ملاحظات

مقدمة

(1)
Polya, G. (1973). How to solve it: A new aspect of mathematical method (2nd ed.). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, p. 113. (Original work published 1945).
(2)
For example, Boselie, F. (1984). The aesthetic attractivity of the golden section. Psychological Research, 45, 367–375; Boselie, F. (1997). The golden section and the shape of objects. Empirical Studies of the Arts, 15, 131–141.
(3)
Macrosson, W. D. K., & Strachan, G. C. (1997). The preference amongst product designers for the golden section in line partitioning. Empirical Studies of the Arts, 15, 153–163; Macrosson, W. D. K., & Stewart, P. E. (1997). The inclination of artists to partition line sections in the Golden Ratio. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 84, 707–713.
(4)
Olariu, A. (1999). Golden section and the art of painting. Available online at http://arxiv.org/PS_cache/physics/pdf/9908/9908036v1.pdf.
(5)
Clement Falbo had the simple idea of measuring a bunch of seashells. They do indeed form logarithmic spirals, but the ratios he observed of real seashells were not close to 1.6; they were all in a range of 1.24–1.43. Falbo, C. (2005). The Golden Ratio—a contrary viewpoint. College Mathematics Journal, 36, 123–134. Available online at www.sonoma.edu/math/faculty/falbo/cmj 123–134.
(6)
For an overview of problems, see Markowsky, G. (1992). Misconceptions about the Golden Ratio. College Mathematics Journal, 23, 2–19. Available online http://laptops.maine.edu/GoldenRatio.pdf.
(7)
Pashler, H., McDaniel, M., Rohrer, D., & Bjork, R. (2008). Learning styles: Concepts and evidence. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 9, 106–119; Riener, C., & Willingham, D. T. (2010). The myth of learning styles. Change, 42, 32–35.
(8)
In fact, it had been proposed much earlier, but did not catch on until the 1920s. Mathews, M. M. (1966). Teaching to read, historically considered. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
(9)
Notable were the “Dick and Jane” book series by William Gray (longtime dean of the University of Chicago Graduate School of Education) and Zerna Sharp, published by Scott Foresman from the 1930s through the 1970s. They were often parodied for their repetitiveness, with page after page of text like “Oh see! Oh see Jane! Jane can run! Run, Jane, run!”
(10)
Balmuth, M. (1982). The roots of phonics: A historical introduction. New York: McGraw-Hill.
(11)
Flesch, R. (1955). Why Johnny can’t read. New York: Harper.
(12)
For example, Bienvenu, H. J., & Martyn, K. A. (1956). Why can’t Rudy read? National Education Association Journal, 44, 168–175; Betts, E. A. (1955). Teaching Johnny to read. Saturday Review, 38(31), 26-27; and Harris, A. J. (1956). Review of Why Johnny Can’t Read, Teachers College Record, 57, 263. Flesch specifically singled out linguists and psychologists as worthy researchers of reading; education researchers were, he said, the problem. The review in the journal of the Linguistic Society of America was mostly favorable: Hall, R. A., Jr. (1956). Review of Why Johnny Can’t Read. Language, 32, 310–313; but the review in American Psychologist less so: Carroll, J. B. (1956). The case of Dr. Flesch. American Psychologist, 11, 158–163.
(13)
Chall, J. S. (1967). Learning to read: The great debate. New York: McGraw-Hill.
(14)
It’s probably more accurate to say it resurfaced with prominence in the 1980s. It never really disappeared. Prominent publications included Goodman, K. (1986). What’s whole in whole language. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann Educational Books; Smith, F. (1985). Reading without nonsense. New York: Teachers College Press.
(15)
National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. (2000). Report of the National Reading Panel: Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction. NIH publication no. 00-4754. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
(16)
Boulet, S. L., Boyle, C. A., & Schieve, L. A. (2009). Health care use and health and functional impact of developmental disabilities among US children, 1997–2005. Archives of Pediatric & Adolescent Medicine, 163, 19–26.
(17)
Bishop, D.V.M., Whitehouse, A.J.O., Watt, H. J., & Line, E. A. (2008). Autism and diagnostic substitution: Evidence from a study of adults with a history of developmental language disorder. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 50, 341–345.
(18)
Centers for Disease Control. (2006). Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders—Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, United States, 2006. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ss5810a1.htm.
(19)
Shute, N. (2010, October). Desperate for an autism cure. scientific American, pp. 80–85.
(20)
Vargas, D. L., Nascimbene, C., Krishnan, C., Zimmerman, A. W., & Pardo, C. A. (2005). Neuroglial activation and neuroinflammation in the brain of patients with autism. Annals of Neurology, 57, 67–81.
(21)
Neuroimmunopathology Laboratory. (n.d.). FAQs: The meaning of neuroinflammatory findings in autism. Available online at http://www.neuro.jhmi.edu/neuroimmunopath/autism_faqs.htm.
(22)
Search conducted October 14, 2010.
(23)
As of November 2011, the National Institutes of Health does not recommend the use of secretin to treat ASD. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. (2011, November). Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Available online at http://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/asd.cfm.
(24)
National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education. (2010, November). Table 90: Number of public school districts and public and private elementary and secondary schools: Selected years, 1869-70 through 2008-09. Digest of Education Statistics. Available online at http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d10/tables/dt10_090.asp.

