ملاحظات

مقدمة

(1)
René Descartes, “Comments on a Certain Broadsheet” (1648), in The Philosophical Writings of Descartes. Vol. 1, trans. John Cottingham, Robert Stoothoff, and Dugald Murdoch (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987): 307.

الفصل الأول: اندثار المبارزة

(1)
Christopher Hibbert, Wellington: A Personal History (Reading, MA: Perseus/HarperCollins, 1999): 275.
(2)
Wellington, Despatches, Correspondence, and Memoranda, V: 542.
(3)
Joseph Hendershot Park, ed., British Prime Ministers of the Nineteenth Century: Policies and Speeches (Manchester, NH: Ayer Publishing, 1970): 62.
(4)
Wellington, Despatches, V: 527.
(5)
Greville, Memoirs, 250.
(6)
A copy of the note, from the archives of King’s College London, is at http://www.kcl.ac.uk/depsta/iss/archives/wellington/duel08a.htm.
(7)
Sir William Blackstone, Commentaries on the Laws of England (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1765–69), Bk IV, chapter 14, “Of Homicide”; http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/blackstone_bk4ch14.asp.
(8)
Sir Algernon West, Recollections: 1832–1886 (New York & London: Harper & Bros., 1900): 27.
(9)
Sir Thomas Malory, Le Morte Darthur the original edition of William Caxton now reprinted and edited with an introduction and glossary by H. Oskar Sommer; with an essay on Malory’s prose style by Andrew Lang (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Humanities Text Initiative, 1997): 291; http://name.umdl.umich.edu/MaloryWks2.
(10)
Stewart, Honor, 44–47.
(11)
Hugh Lloyd-Jones, “Honor and Shame in Ancient Greek Culture,” in Greek Comedy, Hellenistic Literature, Greek Religions, and Miscellanea: The Academic Papers of Sir Hugh Lloyd-Jones (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990): 279.
(12)
For Asante in the nineteenth century, see John Iliffe, Honor in African History (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004): 83–91.
(13)
Homer, The Iliad, trans. Robert Fagles (New York: Viking Penguin, 1990): 523.
(14)
Kiernan, The Duel in European History, 216.
(15)
Ibid., 102.
(16)
Ibid., 190.
(17)
Hamilton, The Duelling Handbook, 138. (quoted slightly differently in Robert Baldick, The Duel: A History of Duelling [London: Hamlyn, 1970]: 33-34). Cited in Douglass H. Yarn, “The Attorney as Duelist’s Friend: Lessons from The Code Duello,” 51, Case W. Res. L. Rev., 69 (2000): 75-76, n. 71.
(18)
Wellington, Despatches, V: 539.
(19)
Tresham Lever, The Letters of Lady Palmerston: Selected and Edited from the Originals at Broadlands and Elsewhere (London: John Murray, 1957): 118.
(20)
Frances Shelley, The Diary of Frances Lady Shelley, ed. R. Edgecumbe (London: John Murray, 1913): 74.
(21)
Hamilton, The Duelling Handbook, 140.
(22)
Wellington, Despatches, V: 539.
(23)
Ibid, V: 544.
(24)
Lord Broughton (John Cam Hobhouse), Recollections of a Long Life with Additional Extracts from His Private Diaries, ed. Lady Dorchester. Vol. 3: 1822–1829 (New York: Charles Scribners Sons, 1910): 312-13.
(25)
V. Cathrein, “Duel,” in The Catholic Encyclopedia, Vol. 5 (New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1909); http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/05184b.htm.
(26)
Council of Trent, 25th Session, Dec. 3 and 4, 1563, “On Reformation,” chapter 19. Available at http://www.intratext.com/IXT/ENG0432/_P2J.HTM.
(27)
Francis Bacon, The Letters and the Life of Francis Bacon, Vol. 4, ed. James Spedding (London: Longmans, Green, Reader & Dyer, 1868): 400.
(28)
Edward Herbert, The Autobiography of Edward, Lord Herbert of Cherbury, ed. Will H. Dircks (London: Walter Scott, 1888): 22.
(29)
Amelot de Houssaye, cited in Charles Mackay, Memoirs of Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowds (Ware, Herts: Wordsworth Editions, 1995): 668.
(30)
Bacon, Letters and Life, 400. Those “pamphlets” are the duello codes.
