المراجع

(١) الفصل الأول

  • Plato, The Republic, iv.
  • Aristotle, Politics, iii, 7; iv, 6; ii, 11; iv, 7; iv, 8.
  • Montesquieu, De’Esprit des Lois (1748), ii, 4.
  • Charles Loyseau, A Treatise of Orders and Plain Dignities (1610; ed. and tr. Howell A. Lloyd, 1994), 111.
  • Frederick A. Pottle (ed.), Boswell on the Grand Tour: Germany and Switzerland, 1764 (1953), 116.

(٢) الفصل الثاني

  • M. L. Bush, The English Aristocracy: A Comparative Synthesis (1984), 4.
  • Quotation of 1790 in William Doyle, Aristocracy and Its Enemies in the Age of Revolution (2009), 241.
  • Marquis de Mirabeau, L’Ami des Hommes (1762 edn.), i, 123.
  • The Complete Letters of Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, ed. Robert Halsband, 3 vols (1965), i, 257.
  • Blaise de Monluc, cited in Lucien Bély (ed.), Dictionnaire de l’Ancien Régime (1996), 641.
  • Montesquieu, Esprit des Lois, iii, 6–8; iv, 2.

(٣) الفصل الثالث

  • Duc de Lévis, Maximes et Réflexions (1808), no. 73.
  • Ruskin, quoted in Richard Mullen and James Munson, The Smell of the Continent: The British Discover Europe (2009).
  • Baldassare Castiglione, The Book of the Courtier (Everyman edn., 1965), 68-9.
  • Cardinal Richelieu, Maximes d’État ou Testament Politique (1974), 198.
  • Earl of Chesterfied, Letters Written by the Earl of Chesterfield to His Son, Philip Stanhope (1774), 12 October 1748.
  • Napoleon, quoted in J. Christopher Herold, The Mind of Napoleon (1955), 14.
  • Duchess (now dowager) of Bedford (then Marchioness of Tavistock) in the television series Country House (2000).

(٤) الفصل الرابع

  • Constantia Maxwell (ed.), Arthur Young, A Tour in Ireland (1925), 190-1.
  • Alexander Herzen, Childhood, Youth, and Exile (1956), 73-4.
  • The consumption of great Parisian familes in Natacha Coquéry, L’Hôtel aristocratique: Le marché de luxe á Paris au xviiie siècle (1998).
  • Marquis d’Argens, Lettres Juives (1738), iv, 15-16.
  • Adam Smith, An Enquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776), ii, 3.
  • On public school education, Martin Wiener, English Culture and the Decline of the Industrial Spirit, 1850–1980 (1981).
  • Montaigne, quoted in Stuart Carroll, Noble Power during the French Wars of Religion: The Guise Affinity and the Catholic Cause in Normandy (1998), 255.
  • C. J. B. M. Mercier-Dupaty, Lettres sur l’Italie (1788), letter xxiii.
  • Chesterfield, Letters to His Son, 12 November 1750.

(٥) الفصل الخامس

  • Paul Avrich, Russian Rebels, 1600–1800 (1972), 237.
  • Niccolò Machiavelli, The Discourses, ed. Bernard Crick (1970), 245-6.
  • Sallust, The Jugurthine War, tr. S. A. Handford (1963), 118, 120.
  • Benjamin Franklin: Writings, ed. J. A. Leo Lemay (1987), 1269.
  • Considerations on the Order of Cincinnatus, translated from the French of the Count de Mirabeau (1785), 78.
  • Edmund Burke, Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790), 205.
  • Thomas Paine, Rights of Man (1791-2; 1915 edn.), 90.
  • Giuseppe di Lampedusa, The Leopard (English tr., 1960), 28.
  • Marquess of Salisbury, quoted in Dominic Lieven, The Aristocracy in Europe, 1815–1914 (1992), 237.
  • Alexis de Tocqueville, quoted in David Cannadine, The Decline and Fall of the British Aristocracy (1990), 698-9.
  • Arno J. Mayer, The Persistence of the Old Regime: Europe to the Great War (1981), 304-5.
  • Jessica Mitford, Hons and Rebels (1977), 57.
  • James Lees-Milne, The Milk of Paradise: Diaries, 1993–1997 (2005), 203, 3 January 1996.

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