الجزء الأول: لماذا نصدِّق العلم الزائف بسهولة؟

الفصل الأول: لماذا يصدِّق الأشخاص الأذكياء أمورًا غبية؟

(1)
Langer, E., Blank, A., & Chanowitz, B. (1978). The mindlessness of ostensibly thoughtful action: The role of “placebic” information in interpersonal interaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36, 635–642.
(2)
James, W. (1890). Psychology (Vol. 1). New York: Henry Holt, p. 115.
(3)
Chartrand, T. L., Maddux, W. W., & Lakin, J. L. (2005). Beyond the perception-behavior link: The ubiquitous utility and motivational moderators of nonconscious mimicry. In R. Hassin, J. Uleman, & J. A. Bargh (Eds.), The new unconscious (pp. 334–361). New York: Oxford University Press.
(4)
1 Corinthians 9: 2–22 (New International Version). Available online at http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=1+Corinthians+9%3A19–23&version=NIV.
(5)
Johnston, L. (2002). Behavioral mimicry and stigmatization. Social Cognition, 20, 18–35.
(6)
There are two particularly prominent psychological models of how persuasion happens. Both have a conscious and an unconscious route. Petty, R. E., & Cacioppo, J. T. (1981). Attitudes and persuasion: Classic and contemporary approaches. Dubuque, IA: Brown; and Chaiken, S. (1987). The heuristic model of persuasion. In M. P. Zanna, J. M. Olson, & C. P. Herman (Eds.), Social influence: The Ontario symposium (Vol. 5, pp. 3–39). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
(7)
Packard, V. (1957). The hidden persuaders. New York: McKay.
(8)
One recent example is Bullock, A. (2004). The secret sales pitch: An overview of subliminal advertising. San Jose, CA: Norwich.
(9)
Zajonc, R. B. (1968). Attitudinal effects of mere exposure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Monograph Supplement, 9, 1–27.
(10)
For example, Begg, I., Armour, V., & Kerr, T. (1985). On believing what we remember. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, 17, 199–214.
(11)
Bacon, F. T. (1979). Credibility of repeated statements: Memory for trivia. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 5, 2241–2252.
(12)
Begg, I. M., Anas, A., & Farinacci, S. (1992). Dissociation of processes in belief: Source recollection, statement familiarity, and the illusion of truth. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 121, 446–458.
(13)
For example, Petroshius, S. M., & Crocker, K. E. (1989). An empirical analysis of spokesperson characteristics on advertisement and product evaluations. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 17, 217–225.
(14)
This phenomenon is observed not only in advertisements but in the media more generally. Perloff, R. M. The third-person effect: A critical review and synthesis. Media Psychology, 1, 353–378.
(15)
Stuart, E. W., Shimp, T. A., & Engle, R. W. (1987). Classical conditioning of consumer attitudes: Four experiments in an advertising context. Journal of Consumer Research, 14, 334–349.
(16)
Pendergast, M. (1993). For God, country, and Coca-Cola. New York: Basic Books.
(17)
Kelman, H. C. (1958). Compliance, identification, and internalization: Three processes of attitude change. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 2, 51–60.
(18)
DeBono, K. G., & Harnish, R. J. (1988). Source expertise, source attractiveness, and the processing of persuasive information: A functional approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55, 541–546.
(19)
Curly Neal of the Three Stooges, from Calling All Curs (1938).
(20)
Yalch, R. F., & Elmore-Yalch, R. (1984). The effect of numbers on the route to persuasion. Journal of Consumer Research, 11, 522–527.
(21)
Abelson, R. P., Kinder, D. R., Peters, M. D., & Fiske, S. T. (1982). Affective and semantic components in political person perception. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 18–28.
(22)
Bowman, N. A., & Bastedo, M. N. (2009). Getting on the front page: Organizational reputation, status signals, and the impact of the U.S. News and World Report on student decisions. Research in Higher Education, 50, 415–436. The effect may not hold for public institutions, however: Hemelt, S. W., & Marcotte, D. E. (2011). The impact of tuition increases on enrollment at public colleges and universities. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 33, 435–457.
(23)
Wason, P. C. (1960). On the failure to eliminate hypotheses in a conceptual task. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 12, 129–140.
(24)
Snyder, M., & Swann, W. B., Jr. (1978). Hypothesis testing in social interaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36, 1202–1212.
(25)
Elstein, A. S., & Schwarz, A. (2002). Clinical problem solving and diagnostic decision making: Selective review of the cognitive literature. British Medical Journal, 324, 729–732.
(26)
Krems, J. F., & Zierer, C. (1994). Are experts immune to cognitive bias? Dependence of “confirmation bias” on specialist knowledge. Zeitschrift für Experimentelle und Angewandte Psychologie, 41, 98–115.
(27)
Kelly, H. H. (1950). The warm-cold variable in first impressions of persons. Journal of Personality, 18, 431–440.
(28)
Snyder, M., & Cantor, N. (1979). Testing hypotheses about other people: The use of historical knowledge. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 15, 330–342.
(29)
Westen, D., Blagov, P. S., Harenski, K., Kilts, C., & Hamann, S. (2006). Neural bases of motivated reasoning: An fMRI study of emotional constraints on partisan political judgment in the 2004 U.S. presidential election. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 18, 1947–1958.
(30)
Munro, G. D., Leary, S. P., & Lasane, T. P. (2004). Between a rock and a hard place: Biased assimilation of scientific information in the face of commitment. North American Journal of Psychology, 6, 431–444.
(31)
Taber, C. S., & Lodge, M. (2006). Motivated skepticism in the evaluation of political beliefs. American Journal of Political Science, 50, 755–769.
(32)
Cacioppo, J. T., & Petty, R. E. (1979). Effects of message repetition and position on cognitive responses, recall, and persuasion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 2181–2199.
(33)
Hafer, C. L., & Bègue, L. (2005). Experimental research on just-world theory: Problems, developments, and future challenges. Psychological Bulletin, 131, 128–167.
(34)
Feinberg, M., & Willer, R. (2011). Apocalypse soon? Dire messages reduce belief in global warming by contradicting just-world beliefs. Psychological Science, 22, 34–38.
(35)
For a different perspective on the adaptiveness of reasoning, see Mercier, H., & Sperber, D. (2011). Why do humans reason? Arguments for an argumentative theory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 34, 57–74.
(36)
Quine, W. V., & Ullian, J. S. (1970). The web of belief. New York: Random House.
(37)
Tolstoy, L. (1894). The kingdom of God is within you (C. Garnett, Trans.). New York: Cassell, p. 49. Available online at http://www.books.google.com/books?id=F00EAAAAYAAJ.
(38)
Cialdini, R. B., & Goldstein, N. J. (2004). Social influence: Compliance and conformity. Annual Review of Psychology, 55, 591–621.
(39)
Garrett, R. K., Nisbet, E. C., & Lynch, E. (2011). Undermining the corrective effects of media-based political fact checking. Paper presented at the annual conference of the National Communication Association, New Orleans, LA.
(40)
Haidt, J. (2001). The emotional dog and its rational tail: A social intuitionist approach to moral judgment. Psychological Review, 108, 814–834.