(31)
This is John Chamberlain’s description of the situation in the letter of 1613 in which he lists the disputes just mentioned. Spedding (ed.) cites it in Bacon, op. cit., 396.
(32)
Bacon, op. cit., 409, 399.
(33)
William Hazlitt, The Complete Works of William Hazlitt, ed. P. P. Howe (London & Toronto: J. M. Dent & Sons, 1934), Vol. 19: 368.
(34)
Jeremy Bentham, An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation (1823) (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1907), chapter 13, para. 2; http://www.econlib.org/library/Bentham/bnthPML13.html#Chapter%20XIIl,%20Cases%20Unmeet%20for%20Punishment.
(35)
William Robertson, The History of the Reign of the Emperor Charles V (New York: Harper & Bros., 1836): 225.
(36)
David Hume, Essays, Moral, Political, and Literary. Library of Economics and Liberty, at http://www.econlib.org/library/LFBooks/Hume/hmMPL50.html.
(37)
Francis Hutcheson, Philosophiae moralis institutio compendiaria with A Short Introduction to Moral Philosophy, ed. Luigi Turco (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2007). Chapter XV: Of Rights Arising from Damage Done, and the Rights of War, http://oll.libertyfund.org/title/2059.
(38)
Hamilton, The Duelling Handbook, 125.
(39)
Adam Smith, Lectures on Jurisprudence, ed. R. L. Meek, D. D. Raphael, and P. G. Stein. Vol. 5 of the Glasgow Edition of the Works and Correspondence of Adam Smith (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 1982). Chapter: Friday, January 21st, 1763; http://oll.libertyfund.org/title/196.
(40)
William Godwin, An Enquiry Concerning Political Justice, and its Influence on General Virtue and Happiness, Vol. 1 (London: G. G. J. & J. Robinson, 1793). Chapter: Appendix, No. II: Of Duelling; http://oll.libertyfund.org/title/90/40264.
(41)
Boswell, The Life of Samuel Johnson, LL.D. Together with the Journal of a Tour to the Hebrides, ed. Napier, V: 195.
(42)
Voltaire, Dictionnaire Philosophique, Oeuvres Complètes de Voltaire (Paris: De l’lmprimerie de la Société Litteraire-Typographique, 1784), Vol. 36: 400.
(43)
David Hume, The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in 1688 (1778), 6 vols. (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 1983), Vol. 3: 169.
(44)
Boswell, op. cit., 2: 343.
(45)
From the account offered by King’s College London at http://www.kcl.ac.uk/depsta/iss/archives/wellington/duell2.htm.
(46)
This cartoon is available, with another better known one of the event by William Heath, on the Web site of King’s College London at http://www.kcl.ac.uk/depsta/iss/archives/wellington/duell6.htm.
(47)
I am very grateful to Philip Pettit for this suggestion.
(48)
Greville, Memoirs, 196.
(49)
Ibid., 198.
(50)
Ibid., 199.
(51)
Hibbert, Wellington: A Personal History, 275. The Literary Gazette is cited by Hamilton (op. cit., xiv).
(53)
Duke of Wellington, Despatches, V: 585.
(54)
Bacon, op. cit., 400.
(55)
Richard Cobden, Speeches on Questions of Public Policy by Richard Cobden M.P., ed. John Bright and James E. Thorold Rogers (London: Macmillan & Co., 1878): 565.
(56)
Mill, Collected Works of John Stuart Mill. Vol. 18: Essays on Politics and Society Part I, ed. John M. Robson (Toronto: University of Toronto Press; London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1977). Chapter: De Tocqueville on Democracy in America [II], 1840, http://oll.libertyfund.org/title/233/16544/799649.
(57)
Lord Broughton, op. cit., 312.
(58)
John Henry Cardinal Newman, The Idea of a University (London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1919): 208.
(59)
James Kelly, That Damn’d Thing Called Honour: Duelling in Ireland 1570–1860 (Cork: Cork University Press, 1995): 267.
(60)
James Landale, The Last Duel: A True Story of Death and Honour (Edinburgh: Canongate, 2005).
(61)
Kiernan, The Duel in European History, 218, says that this “has been called the last duel in England.” He makes his case less plausible by putting the affair three years too early, in 1849.
