مصادر الصور

  • (1-1) Mendel’s pattern of inheritance
  • (1-2) Photo 51 showing the X-ray diffraction pattern of double stranded DNA (King’s College London Archives/Science Photo Library)
  • (1-3) The DNA double helix
  • (1-4) Gene expression: DNA to RNA to protein
  • (2-1) DNA is packaged along with histone proteins
  • (2-2) DNA is synthesized by the enzyme DNA polymerase
  • (2-3) Steps in a gene cloning experiment
  • (2-4) The polymerase chain reaction
  • (2-5) The Sanger sequencing method
  • (3-1) The two steps of protein synthesis (Based on and adapted from Biology, Tenth Edition, by Sylvia Mader. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education (2009). Reproduced by permission)
  • (3-2) The RNAi pathway
  • (4-1) A peptide bond is formed between two amino acids
  • (4-2) Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (p. 321 Fig: 14.1 Two-dimensional electrophoresis from Tools and Techniques in Biomolecular Science, edited by Divan & Royds (2013). By permission of Oxford University Press)
  • (4-3) An immunoglobulin molecule comprising two heavy and two light polypeptide chains
  • (4-4) Western blot technique (p. 202 Fig: 9.2a ‘Western blot’ from Tools and Techniques in Biomolecular Science, edited by Divan & Royds (2013). By permission of Oxford University Press)
  • (5-1) Epigenetic variations consist of DNA methylation and histone modifications
  • (5-2) Cell cycle divided into phases
  • (5-3) Apoptosis
  • (6-1) Retroviral gene therapy
  • (7-1) p53 levels are controlled by the inhibitor protein, MDM2 (‘Mdm2 in DNA damage activation of the p53 tumor suppressor’, taken from “http://www.umassmed.edu/cellbio/labs/jones/Research/regulation-p53/”. By permission of Steve Jones)
  • (7-2) Geographical distribution of the TP53 codon 72 variants or SNPs (Lara Sucheston, David B. Witonsky, Darcie Hastings, Ozlem Yildiz, Vanessa J. Clark, Anna Di Rienzo, Kenan Onel, ‘Natural selection and functional genetic variation in the p53 pathway’, Human Molecular Genetics (OUP, 2011), vol. 20. By permission of Oxford University Press)
  • (7-3) GleevecTM
  • (8-1) DNA fingerprinting (Courtesy: National Human Genome Research Institute “http://www.genome.gov/”)
  • (9-1) Nuclear DNA from the mother’s egg is transferred to a healthy donor egg cell that lacks its nucleus (‘Step by Step: how PNT works’, taken from New Techniques to prevent mitochondrial disease: Pro-nuclear transfer (PNT)“ http://mitochondria.hfea.gov.uk/mitochondria/what-is-mitochondrialdisease/new-techniques-to-preventmitochondrial-disease/pro-nuclear-transfer/” .Used with permission)
  • (9-2) Synthetic biology uses a parts, devices, and systems approach, similar to engineering (kokandr/Shutterstock)
  • (9-3) Double-stranded breaks and repair mechanisms (Figure 1 ‘Pathways for repair of DSBs induced by genome editing tools’, from ‘Genome Editing Technology from GeneCopoeia, Inc.’ “ http://www.genecopoeia.com/resource/genome-editing-technology-fromgenecopoeia-inc/”. Used with permission)

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