الفصل الثاني: العلم والاعتقاد

(1)
Bacon, F. (2000). The new organon (Book 1, Aphorism 70; L. Jardine & M. Silverthorne, Eds.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (Original work published 1620).
(2)
Stone, M.W.F. (2002). Aristotelianism and Scholasticism in early modern philosophy. In S. Nadler (Ed.), A companion to early modern philosophy (pp. 7–24). Malden, MA: Blackwell.
(3)
Wood, A. (1796). The history and antiquities of the University of Oxford (Book 1; J. Gutch, Trans.). Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. 226. Available online http://books.google.com/books?id=0gYVAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA226&lpg =PA226&dq#v=onepage&q&f=false.
(4)
Locke, J. (1899). An essay concerning human understanding (Book 4, chap. 17). Available online at http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/etcbin/toccernew2?id=LocHuma.xml&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed&tag=public&part=72&division=div2. (Original work published 1690).
(5)
Yellowstone Net. Geysers of Yellowstone—Old Faithful. http://www.yellowstone.net/geysers/geyser11.htm.
(6)
Locke, J. (1899). An essay concerning human understanding (Book 4, chap. 16). Available online at http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/etcbin/toccernew2?id=LocHuma.xml&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed&tag=public&part=71&division=div2. (Original work published 1690).
(7)
Many others have been called “the father of modern science,” including Thales of Miletus (c. 624 BC-c. 546 BC), Democritus (c. 460 BC-c. 370 BC), ibn al-Haytham (965–1040), Roger Bacon (1214–1294), Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519), and Galileo (1564–1642).
(8)
Gay, P. (1969). The Enlightenment: An interpretation. From science to freedom. New York: Norton, p. 137.
(9)
Credited as Astronomy, a hand-colored engraving after a mezzotint by Richard Houston, c. 1750, Museum of the History of Science, Oxford.
(10)
Gay, P. (1966). Age of enlightenment. New York: Time-Life.
(11)
Fairchild, H. N. (1931). The Romantic quest. New York: Columbia University Press.
(12)
Wordsworth, W. (1802). Lyrical ballads. London: Longman, pp. x–xi.
(13)
Trout, J. D. (2008). Seduction without cause: Uncovering explanatory neurophilia. Trends in Cognitive Science, 12, 281-282.
(14)
Weisberg, D. S., Keil, F. C., Goodstein, J., Rawson, E., & Gray, J. R. (2008). The seductive allure of neuroscientific explanations. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 20, 470–477.
(15)
McCabe, D. P., & Castel, A. D. (2008). Seeing is believing: The effect of brain image on judgments of scientific reasoning. Cognition, 107, 343–352.
(16)
Ward, L. A., Cain, O. L, Mullally, R. A., Holliday, K. S., Wernahm, A.G.H., Baillie, P. D., et al. (2009). Health beliefs about bottled water: A qualitative study. BMC Public Health, 9, 196.
(17)
Newall, C. A., Anderson L. A., & Phillipson, J. D. (1996). Herbal medicines. A guide for health-care professionals. London: Pharmaceutical Press.
(18)
Klepser, T. B., Doucette, W. R., Horton, M. R., Buys, L. M., Ernst, M. E., Ford, J. K., et al. (2000). Assessment of patients’ perceptions and beliefs regarding herbal therapies. Pharmacotherapy, 20, 83–87.
(19)
Neill, A. S. (1960) Summerhill: A radical approach to child rearing. New York: Hart; Holt, J. (1981). Teach your own: A hopeful path for education. New York: Random House.

الفصل الثالث: العلم الجيد من منظور العلماء

(1)
Feynman chaser—The key to science. [Video]. YouTube. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b240PGCMwV0.
(2)
Prasad, J. (1950). A comparative study of rumours and reports in earthquakes. British Journal of Psychology, General, 41, 129–144.
(3)
Festinger, L. (1957). A theory of cognitive dissonance. Evanston, IL: Row, Peterson.
(4)
Festinger, L., & Carlsmith, J. M. (1959). Cognitive consequences of forced compliance. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 58, 203–210.
(5)
Aronson, E. (1968). Dissonance theory: Progress and problems. In R. P. Abelson, E. Aronson, W. J. McGuire, T. M. Newcomb, M. U. Rosenberg, & P. H. Tannenbaum (Eds.), Theories of cognitive consistency: A sourcebook (pp. 5–28). Chicago: Rand McNally.