(62)
Sir Algernon West, Recollections, 28, quoting Horace, Satires, Bk 2, 1. Line 86 is “Solventur risu tabulae, tu missus abibis,” (I’ve corrected Sir Algernon’s “solvuntur,” though it is often misquoted that way)—“The charges will be dismissed with laughter; released, you will leave.” Horace is pointing out that a libel action—tabulae are the elements laid before a judge—will be dismissed with laughter if the scandalous verses complained of are funny enough.
(63)
Sir William Gregory, An Autobiography, ed. Lady Gregory (London: John Murray, 1894): 149–51.
(64)
Evelyn Waugh, The Sword of Honour Trilogy (New York: Knopf, 1994): 449.

الفصل الثاني: تحرير الأقدام الصينية

(1)
Quoted in Howard S. Levy, Chinese Footbinding: The History of a Curious Erotic Custom (New York: Walton Rawls, 1966): 72.
(2)
Robert Hart, The I.G. in Peking: Letters of Robert Hart, Chinese Maritime Customs (1868–1907), ed. John King Fairbank, Katherine Frost Brunner, and Elizabeth MacLeod Matheson (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1976) Vol. 2: 1311.
(3)
Keith Laidler, The Last Empress: The She-Dragon of China (Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 2003): 32.
(4)
Timothy Richard, Forty-five Years in China (New York: Frederick A. Stokes Company, 1916): 253, et seq.
(5)
John King Fairbank and Merle Goldman, China: A New History (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2006): 229.
(6)
Richard, op. cit., 262.
(7)
Weng Tonghe: tutor of Tongzhi (r. 1861–75) and Guangxu emperors. Kang’s friendship with Weng Tonghe dated back to 1895. See Kang, Kang Nanhai zibian nianpu, 33–37 (Hsueh-Yi Lin, personal communication, Feb. 17, 2009).
(8)
Yong Z. Volz, “Going Public Through Writing: Women Journalists and Gendered Journalistic Space in China, 1890s–1920s,” Media Culture Society, vol., 29, no. 3 (2007): 469–89.
(9)
Levy, op. cit., 72.
(10)
Ibid. I have amended and extended Levy’s translation here on the basis of Hsueh-Yi Lin’s translation of the original. Kang Youwei, “Qing jin funü guozu zhe” (“Memorial Pleading to Ban the Footbinding of Women”), in Tang Zhijun, ed., Kang Youwei zhenglun ji (Beijing: Zhonghua, 1981): 335. She also informs me that the last sentence here is “a common rhetorical device in a memorial” (Personal communication, Feb. 17, 2009).
(11)
Brennan and Pettit, The Economy of Esteem, 19.
(12)
Levy op. cit., 39.
(13)
Ibid.
(14)
Mrs. Archibald Little, The Land of the Blue Gown (London: T. Fisher & Unwin, 1902): 363.
(15)
Gerry Mackie, “Ending Footbinding and Infibulation: A Convention Account,” American Sociological Review, vol. 61, no. 6 (December, 1996): 1008.
(16)
Lanling Xiaoxiao Sheng, The Golden Lotus, trans. Clement Egerton Vol 1:101 (my edition has the publication details in Chinese). Levy (op. cit., 51) expresses some doubts as to the reliability of Egerton’s translation.
(17)
Levy, op. cit., 55.
(18)
Ibid., 60.
(19)
Chau, MA Thesis, 13–16.
(20)
Levy, op. cit., 283-84.
(21)
Ibid, 107.
(22)
Ibid., 65,248, 118.
(23)
Endymion Wilkinson, Chinese History: A Manual, rev. edn. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2000): 273–77. The emperor’s reign officially ended in 1795, after sixty years on the throne, apparently because piety required him not to rule longer than his predecessor; but he continued as regent until his death in 1799.
(24)
Patricia Buckley Ebrey, Cambridge Illustrated History of China (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996): 199.
(25)
Kwang-Ching Liu, Foreword, in ibid., 6.
(26)
Ibid., 229.
(27)
Harley Farnsworth MacNair, Modern Chinese History: Selected Readings (Shanghai: Commercial Press Ltd., 1923): 2, 4.
(28)
Arthur Waley, The Opium War Through Chinese Eyes (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1958): 103.
(29)
Fairbank and Goldman, op. cit., 222.
(30)
Arthur P. Wolf and Chuang Ying-Chang, “Fertility and Women’s Labour: Two Negative (But Instructive) Findings,” Population Studies, vol. 48, no. 3 (November 1994): 427–33.
