قراءات إضافية

الفصل الأول: الأعمال الفنية الحداثية

For the politics of Ulysses, see, inter alia, Andrew Gibson, Joyce’s Revenge: History, Politics and Aesthetics in Ulysses (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002). On the relationship of early modernist painting to popular culture, see for example Jeffrey Weiss, The Popular Culture of Modern Art (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1994). On Picasso’s stylistic evolution, and much else, see Elizabeth Cowling, Picasso: Style and Meaning (London: Phaidon, 2002). On the development of Léger’s painting, see Christopher Green, Léger and the Avant Garde (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1976). For a study of technical innovation in the arts, see Christopher Butler, Early Modernism: Literature, Music and Painting in Europe 1900–1916 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994).

الفصل الثاني: الحركات الحداثية والتقليد الثقافي

On Picasso and Matisse, see Elizabeth Cowling et al. (eds.), Matisse/Picasso, exh. cat. (London: Tate Publishing, 2002). On Diaghilev, see for example Lynn Garafola, Diaghilev’s Ballets Russes (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989), and Lynn Garafola and Nancy Van Norman Baier (eds.), The Ballet Russe and Its World (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1999). On the development of cubism, see William Rubin (ed.), Picasso and Braque: Pioneering Cubism, exh. cat. (New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1989).
On Kandinsky’s ‘Compositions’, see Magdalena Dabrowski, Kandinsky Compositions (New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1995). And also Hartwig Fischer and Sean Rainbird (eds.), Kandinsky: The Path to Abstraction, exh. cat. (London: Tate Publishing, 2006).
On the Bauhaus, see the documents and pictures in Hans Wingler, The Bauhaus (Cambridge, Mass., and London: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press, 1978). On Duchamp and Picabia in America, see Steven Watson, Strange Bedfellows: The First American Avant Garde (New York: Abbeville Press, 1991) and Calvin Tomkins, Duchamp (London: Chatto and Windus, 1997). On the allegedly conservative aspects of post-war neoclassicism, see for example Kenneth E. Silver, Esprit de Corps: The Art of the Parisian Avant Garde and the First World War, 1914–1925 (London: Thames and Hudson, 1989). On the modernist preoccupation with primitivism, see for example William Rubin (ed.), Primitivism in Twentieth Century Art, 2 vols (New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1984). Also Robert Goldwater, Primitivism in Modern Art (Cambridge, Mass., and London: Harvard University Press, 1986; first published 1938); Marianne Torgovnik, Gone Primitive: Savage Intellects, Modern Lives (Chicago and London: Chicago University Press, 1990); and J. Lloyd, German Expressionism: Primitivism and Modernity (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1991).
On the devlopment of modernist music in America, see Carol J. Oja, Making Music Modern (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000). On the relationship of modernist music to earlier models, see for example Joseph N. Straus, Remaking the Past: Musical Modernism and the Influence of the Tonal Tradition (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1990). For some appreciation of the many influences on The Waste Land, see Lawrence Rainey (ed.), The Annotated Waste Land, with Eliot’s Contemporary Prose, 2nd edn. (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2006) and his Revisiting The Waste Land (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2005), on the process of its composition. On Freud as atheist, see Peter Gay, A Godless Jew: Freud’s Atheism and the Making of Psychoanalysis (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1987).

الفصل الثالث: الفنان الحداثي

On modernist literature in Germany, see J. P. Stern, The Dear Purchase: A Theme in German Modernism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995); Ronald Taylor, Literature and Society in Germany 1915–1945 (Brighton: Harvester, 1980); David Midgley, Writing Weimar: Critical Realism in German Literature 1916–1933 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000); Wolf Lepennies, The Seduction of Culture in German History (New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2006).
On the sexual ramifications of surrealism, see Jennifer Mundy (ed.), Surrealism: Desire Unbound, exh. cat. (London: Tate Publishing, 2001). On the irrationalist tradition in poetry, see Marjorie Perloff, The Poetics of Indeterminacy: Rimbaud to Cage (New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1981). On the influence of Dada, see Richard Sheppard, Modernism, Dada, Postmodernism (Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University Press, 2000). On surrealism in England, see Michel Remy, Surrealism in Britain (Aldershot: Ashgate, 1999). On the history of the surrealist movement, see Gerard Duruzoi, tr. Alison Anderson, History of the Surrealist Movement (Chicago and London: Chicago University Press, 2002).

الفصل الرابع: الحداثة والسياسة

For a study of Western Marxism, see the volume of that title by J. G. Merquior (London: Fontana, 1986), and for a study of the interaction of Marxism and modernism, see Eugene Lunn, Marxism and Modernism (London: Verso, 1985). On the political reactions of British writers, see Valentine Cunningham, British Writers of the Thirties (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988). The effects of the modernist revolution on Russian art are recounted in Camilla Gray, The Russian Experiment in Art 1863–1922, rev. edn. (London: Thames and Hudson, 1986). See also Igor Golomstock, Totalitarian Art in the Soviet Union, the Third Reich, Fascist Italy and the People’s Republic of China, tr. Robert Chandler (London: Collins Harvill, 1991), chapters 1 to 3. For an account of popular culture and of modernist responses to it, see Noel Carroll, A Philosophy of Mass Art (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998). An interesting account of the failure of modernism to sustain a consistently socialist development is to be found in T. J. Clark’s Farewell to an Idea: Episodes from a History of Modernism (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1999). A pioneering study of female social groupings is to be found in Georgina Taylor, H. D. and the Public Sphere of Modernist Women Writers 1913–1946 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001). On the continuing tradition and importance of realist art in all periods, cf. Brendan Prendeville, Realism in Twentieth Century Painting (London: Thames and Hudson, 2000).
Also of interest are David Peter Corbett, Modernism and English Art (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1997) and Lisa Tickner, Modern Life and Modern Subjects (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000). On abstraction, see John Golding, Painting and the Absolute (London: Thames and Hudson, 2000). On music in the 20th century, see Alex Ross, The Rest is Noise (London: Fourth Estate, 2008), Glenn Watkins, Pyramids at the Louvre: Music, Culture and Collage from Stravinsky to the Postmodernists (Cambridge, Mass., and London: Harvard University Press, 1994), and Richard Taruskin, The Oxford History of Western Music, vol. 4, The Early Twentieth Century (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005). Stephanie Barron (ed.), ‘Degenerate Art’: The Fate of the Avant Garde in Germany, exh. cat. (Los Angeles: Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 1991). And for music in Germany in this period, see Michael Kater, Composers of the Nazi Era (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000).

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