(6)
Carlsmith, J. M., Collins, B. E., & Helmreich, R. L. (1966). Studies in forced compliance: I. The effect of pressure for compliance on attitude change produced by face-to-face role playing and anonymous essay writing. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 4, 1–13.
(7)
Sagan, C. (1987). Keynote address to the Committee for the scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal (today known as the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry).
(8)
Hawking, S. (1988). A brief history of time. New York: Bantam.
(9)
Levy, F., & Murnane, R. J. (2004). The new division of labor: How computers are creating the next job market. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
(10)
Plucker, J. A., & Makel, M. C. (2010). Assessment of creativity. In R. J. Sternberg & J. C. Kaufman (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of creativity (pp. 48–77). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
(11)
Cannon-Bowers, J. A., & Bowers, C. (2011). Team development and functioning. In S. Zednick (Ed.), APA handbook of industrial and organizational psychology: Vol. 1. Building and developing the organization (pp. 597–660). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
(12)
Popper, K. (1959) The logic of scientific discovery. New York: Basic Books.
(13)
I cannot find a source for this quotation. One author suggests that it is a paraphrase of things Einstein said in “Induction and Deduction,” a paper published in 1919. Calaprice, A. (2011). The ultimate quotable Einstein. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, p. 476.
(14)
Grosser, M. (1962). The discovery of Neptune. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
(15)
For example, Hoxby, C. M., Murarka, S., & Kang, J. (2009, September). How New York City’s charter schools affect achievement. Cambridge, MA: New York City Charter Schools Evaluation Project. Available online at http://www.vanderbilt.edu/schoolchoice/documents/092209_newsitem.pdf; Sass, T. (2006). Charter schools and student achievement in Florida. Education Finance and Policy, 1, 91–122.
(16)
For example, Bettinger, E. P. (2005). The effect of charter schools on charter students and public schools. Economics of Education Review, 24, 133–147; Bifulco, R., & Ladd, H. F. (2006). The impacts of charter schools on student achievement: Evidence from North Carolina. Education Finance and Policy, 1, 50–90; and Zimmer, R., Gill, B., Booker, K., Lavertu, S., & Witte, J. (2012). Examining charter student achievement effects across seven states. Economics of Education Review, 31, 213–224.
(17)
For example, Feyerabend, P. (1978). Science in a free society. London: New Left Books.
(18)
Ravitch, D. (2000). Left back: A century of battles over school reform. New York: Touchstone.
(19)
Ravitch, D. (2009). 21st century skills: An old familiar song. Available online at http://www.commoncore.org/_docs/diane.pdf.
(20)
Wilford, J. N. (1989, April 24). Fusion furor: Science’s human face. New York Times. Available online at http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=FA0716FE38580C778EDDAD0894D1484D81&pagewanted=2.
(21)
Browne, M. W. (1989, May 3). Physicists debunk claim of a new kind of fusion. New York Times. Available online at http://partners.nytimes.com/library/national/science/050399sci-cold-fusion.html.
(22)
Ibid.
(23)
For example, Kaptchuk, T. J. (2003). Effect of interpretive bias on research evidence. British Medical Journal, 326, 1453–1455; Mynatt, C. R., Doherty, M. E., & Tweney, R. D. (1977). Confirmation bias in a simulated research environment: An experimental study of scientific inference. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 29, 85–95.
(24)
Feynman, R. P. (1985). Surely you’re joking, Mr. Feynman! New York: Norton, p. 343.
(25)
Society of Clinical Psychology. (n.d.). Psychological problems and behavioral disorders. Available online at http://www.psychology.sunysb.edu/eklonsky-/division12/disorders.html.
(26)
Source: PubMed.gov, accessed June 10, 2011.