(31)
Hsueh-Yi Lin, personal communication, June 10, 2009.
(32)
Fairbank and Goldman, op. cit., 218.
(33)
Chau, op. cit., 19, 20.
(34)
Ibid., 22.
(35)
Ibid., 23. Li Ju-Chen (Li Ruzhen), Flowers in the Mirror, trans. and ed. Lin Tai-Yi (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1965): 113.
(36)
Mrs. Archibald Little, Intimate China, cited in Chau, op. cit., 41.
(37)
Dorothy Ko, Cinderella’s Sisters: A Revisionist History of Footbinding (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005): 15.
(38)
Chau, op. cit., 45, 57.
(39)
Ko, op. cit., 16.
(40)
Fan Hong, Footbinding, Feminism and Freedom: The Liberation of Women’s Bodies in Modern China (London: Cass, 1997).
(41)
Patrick Hanan, “The Missionary Novels of Nineteenth-Century China,” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, vol. 60, no. 2 (December 2000): 440. Chau op. cit., 28.
(42)
Richard, Forty-five Years in China, 158.
(43)
Ecumenical Mission Conference New York, 1900 (New York: American Tract Society; London: Religious Tract Society, 1900), Vol. 1: 552.
(44)
Fairbank and Goldman, op. cit., 222.
(45)
Chau, op. cit., 51.
(46)
Levy, op. cit., 74.
(47)
Angela Zito, “Secularizing the Pain of Footbinding in China: Missionary and Medical Stagings of the Universal Body,” Journal of the American Academy of Religion, vol. 75, no. 1 (March 2007): 4-5.
(48)
See “Mrs. Archibald Little, About the Author”; http://www.readaroundasia.co.uk/miclittle.html.
(49)
Fan Hong, op. cit., 57.
(50)
Little, The Land of the Blue Gown, 306–09.
(51)
Richard, Forty-five Years in China, 227-28.
(52)
Yen-P’ing Hao and Erh-Min Wang, “Changing Chinese Views of Western Relations, 1840–95,” in Cambridge History of Modern China. Vol. 2: The Late Ch’ing 1800–1911, Part II, ed. Denis Crispin Twitchett and John King Fairbank (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978): 201.
(53)
Richard, Forty-five Years in China, 265–67.
(54)
Fairbank and Goldman, op. cit., 231.
(55)
See the discussion of this period in Seagroves Dragon Lady and also Hens van de Ven, “Robert Hart and Gustav Detring During the Boxer Rebellion,” Modern Asian Studies, vol. 40, no. 3 (2006): 631–62.
(56)
Chau, op. cit. 121, citing the contemporaneous translation in the North Chinese Herald.
(57)
Levy, op. cit., 278-79.
(58)
Fan Hong, op. cit., chapters 3 and 4.
(59)
Chau, op. cit., 104.
(60)
Cited in ibid., 98.
(61)
Levy, op. cit., 128, 181, 94.
(62)
J. M. Coetzee, “On National Shame,” Diary of a Bad Year (New York: Viking, 2007): 39, 45. This is a novel that reproduces essays written by the protagonist.
(63)
This is one of the central ideas of Benedict Anderson’s Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism (London & New York: Verso, 2006).
(64)
Ernest Renan, Qu’est-ce quune nation? 2nd edn. (Paris: Calmann-Lévy, 1882): 26.
(65)
Mackie, op. cit., 1001.
(66)
Levy, op. cit., 171.

الفصل الثالث: القضاء على الاسترقاق على جانبي الأطلسي

(1)
Lecky, History of European Morals, Vol. 1. Chapter 1: The Natural History of Morals; http://oll.libertyfund.org/title/1839/104744/2224856.
(2)
Eric Williams, Capitalism and Slavery (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1994): 142, 210-11.
(3)
Ibid., 211.
(4)
Drescher, Capitalism and Antislavery, 5.
(5)
Ibid., 7.
(6)
Ibid., 11, citing work by Wrigley and Schofield.
(7)
Benjamin Disraeli, Lord George Bentinck: A Political Biography (London: G. Routledge & Co., 1858): 234.
(8)
The passage continues: “This was also a Roman characteristic—especially that of Marcus Aurelius,” and then ends with the sentence I cited above.
