism: An Anthology of Sources and Documents (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1998), 189 ff. (This is a very useful and wide-ranging anthology which sees modernism in its European context.)
  • Jelena Hahl-Koch, Kandinsky (London: Thames and Hudson, 1993), 253.
  • Joseph Rufer, The Works of Arnold Schoenberg: A Catalogue of His Compositions, Writings and Paintings, tr. Dika Newlin (London: Faber and Faber, 1962), 45.
  • This essay was later reprinted in the collection Von neuer Musik (Cologne, 1924).
  • Stephen Walsh, Stravinsky: The Second Exile, France and America 1934–1971 (London: Jonathan Cape, 2006), 292; cf. 281.
  • On the symbolic interpretation of this concerto, see e.g. Karen Monson, Alban Berg (London: Macdonald, 1979), 211–21.
  • John Milner, Mondrian (London: Phaidon, 1992), 161, 163.
  • De Stijl, I, 2, 39, and II, 2, 40, rpt. in Hans L. Jaffe, De Stijl (London: Thames and Hudson, 1970), 31.
  • C. H. Waddington, Behind Appearances (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1969), 42ff.
  • See Joan Weinstein, The Ends of Expressionisn: Art and the November Revolution in Germany, 1918-1919 (Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1990).
  • Cit. Frank Whitford, Bauhaus (London: Thames and Hudson, 1984), 128.
  • Calvin Tomkins, Duchamp (London: Chatto and Windus, 1997), 168.
  • Constant Lambert, Music Ho! A Study of Music in Decline (1934; reprinted London: Faber and Faber, 1966), 74.
  • Stravinsky in an interview of 1925, cit. Scott Messing, Neoclassicism in Music: From the Genesis of the Concept through the Stravinsky/Schoenberg Polemic (Rochester, New York: Rochester University Press, 1988, 1996), 141.
  • Cit. Messing, ibid., 142.
  • Theodor W. Adorno, The Philosophy of ModernMusic (London: Sheed andWard, 1948), 64. The attack on neoclassicism as infantile is on 206f.
  • Dermé, ‘Quand le symbolisme fut mort’, a programmatic statement for his North South, cit. Peter Nicholls, Modernisms (London: Macmillan, 1995), 243.
  • Cit. Nicholls, ibid., 245.
  • Igor Stravinsky and Robert Craft, Expositions and Developments (London: Faber and Faber, 1962, 1981), 113.
  • Mikhail Ruskin, Igor Stravinsky: His Personality, Works and Views (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), 47.
  • Stravinsky, cit. Eric Walter White, Stravinsky: The Composer and His Work (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979), 574f.
  • Messing, op. cit., 133.
  • Elizabeth Cowling, op. cit., 425, 428f.
  • John Berger, Success and Failure of Picasso (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1965), 98.
  • Michael Roberts, in his introduction to The Faber Book of Modern Verse (1936), rpt. Kolcotroni, op. cit., 514f.
  • Stravinsky, Poetics of Music (Cambridge, Mass., and London: Harvard University Press, 1998), 56-7.
  • Cit. Bram Djikstra, Cubism, Steiglitz and the Early Poetry of William Carlos Williams (New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1969), 9.
  • Williams, ‘Prologue’ to ‘Kora in Hell’, in Imaginations (New York: New Directions, 1971), 14.
  • Djikstra, op. cit., 134, 165, 167f.
  • James Joyce, Stephen Hero (London: Jonathan Cape, 1969), 96.
  • Mann, letter of 1915, cit. T. J. Reed, Thomas Mann: The Uses of Tradition 2nd edn. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996), 237.
  • J. P. Stern, The Dear Purchase: A Theme in German Modernism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), 29.
  • I. A. Richards, Principles of Literary Criticism (1926; rpt. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1967), 233.
  • C. Day Lewis, ‘A Hope for Poetry’ (1934), in C. B. Cox and Arnold P. Hinchcliffe (eds.), T. S. Eliot: The Waste Land: A Casebook (London: Macmillan, 1968), 58f.
  • T. S. Eliot, ‘Ulysses, Order and Myth’, The Dial, LXX, 5 (November 1923), 483.
  • Madame Blavatsky, ‘The Secret Doctrine’ (1888), extract rpt. Kolcotroni, op. cit., 32.
  • J. A. Symons, The Symbolist Movement in Literature (London: Heinemann, 1899), 9.