الفصل الرابع: كيف تستخدم العلم؟

(1)
Simon, H. A. (1996). The sciences of the artificial (3rd ed.). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, p. 3.
(2)
Remarks by the president at the annual meeting of the National Academy of Sciences. (2009, April 27). Available online at http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/remarks-president-national-academy-sciencesannual-meeting.
(3)
National Science Board. (2010). Science and technology: Public attitudes and understanding. In Science and engineering indicators 2010 (NSB 10-01). Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation. Available online at http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/seind10/c7/c7h.htm.
(4)
Ibid.
(5)
Bush, V. (1945, July 25). Science: The endless frontier. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Available online at http://www.nsf.gov/od/lpa/nsf50/vbush1945.htm. Roosevelt died before the report was completed. It was delivered to President Truman.
(6)
Solow, R. M. (1957). Technical change and the aggregate production function. Review of Economics and Statistics, 39, 312–320. For a more recent review, see Committee on Prospering in the Global Economy of the 21st Century. (2007). Rising above the gathering storm: Energizing and employing America for a brighter economic future. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. Available online at http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=11463. There is also evidence that when the student population of a country is well trained in science, there is a substantial economic benefit; scientific knowledge makes for a high-quality labor force. See Hanushek, E. A., & Woessmann, L. (2010). The high cost of low educational performance: The long-run impact of improving PISA outcomes. Paris: OECD.
(7)
My discussion is based on Simon, 1996. Simon in fact uses the terms “Natural science” and “Artificial science,” rather than basic and applied research, respectively. For the sake of clarity, I’ll continue to use the latter set of terms.
(8)
Chua, A. (2011, January 8). Why Chinese mothers are superior. Wall Street Journal. Available online at http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704111504576059713528698754.html.
(9)
Gardner, H. E. (1983). Frames of mind. New York: Basic Books. Prominent psychological theories arguing for multiple types of ability have been proposed by Louis Thurstone (1930s–1940s), Cyril Burt (1930s–1940s), Raymond Cattell (1940s–1950s), Joy Paul Guilford (1950s–1960s), and John Carroll (1990s). I discuss the differences between Gardner’s theory and these others in my book Why Don’t Students Like School?
(10)
The exact mechanisms by which even simple pointing movements are computed is a matter of some debate. See, for example, Meyer, D. E., Smith, J. E., & Wright, C. E. (1982). Models for the speed and accuracy of aimed movements. Psychological Review, 89, 449–482.
(11)
Society for Human Resource Management. (2010). Workplace diversity practices: How has diversity and inclusion changed over time? Available online at http://www.shrm.org/Research/SurveyFindings/Articles/Pages/WorkplaceDiversityPractices.aspx.
(12)
Those features have, indeed, been proposed as one characterization of an effective classroom. Pianta, R. C., La Paro, K. M., & Hamre, B. K. (2008). Classroom assessment scoring system. Baltimore: Brooks.
(13)
Bruner, J. (1960). The process of education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
(14)
Schmidt, W., Wang, H. C., & McKnight, C. C. (2005). Curriculum coherence: An examination of U.S. mathematics and science content standards from an international perspective. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 37, 525–559.
(15)
Core Knowledge Foundation. (2010). The core knowledge sequence: Content and skill guidelines for kindergarten-grade 8. Charlottesville, VA: Core Knowledge Foundation. Available online at http://www.coreknowledge.org/mimik/mimik_uploads/documents/480/CKFSequence_Rev.pdf.
(16)
For example, Van Dijk, T., & Kintsch, W. (1983). Strategies of discourse comprehension. New York: Academic Press.
(17)
For more on this, see Willingham, D. T. (2010, September 20). Left-right brain theory is bunk. Available online at http://voices.washingtonpost.com/answer-sheet/daniel-willingham/willingham-the-leftright-brain.html. See also this chapter by Mike Gazzaniga (one of the pioneers of this area of research) written twenty-five years ago in which he tries to calm down the hype: Gazzaniga, M. S. (1985). Left-brain, right-brain mania: A debunking. In The social brain (pp. 47–59). New York: Basic Books.