(9)
Encyclopédie, ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers, par une société degens de lettres. Mis en ordre & publié par M. Diderot … & quant a la partie mathématique, par M. d’Alembert, 28 vols. (Geneva Paris & Neufchastel, 1772; 1754–72). Cited from The Making of the Modern World (Farmington Hills, MI: Thomson Gale. 2007), Vol. 16: 532.
(10)
The “him” here is “conscience.” Erasmus Darwin, “The Loves of the Plants” (1789) in The Botanic Garden (London: Jones & Company, 1825): 173.
(11)
Erasmus Darwin, Zoonomia; or; The Laws of Organic Life (Philadelphia: Edward Earle, 1818), Vol. 2: 325.
(12)
As Thomas Carlyle put it derisively in Past and Present, “Methodism with its eye forever turned on its own navel: asking itself with torturing anxiety of Hope and Fear, ‘Am I right? Am I wrong? Shall I be saved? shall I not be damned?’—what is this at bottom, but a new phase of Egoism, stretched out into the Infinite; not always the heavenlier for its infinitude”—Carlyle, Past and Present (1843) (London: Chapman & Hall, 1872): 101.
(13)
David Turley, The Culture of English Antislavery, 1780–1860 (London: Routledge, 1991): 9.
(14)
Brown, Human Universals, 391.
(15)
Ibid., 429.
(16)
It’s perhaps important to add that the Society’s leadership contained many Quakers as well.
(17)
Drescher, op. cit., 28-29.
(18)
David Brion Davis, The Problem of Slavery in the Age of Revolution: 1770–1823 (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1975): 435.
(19)
Brown, op. cit., 437.
(20)
Laurence Sterne, A Sentimental Journey (1768) (London: Penguin Books, 2001): 69-70.
(21)
William Cowper’s “The Negro’s Complaint,” The Gentleman’s Magazine (December 1793), 11. 55-56, in The Complete Poetical Works of William Cowper, ed. H. S. Milford (London: Henry Frowde, 1905), 371-72.
(22)
Cited in Brown, op. cit., 166.
(23)
Cited in ibid., 71, 141-42.
(24)
Ibid., 371.
(25)
Ibid., 134.
(26)
Cited in ibid., 170.
(27)
Frederick Douglass, The Life and Writings of Frederick Douglass (New York: International Publishers, 1950), Vol. 1: 147.
(28)
The repressions of the late eighteenth century also suppressed many of the radical organizations that supported abolition—see Thompson The Making of the English Working Class.
(29)
William Wilberforce, An Appeal to the Religion, Justice, and Humanity of the Inhabitants of the British Empire in Behalf of the Negro Slaves in the West Indies (London: J. Hatchard & Son, 1823): 1.
(30)
William Wilberforce, A Practical View of the Prevailing Religious System of Professed Christians, in the Higher and Middle Classes in This Country Contrasted with Real Christianity (New York: American Tract Society, 1830): 241, 249-50 (first published in England in 1797).
(31)
Ibid., 105.
(32)
Williams, op. cit., 181.
(33)
Letters on the Necessity of a Prompt Extinction of British Colonial Slavery; Chiefly Addressed to the More Influential Classes (Leicester: Thomas Combe & Son, 1826): 104.
(34)
Ibid., 149, 163, 165, 184, 159.
(35)
Disraeli, Lord George Bentinck, 234.
(36)
“London Workingmen’s Association: Further Papers,” in London Radicalism 1830–1843: A selection of the Papers of Francis Place, ed. D. J. Rowe (London: London Record Society, 1970): 160–77; http://www.british-history.ac.uk/source.aspx?pubid=230.
(37)
Betty Fladeland, Abolitionists and Working-Class Problems in the Age of Industrialization (London: Macmillan, 1984).
(38)
Thompson, op. cit., 807.
(39)
See Orlando Patterson, Slavery and Social Death (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1985).
(40)
William Cobbett, Rural Rides (1830) (London: J. M. Dent & Sons, 1912): 306-07.
(41)
Catherine Gallagher, The Industrial Reformation of English Fiction (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988): 10. The second passage she quotes from Cobbett’s Weekly Political Register, 7 (1805): 372.
(42)
Ibid., citing Cobbett’s Weekly Political Register, 7 (1806): 845.
(43)
Ibid., 9, citing Cobbett’s Weekly Political Register, August 27, 1823.
(44)
Universal Declaration of Human Rights; http://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/.