الفصل الثالث: الفنان الحداثي

  • Joyce, Ulysses, ed. Gabler, op. cit., 8: 21–6.
  • Ibid., 8: 537–44.
  • Woolf, ‘Mr Bennett and Mrs Brown’, in Andrew Mcneillie (ed.), The Essays of Virginia Woolf, vol. III (London: Hogarth Press, 1988), 385.
  • Woolf, ‘Character in Fiction’, in ibid., vol. III, 427, 428.
  • Woolf, Mrs Galloway (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992), 4f.
  • Joyce, Stephen Hero (London:Jonathan Cape, 1969), 218.
  • Jeri Johnson (ed.), Joyce, A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), 172, 178f.
  • Jeanne Schulkind (ed.), Virginia Woolf, Moments of Being (London: Grafton, 1989), 79–81.
  • Virginia Woolf, To the Lighthouse (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992), 217, 231, 272.
  • T. S. Eliot, ‘Burnt Norton’, The Complete Poems and Plays of T. S. Eliot (London: Faber and Faber, 1969), 175.
  • Frank Kermode, Romantic Image (London: Routledge, 1957), 157.
  • Jean-Paul Sartre, Nausea, tr. Robert Baldick (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1965), 60, 63, 82, 182f., 185, 191.
  • J. P. Stern, The Dear Purchase (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), 30.
  • Thomas Mann, The Magic Mountain, tr. H. T. Lowe-Porter (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1953), 495ff.
  • Ricardo Quinones, Mapping Literary Modernism (New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1985), 92, 95.
  • Charles Russell, Poets, Prophets and Revolutionaries (New York: Oxford University Press, 1985), 10.
  • Franz Kafka, The Trial, tr. Willa and Edwin Muir (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1953), 250f.
  • Quinones, ibid., 95f.
  • Quinones, ibid., 105.
  • George K. Zykaruk and James T. Boulton (eds.), The Letters of D. H. Lawrence, vol. ii (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981), 183.
  • In a review in The Nation and Athenaeum, 13 August 1921, rpt. Colin Clarke (ed.), D. H. Lawrence, The Rainbow and Women in Love: A Casebook (London: Macmillan, 1969).
  • D. H. Lawrence, The Rainbow (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997), 319f.
  • See John Werthen, D. H. Lawrence (London: Allen Lane, 2005), 164.
  • I follow S. L. Goldberg, ‘The Rainbow: Fiddle and Sand, Essays in Criticism, XI, no. 4 (1961), rpt. in Clarke (ed.), op. cit., 120.
  • Julian Moynihan, ‘Ritual Scenes in The Rainbow’, rpt. Clarke (ed.), op. cit., 149.
  • Douglas Jarman, Alban Berg: Wozzeck (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989), 44 (on the fugue) and 21.
  • André Breton, ‘The First Surrealist Manifesto’ (1924), in André Breton: Manifestos of Surrealism (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1972), 26.
  • Ibid., 9f.
  • Rpt. in Kolocotroni et al. (eds.), Modernism: An Anthology of Sources and Documents (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1998), 601ff.
  • Ruth Brandon, Surreal Lives: The Surrealists 1917–1945 (London: Macmillan, 1999), 317f and 330.
  • Sigmund Freud ‘Fetishism’ (1927), in On Sexuality, Penguin Freud Library, vol. 7 (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1977), 354.
  • Jennifer Mundy (ed.), Surrealism: Desire Unbound, exh. cat. (London: Tate Publishing, 2001), 45.
  • Ian Gibson, The Shameful Life of Salvador Dali (London: Faber and Faber, 1997), 215f.
  • Wallace Stevens, Opus Posthumous (London: Faber and Faber, 1969), 177.
  • Christopher Isherwood, Lions and Shadows (London: Signet, 1968), 185.
  • W. H. Auden, The Orators (London; Faber and Faber, 1966), 93.
  • W. H. Auden, ‘Psychology Today’ (1935), in Edward Mendelson (ed.), The English Auden (London: Faber and Faber, 1977), 340f.