الجزء الثاني: الحل المختصر

الفصل الخامس: الخطوة الأولى: تجريد الزعم وقلبه

(2)
Estimates vary, but the figures I’ve offered are in the ballpark. For example: U.S. soldiers experience increased rates of depression, PTSD on third, fourth tours in Iraq, study finds. (2008, March 10). Medical News Today. http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/99981.php.
(3)
Friedman, T. (2009, April 22). Swimming without a suit. New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/04/22/opinion/22friedman.html.
(4)
Coleridge, S. T. (1830). On the constitution of the church and state. London: Hurst, Chance & Co. Available online at http://books.google.com/books?id=_FTM_6q6G3gC&pg=PP15&dq=#v=onepage&q&f=false.
(5)
Gilovich, T. (1981). Seeing the past in the present: The effect of associations to familiar events on judgments and decisions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 40, 797–808.
(6)
For example, Hamre, B. K., & Pianta, R. C. (2001). Early teacher-child relationships and the trajectory of children’s school outcomes through eighth grade. Child Development, 72, 625–638.
(7)
Levin, I. P., & Gaeth, G. J. (1988). Framing of attribute information before and after consuming the product. Journal of Consumer Research, 15, 374–378.
(8)
For example, Davis, M. A., & Bobko, P. (1986). Contextual effects on escalation processes in public sector decision making. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 37, 121–138; Dunegan, K. J. (1995). Image theory: Testing the role of image compatibility in progress decisions. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 62, 79–86.
(9)
National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education. (2010). The Nation’s Report Card: Civics 2010. Available online at http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/pdf/main2010/2011466.pdf.
(10)
Barkley, R. A. (1998). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.
(11)
Tversky, A., & Kahneman, D. (1981). The framing of decisions and the psychology of choice. Science, 211, 453–458.
(12)
Gillen, J., Staarman, J. K., Littleton, K., Mercer, N., & Twiner, A. (2007). A “learning revolution”? Investigating pedagogic practice around interactive whiteboards in British primary classrooms. Learning, Media, and Technology, 32, 243–256.
(13)
Elements of this technique go back quite far. One of the more influential presentations is Allen, R. V., & Allen, C. (1969). Language experiences in early childhood. Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica Educational Corporation.
(14)
McDaniel, M. A. (2007). Transfer: Rediscovering a central concept. In H. L. Roediger, Y. Dudai, & S. M. Fitzpatrick (Eds.), Science of memory: Concepts (pp. 267–270). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
(15)
For example, Ackerman, P. L., Beier, M. E., & Boyle, M. O. (2005). Working memory and intelligence: The same or different constructs? Psychological Bulletin, 131, 30–60.
(16)
For example, Ericsson, K. A., Chase, W. G., & Faloon, S. (1980). Acquisition of a memory skill. Science, 208, 1181-1182.
(17)
Klingberg, T. (2010). Training and plasticity of working memory. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 14, 317–324.
(18)
For more on this, see Willingham, D. T. (2007, Summer). Critical thinking: Why is it so hard to teach? American Educator, pp. 8–19.