(45)
Samuel Johnson LL. D., A Dictionary of the English Language, ed. John Walker and R. S. Jameson, 2nd edn. (London: William Pickering Chancery Lane; George Cowie & Co. Poultry Lane, 1828): 204. The same dictionary defines “dignify” as “To advance; to prefer; to exalt; to honor; to adorn; to give luster to,” reminding us of the close association between honor and dignity.
(46)
Edmund Burke, Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790) (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999): 49.
(47)
Thomas Hobbes, Hobbes’s Leviathan reprinted from the edition of 1651 with an Essay by the Late W. G. Pogson Smith (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1909). Chap. XVII: Of the Causes, Generation, and Definition of a Common-Wealth, http://oll.libertyfund.org/title/869/208775/3397532.
(48)
For many people in the Abrahamic religions, of course, one of the grounds of our dignity is that we are all created “in God’s image.”
(49)
Seymour Drescher, “Public Opinion and the Destruction of British Colonial Slavery,” in James Walvin, ed., Slavery and British Society 1776–1848 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1982): 29.
(50)
James Walvin, “The Propaganda of Anti-Slavery,” in Walvin, ed., op. cit., 52-53, 54.
(51)
Ibid., 53. For the statistics, see ibid., 54-55.
(52)
Cited in Alan Nevins, The War for the Union. Vol. 2: War Becomes Revolution: 1862-1863 (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1960): 244.
(53)
Ibid., 250.
(54)
“In May 1847, Dr. Bowring chaired the first annual meeting of the debtridden and moribund league. That meeting was also its last”—Douglas C. Stange, British Unitarians Against American Slavery, 1833–65 (Rutherford, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1984): 88.
(55)
For Sir Henry Molesworth’s comment, see the article on Vincent in Sidney Lee, ed., Dictionary of National Biography (London: Smith, Elder, & Co., 1909), Vol. 20: 358. The comment on missed opportunities is from William McFeely, Frederick Douglass (New York: W. W. Norton, 1995): 138-39.

الفصل الرابع: حروب على المرأة

(1)
Quoted in Richard Galpin “Womans ‘Honour’ Killing Draws Protests in Pakistan,” The Guardian (London), April 8, 1999; http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/1999/apr/08/14.
(2)
Sedotta e Abbandonata (Seduced and Abandoned) (1964), Pietro Germi, director; story and screenplay by Luciano Vincenzoni.
(3)
John Webber Cook, Morality and Cultural Differences (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999): 35.
(4)
Melodia was murdered in 1978 in a Mafia-style execution two years after being released from jail.
(5)
“Il consiglio che voglio dare è di stare sempre attenti, ma di prendere ogni decisione seguendo sempre il proprio cuore”—Interview with Riccardo Vescovo, published Jan. 17, 2006, in Testata giornalistica dell’Università degli Studi di Palermo; http://www.ateneonline-aol.it/060117ric.php.
(6)
“State of the World Population,” UN Population Fund (UNFPA), 2000; http://www.unfpa.org/swp/2000/english/ch03.html.
(7)
Salman Masood, “Pakistan Tries to Curb ‘Honor Killings,’” New York Times, Oct. 27, 2004; http://www.nytimes.com/2004/10/27/international/asia/27stan.html. Islam Online January 11 2007; www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?c=Article_C&cid=l168265536796&pagename=Zone-English-News/NWELayout.
(9)
Suzanne Goldberg, “A Question of Honour” The Guardian, May 27 1999; http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/1999/may/27/gender.ukl.
(10)
Amir H. Jafri, Honour Killing: Dilemma, Ritual, Understanding (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008): 67. Ghairat is used for honor in Urdu as well as in Pashto.
(11)
Pakistan: Honour Killings of Girls and Women, Amnesty International, September 1999 (AI Index: ASA 33/18/99). Kalpana Sharma, “Killing for Honour,” The Hindu, Chennai, India, April 25, 1999, retrieved through Westlaw, June 6, 2009, Ref: 1999 WLNR 4528908.
(12)
Pakistan: Honour Killings of Girls and Women, 5-6.
(13)
Galpin, “Woman’s ‘Honour’ Killing Draws Protest in Pakistan.”
(14)
Jafri, op. cit., 125.
(15)
Zaffer Abbas, “Pakistan Fails to Condemn ‘Honour’ Killings,” BBC Online, Aug. 3, 1999; http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/4l0422.stm.