الفصل الرابع: الحداثة والسياسة

  • I follow Brandon, op. cit., 262ff. For a full account, see Gerard Duruzoi, History of the Surrealist Movement, tr. Alison Anderson (Chicago and London: Chicago University Press, 2002), 189–235.
  • Arthur Koestler, Darkness at Noon (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1964), 41, 82.
  • Cf. the account of Lukács in Astradur Eysteinsson, The Concept of Modernism (Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 1990), esp. 29.
  • Lukács, ‘Realism in the Balance’ (1938), rpt. in Kolcotroni et al., op. cit., 584ff.
  • Eric Kaufmann in Prospect magazine, November 2006, 30.
  • In his ‘A Hope for Poetry’ (1934), in Kolcotroni, op. cit., 489.
  • Orwell, ‘Inside the Whale’ (1940), ibid., 607. ‘poetry’: Day Lewis, ibid., 492.
  • Alex Ross, The Rest is Noise (London: Fourth Estate, 2008), 203-4.
  • Peter Adam, The Arts of the Third Reich (London: Thames and Hudson, 1992), 123.
  • Excerpts from Hitler’s speech are cited from Kolcotroni, op. cit., 560–3. The German text of the speech is in Peter Klaus Schuster (ed.), Die ‘Kunststad’ Munchen 1937 – Nationalsozialismus und ‘Entartete Kunst’ (Munich: Prestel, 1987), 242–53.
  • Winfried Wendland, Kunst und Nation (Berlin: Verlag der Raimer Hobbing, 1934), 19, cit. Adam, op. cit., 95.
  • Cit. Adam, op. cit., 95f.
  • These paintings (along with many others) are reproduced in Adam, op. cit., 26, 51, 172.
  • A press spokesman for the Ministry of Information (1937), cit. Adam, op. cit., 16.
  • Cit. Adam, op. cit., 69.
  • Paul Fechter, cit. Ronald Taylor, Literature and Society in Germany 1915–1945 (Brighton: Harvester, 1980), 244.
  • Charles Russell, Poets, Prophets and Revolutionaries (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985), 113.
  • Diana Crane, The Transformation of the Avant-Garde: The New York Art World, 1940–1985 (Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1987), 1.
  • Notably in his essays ‘Modernist Painting’ (1961) and ‘After Abstract Expressionism’ (1962), rpt. in Charles Harrison and Paul Wood (eds.), Art in Theory 1900–1990 (Oxford: Blackwell, 1992).
  • Derek B. Scott, ‘Introduction’, in Derek B. Scott (ed.), Music, Culture and Society (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), 11.
  • Grosz, cit. Beth Irwin Lewis, Georg Grosz: Art and Politics in the Weimar Republic (New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1991), 53.
  • Grosz, cit. Hans Hess, George Grosz (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1985), 101f.
  • Carl Einstein ‘Otto Dix’, Das Kunstblatt, vol. 7 (1923), 97.
  • Christopher Green, Art in France 1900–1940 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003), 335.
  • Tim Hilton, Picasso (London: Thames and Hudson, 1975), 246.
  • Blunt, cit. Green, op. cit., 286.
  • Green, op. cit., 289.
  • Cf. e.g. Gijs van Hensbergen, Guernica: The Biography of a Twentieth Century Icon (London: Bloomsbury, 2005).

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