الفصل السادس: الخطوة الثانية: تتبُّع الزعم

(1)
Lazarus, D. (2002, March 10). If nothing else, man with past is persistent. San Francisco Chronicle. Available online at http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2002/03/10/BU139492.DTL.
(2)
Dohrmann, B. J. (2005). Whole brain learning. Available online at http://www.superteaching.org/STMIND.htm.
(3)
Hannah, G. (2002, April 28). Bernhard Dohrmann. Huntsville (AL) Times, p. A9.
(4)
This figure is according to the Super Teaching purchase order: http://superteaching.org/CEO_ST_purchase_order_v4.pdf.
(5)
Mclaughlin, B. (2008, October 7). Learning at the speed of thought. Huntsville (AL) Times, p. 1A.
(6)
Ramhold, J. (2010, April 14). University dissolves “Super Teaching” partnership. The Exponent. http://exponent.uah.edu/?p=2538 (accessed July 17, 2011; this Web page is no longer available).
(7)
This blog entry is no longer available from the Flashpoint blog Web site (http://www.fl ashpointblog.com).
(8)
Shavers, A. (2009, October 21). Super Teaching: Learning at the speed of con. The Exponent. http://exponent.uah.edu/?p=1570 (accessed July 17, 2011; this Web page is no longer available).
(9)
Kolowich, S. (2010, May 27). University had short attention span for “Super Teaching.” USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/news/education/2010-05-27-IHE-Super-Teaching-U-Alabama27_ST_N.htm.
(10)
Hannah, G., & Lewin, G. S. (2002, April 28). “Can’t fail” international success system based here has its skeptics. Huntsville (AL) Times, p. A1.
(11)
Kolowich, 2010.
(12)
Hendel, J. (2011, June 28). Can a dog still earn an MBA? Fortune. Available online at http://management.fortune.cnn.com/2011/06/28/can-a-dog-stillearn-an-mba/?section=magazines_fortune.
(13)
Lagemann, E. C. (2000). An elusive science: The troubling history of education research. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, p. 232.
(14)
Levine, A. (2007). Educating researchers. Educating Schools Project. Available online at http://edschools.org/EducatingResearchers/index.htm.
(15)
Gardner (1999) sought to correct this mistaken application of his theory (and others) in his book Intelligence reframed: Multiple intelligences for the 21st century. New York: Basic Books.
(16)
Schlessinger, L. C. (1974). Effects of insulin on 3-O-methylglucose transport in isolated rat adipocytes. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses, http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=761334421&sid=1&Fmt=1&clientId=8772&RQT=309&VName=PQD.
(18)
Hemsley-Brown, J., & Sharp, C. (2003). The use of research to improve professional practice: A systematic review of the literature. Oxford Review of Education, 29, 449–470.
(19)
Shkedi, A. (1998). Teachers’ attitudes towards research: A challenge for qualitative researchers. Qualitative Studies in Education, 11, 559–577.
(20)
Walton, D. (1997). Appeal to expert opinion: Arguments from authority. University Park: Pennsylvania University Press.
(21)
National Mathematics Advisory Panel. (2008). Foundations for success: The final report of the National Mathematics Advisory Panel. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.
(22)
Kelly, A. E. (Ed.). (2008). Reflections on the US National Mathematics Advisory Panel Report [Special issue]. Educational Researcher, 37(9).
(23)
For example, Confrey, J. (2006). Comparing and contrasting the National Research Council Report On Evaluating Curricular Effectiveness with the What Works Clearinghouse Approach. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 28, 195–213.

