Good general accounts of the history of heredity and genetics include: Ernest Mayr, The growth of biological thought: diversity, evolution, and inheritance (Belknap Press, 1982); Nicholas Russell, Like engend’ring like: heredity and animal breeding in early modern England (Cambridge University Press, 1986); Peter J. Bowler, The Mendelian revolution: the emergence of hereditarian concepts in modern science and society (Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989); and John Farley, Gametes and spores: ideas about sexual reproduction, 1750–1914 (Johns Hopkins University Press, 1982).
الفصل الأول: النفس والبذور والشوفينية
For ancient thinking about sex and heredity see Marten Stol, Birth in Babylonia and the Bible (Brill Academic Publishers, 2000); Conway Zirkle, ‘The early history of the idea of the inheritance of acquired characters and of pangenesis’, Transactions of the American philosophical society, 35/2 (1946), pp. 91–151; D. M. Balme, ‘Human is generated by human’, in Gordon Dunstan (ed.), The human embryo: Aristotle and the Arabic and European traditions (University of Exeter Press, 1990); and Thomas Laqueur, making sex: body and gender from the Greeks to Freud (Harvard University Press, 1992). For detailed analyses of Graeco-Roman ideas about gender, class, and ethnicity see: Benjamin Isaac, The invention of racism in Classical Antiquity (Princeton University Press, 2004), Greg Woolf, ‘Beyond Romans and natives’, World archaeology, Vol. 23/3 (1997), pp. 339–50, Josiah Ober, Mass and elite in democratic Athens: rhetoric, ideology, and the power of the people (Princeton University Press, 1990), and P. A. L. Greenhalgh, ‘Aristocracy and its advocates in Archaic Greece’, Greece and Rome, 19 (1972), pp. 190–207.
الفصل الثاني: الجنس والبذرة والخطيئة في العصور الوسطى
Good accounts of medieval theories about inheritance are: Helen Rodnite Lemay (ed.), Women’s secrets: a translation of Pseudo-Albertus Magnus’s De secretis mulierum (SUNY Press, 1992); Luke E. Demaitre, Leprosy in premodern medicine: a malady of the whole body (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2007); and Päivi Pahta, Medieval embryology in the vernacular: the case of De spermate (Société néophilologique, 1998). For the application of the concept of heredity to questions of gender, class, and ethnicity see: Joan Cadden, The meanings of sex difference in the Middle Ages: medicine, science, and culture (Cambridge University Press, 1995); David Crouch, The birth of nobility: constructing aristocracy in England and France 900–1300 (Pearson Education, 2001); Jonathan Spence, The Chan’s great continent: China in western minds (W. W. Norton, 1998); Robert Bartlett, The making of Europe: conquest, colonization, and cultural change, 950–1350 (Princeton University Press, 1993); Miriam Eliav-Feldon, Benjamin Isaac, and Joseh Zielger (eds), The origins of racism in the west (Cambridge University Press, 20.5).
الفصل الثالث: الوراثة في أوائل العالم الحديث ١٤٥٠–١٧٠٠
For theories about heredity Justin E. H. Smith (ed.), The problem of animal generation in early modern philosophy (Cambridge University Press, 2006) and Staffan Müller-Wille and Hans-Jörg Rheinberger (eds), Heredity produced: at the crossroads of biology, politics, and culture, 1500–1870 (The MIT Press, 2007). For the application of ideas of heredity see: Jorge Esguerra, ‘New World, new stars: patriotic astrology and the invention of Indian and Creole bodies in Colonial Spanish America, 1600–1650’, American historical review, 104/1 (1999), pp. 133–68; Winthrop D. Jordan, White over black: American attitudes toward the Negro, 1550–1812 (University of North Carolina Press, 1968); and Alden T. Vaughan, ‘From White Man to Redskin: changing Anglo-American perceptions of the American Indian’, The American historical review, 87/4 (Oct. 1982), pp. 917–53.
الفصل الرابع: الوراثة في عصر التنوير
Detailed accounts of Enlightenment theories of heredity include Jacques Roger, The life sciences in eighteenth-century French thought, ed. Keith R. Benson and trans. Robert Ellrich (Stanford University Press, 1997); Raymond Stephenson and Darren Wagner, The secrets of generation: reproduction in the long eighteenth century (University of Toronto Press, 20.7); and Clara Pinto Correia, The ovary of Eve: egg and sperm and preformation (University of Chicago Press, 1998). For the use of concepts of heredity to talk about gender, social class, and race see: Londa L. Schiebinger, Nature’s body: gender in the making of modern science (Rutgers University Press, 2004); William Doyle, Aristocracy and its enemies in the age of revolution (Oxford University Press, 2009); and Ira Berlin, Many thousands gone: the first two centuries of slavery in North America (Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1998).