الفصل السابع: الخطوة الثالثة: تحليل الزعم

(1)
Merton, R. K. (1973). The sociology of science. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
(2)
All versions of the Brain Gym Web site were downloaded from the Wayback Machine (http://www.archive.org/web/web.php), which archives old versions of Web sites.
(3)
Chaker, A. M. (2005, April 5). Attention deficit gets new approach—as concerns rise on drugs used to treat the disorder, some try exercise regimen. Wall Street Journal, p. D4.
(4)
Hughes, J. (2002, September 7). Jane Hughes discovers how “Brain Gym” can help. The Times Magazine, pp. 64-65; Carlyle, R. (2002, February 7). Exercise your child’s intelligence. Daily Express, p. 51.
(5)
Goldacre, B. (2006, March 18). Brain Gym exercises do pupils no favours. Guardian, p. 13.
(6)
Reported in Randerson, J. (2008 April 3). Experts dismiss educational claims of Brain Gym programme. Guardian. See also O’Sullivan, S. (2008, April 6). Brain Gym feels the heat of scientists. Sunday Times, p. 4.
(7)
Brain Gym claims to be withdrawn. (2008, April 5). The Times of London, p. 2.
(8)
Clark, L. (2009, December 19). Brain Gym for pupils pointless, admits Balls. Daily Mail. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1237042/Brain-gympupils-pointless-admits-Balls.html.
(9)
Retrieved from http://braingym.org/ on August 9, 2011. The 2010 revision of the book Brain Gym: Teacher’s Edition (Ventura, CA: Edu-Kinesthetics) still contains a lot of scientific inaccuracies about the mind.
(10)
Amethyst Initiative. (n.d.). Welcome to the Amethyst Initiative. http://www.amethystinitiative.org/.
(11)
Carpenter, C., & Dobkin, C. (2011). The minimum legal drinking age and public health. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 25, 133–156.
(12)
Watson offered his account of this competition in a controversial book: Watson, J. D. (1968). The double helix: A personal account of the discovery of the structure of DNA. New York: Atheneum.
(13)
There have been some studies that directly tested the efficacy of the Dore Program, and the results were published in professional journals. Reynolds, D., Nicolson, R. I., & Hambly, H. (2003). Evaluation of an exercised-based treatment for children with reading difficulties. Dyslexia, 9, 48–71; Reynolds, D., & Nicolson, R. I. (2007). Follow-up of an exercise-based treatment for children with reading difficulties. Dyslexia, 13, 78–96. These studies were later the subject of controversy, as a number of scientists stepped forward to question the research design. Bishop, D.V.M. (2008). Criteria for evaluating behavioural interventions for neurobehavioral disorders. Journal of Pediatrics and Child Health, 44, 520-521; McArthur, G. (2007). Test-retest effects in treatment studies of reading disability: The devil is in the detail. Dyslexia, 13, 240–252.
(14)
Rukeyser, M. (1968). The speed of darkness. New York: Random House.
(15)
Willingham, D. T. (2004, Summer). The privileged status of story. American Educator, pp. 43–45, 51–53.
(16)
Ayres, B. D., Jr. (1997, March 29). “Families learning of 39 cultists who died willingly.” New York Times. Available online at http://www.nytimes.com/1997/03/29/us/families-learning-of-39-cultists-who-died-willingly.html.
(17)
“Witter: Elle Macpherson” (2010, May 30). The Times of London. http://women.timesonline.co.uk/tol/life_and_style/women/fashion/article7139977.ece?token=null&offset=12&page=2.
(18)
Zubieta, J.-K., Yau, W.-Y., Socct, D. J., & Stohler, C. S. (2006). Belief or need? Accounting for individual variations in the neurochemistry of the placebo effect. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 20, 15–26.
(19)
Sandler, A. D., & Bodfish, J. W. (2008). Open-label use of placebos in the treatment of ADHD: A pilot study. Child: Care, Health and Development, 34, 104–110.
(20)
Sandler, A. (2005). Placebo effects in developmental disabilities: Implications for research and practice. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 11, 164–170.
(21)
Sifft, J. M., & Khalsa, G.C.K. (1991). Effect of educational kinesiology upon simple response times and choice response times. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 73, 1011–1015.
(22)
Moore, H., & Hibbert, F. (2005). Mind boggling! Considering the possibilities of Brain Gym in learning to play an instrument. British Journal of Music Education, 22, 249–267.

الفصل الثامن: الخطوة الرابعة: هل يجب أن أنفِّذه؟

(1)
Hegel, G.W.F. (1896). Elements of the philosophy of right (S. W. Dyde, Trans.). London: George Bell & Sons. (Original work published 1820).
(2)
Kavale, K., & Mattson, P. D. (1983). “One jumped off the balance beam”: Meta-analysis of perceptual-motor training. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 16, 165–173.
(3)
This checklist came from http://freechecklists.net, a site that features checklists for specific aircraft, submitted by pilots.
(4)
Reinberg, S. (2009, January 14). Surgeon’s checklist saves lives. U.S. News and World Report. Available online at http://health.usnews.com/health-news/managing-your-healthcare/treatment/articles/2009/01/14/surgeons-checklist-saves-lives.
(5)
Haynes, A. B., Weiser, T. G., Berry, W. R., Lipsitz, S. R., Breizat, A.-H. S., Dellinger, E. P., et al. (2009). A surgical safety checklist to reduce morbidity and mortality in a global population. New England Journal of Medicine, 360, 491–499.
(6)
Hirsch, E. D., Jr. (1997, April 10). Address to the California State Board of Education. Available online at http://www.coreknowledge.org/mimik/mimik_uploads/documents/5/AddCASTB.pdf.
(7)
Willingham, D. T. (2009). Why don’t students like school? San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
(8)
For example, Willingham, D. T., & Daniel, D. (2012). Beyond differentiation: Teaching to what learners have in common. Educational Leadership, 69, 16–21.

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