الفصل الخامس: الوراثة في القرن التاسع عشر
For Victorian debates about heredity see: Peter J. Bowler, Evolution: the history of an idea (University of California Press, 2009); Janet Browne, Charles Darwin: a biography, vol. 1 & 2 (Princeton University Press, 1996 & 20.5); George W. Stocking, Jr, Victorian anthropology (Free Press, 1991); and Warwick Anderson, ‘Climates of opinion: acclimatization in nineteenth-century France and England’, Victorian studies, 35/2 (1992), pp. 135–57. For the role of hereditarian concepts in discussions of gender, class, and race: Caroll Smith-Rosenberg and Charles Rosenberg, ‘The female animal: medical and biological views of woman and her role in nineteenth-century America’, The journal of American history, 60/2 (1973), pp. 332–56; Stephen Jay Gould, The mismeasure of man(W. W. Norton, 1996); Robin Blackburn, The American crucible: slavery, emancipation and human rights (Verso, 20.5); Ronald Takaki, A different mirror: a history of multicultural America (Back Bay Books, 2008).
الفصل السادس: الجزيئات والبشر
For the history of genetic research see: Garland Allen, Life science in the twentieth century (John Wiley & Sons, 1975); Horace Judson, The eighth day of creation: makers of the revolution in biology(Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1996); Matthew Cobb, Life’s greatest secret: the race to crack the genetic code (Basic Books, 20.7). For the history of eugenics and scientific racism: Daniel Kevles, In the name of eugenics: genetics and the uses of human heredity (Harvard University Press, 1995); Mark B. Adams, The wellborn science: eugenics in Germany, France, Brazil, and Russia (Oxford University Press, 1990); Alexandra Minna Stern, Eugenic nation: faults and frontiers of better breeding in modern America (University of California Press, 20.7); and Elazar Barkan, The retreat of scientific racism: changing concepts of race in Britain and the United States between the World Wars(Cambridge University Press, 1993).
For modern ideas of pedigree and class: Arthur Marwick, Class: image and reality in Britain, France and the USA since 1930 (Macmillan, 1990) and Nicholas Lemann, The big test: the secret history of the American meritocracy (Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2000). For ideas about gender see the essays contained in Janet A. Kourany (ed.), The gender of science (Pearson, 2001) and Carl N. Degler, In search of human nature: the decline and revival of Darwinism in American social thought (Oxford University Press, 1992).
الفصل السابع: آفاق جديدة
For good overviews of recent developments in genetics and their practical and ethical dimensions see: Siddhartha Mukherjee, The gene: an intimate history (Scribner, 2016); Francis S. Collins, The language of life: DNA and the revolution in personalized medicine (Harper Perennial, 2011); Nicolas Rasmussen, Gene jockeys: life science and the rise of biotech enterprise (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2014); Chris Stringer, Lone survivors: how we came to be the only humans on Earth (St Martin’s Griffin, 20.5); John Harris, Enhancing evolution: the ethical case for making better people (Princeton University Press, 2010); Keith Wailoo, Alondra Nelson, and Catherine Lee (eds), Genetics and the unsettled past: the collision of DNA, race, and history (Rutgers University Press, 2012); and Brian G. Dias and Kerry J. Ressler, ‘Parental olfactory experience influences behavior and neural structure in subsequent generations’, Nature neuroscience, 17 (2014), pp. 89–96.
For studies on human intelligence and genetic variation see: Claude Steele and Joshua Aronson, ‘Stereotype threat and the intellectual test performance of African Americans’, Journal of personality and social psychology, 69/5 1995), pp. 797–811; N. A. Rosenberg et al., ‘Genetic structure of human populations’, Science, 20/298 (2002), pp. 2381–5; and L. M. Butcher et al., ‘Genome-wide quantitative trait locus association scan of general cognitive ability using pooled DNA and 500K single nucleotide polymorphism microarrays’, Genes, brain and behavior, 7/4 (2008), pp. 435–46.
For changes and continuities in attitudes towards race, class, and gender, see: Martin Gilens, Why Americans hate welfare: race, media, and the politics of antipoverty policy (University of Chicago Press, 2000); Ramaswami Mahalingam, ‘Essentialism, power, and the representation of social categories: a folk sociology perspective’, Human development, 50/6 (2007), pp. 300–19; Donald R. Kinder and Lynn M. Sanders, Divided by Color: Racial Politics and Democratic Ideals (University of Chicago Press, 1996); Paula England, ‘The gender revolution’, Gender & society, 24/2 (2010), pp. 149–66; Shelley J. Correll (ed.), Social psychology of gender (JAI Press Inc., 2007); and Phillip Brown, ‘Education, opportunity and the prospects for social mobility’, British journal of sociology of education, 34 (20.5), pp. 678–700.