(16)
Irfan Husain, “Those Without Voices,” Dawn Online Edition, Karachi, Pakistan, Sept. 6, 2008; http://www.dawn.com/weekly/mazdak/20080609.htm.
(17)
Rabia Ali, The Dark Side of “Honour”: Women Victims in Pakistan (Shirkat Gah Women’s Resource Centre, Lahore, 2001): 30.
(18)
“MoC consulting stakeholders on new ATTA,” The Business Recorder, Nov. 19, 2009; http://www.brecorder.com/index.php?id=988220.
(19)
See the discussion of Pashtun social structure in Ali Wardak, “Jirga—Power and Traditional Conflict Resolution in Afghanistan,” in John Strawson, ed., Law After Ground Zero (London: Glasshouse Press, 2002): 191-92, 196. On the Pashtunwali, he cites N. Newell and R. Newell, The Struggle for Afghanistan (London: Cornell University Press, 1981): 23.
(20)
Jafri, op. cit., 76.
(21)
Ibid., 7.
(22)
Ibid., 66, 123.
(24)
Jason Bourke, “Teenage Rape Victim Executed for Bringing ‘Shame’ to Her Tribesmen” The Guardian, April 18, 1999; http://www.guardian.co.uk/Archive/Article/0,4273,3855659,00.html.
(26)
NCSW Report on the Qisas and Diyat Ordinance, 68.1 have not seen this claim reported elsewhere.
(27)
Shamoon alias v. The State, 1995 SCMR 1377, cited in NCSW Report on Qisas and Diyat Ordinance, 35.
(28)
In the case of slavery, too, legal emancipation is only the beginning. See Kwame Anthony Appiah, “What’s Wrong with Slavery?” in Martin Bunzl and K. Anthony Appiah, eds. Buying Freedom (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007): 249–58.
(29)
Naeem Shakir, “Women and religious minorities under the Hudood Laws in Pakistan,” posted on July 2, 2004, at http://www.article2.org/mainfile.php/0303/144/.
(30)
David Montero, “Rape Law Reform Roils Pakistan’s Islamists,” Christian Science Monitor, Nov. 17, 2006; http://www.csmonitor.com/2006/1117/p07s02-wosc.html.
(31)
For examples, see Jafri, op. cit., 115-16.
(32)
State of Human Rights in 2008 (Lahore: Human Rights Commission of Pakistan, 2009): 134.
(33)
Beena Sarwar, “No ‘Honour’ in Killing,” News International, Sept. 3, 2008; http://www.thenews.com.pk/daily_detail.asp?id=133499. (Beena Sarwar is not, so far as I know, related to Samia Sarwar.)
(34)
I know, of course, that when presented with a woman “taken in adultery,” Christ says, “He that is without sin among you, let him first cast a stone at her” (John 8:7). But here, as elsewhere, Christ does not explicitly repudiate the laws of Moses; just as the Prophet Muhammad, in raising the required evidence for convictions of adultery, does not reject the traditional Arab view that stoning is the proper penalty.
(35)
See Pakistan: Honour Killings of Girls and Women, 8.
(36)
See Jafri, op. cit., 115–17.
(37)
Ibid., 92-93.
(38)
There is a chain of public women’s refuges called Dar ul-Amans in Pakistan, of which the first was founded in Lahore many years ago, but they are widely reputed to be very unfriendly places. See Meera Jamal, “Hapless Women Call Darul Aman ‘No Less Than Prison,’” Dawn Internet Edition, Aug. 13, 2007; http://www.dawn.com/2007/08/13/local1.htm.
(39)
Galpin, “Woman’s ‘Honour’ Killing Draws Protest in Pakistan.”
(40)
Philip D. Curtin, The Atlantic Slave Trade: A Census (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969): 136.

الفصل الخامس: دروس وموروثات

(1)
Alexis de Tocqueville, De la démocratic en Amérique, 5th edn. (Paris: Pagnerre, 1848), Vol. 4: 152-53.
(2)
Immanuel Kant, Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals, Cambridge Texts in the History of Philosophy, ed. Mary Gregor (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997): 7.
(3)
Ibid, 11.
(4)
I discuss some of this recent work in moral psychology in my book Experiments in Ethics (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2008).
(5)
John Locke, The Works of John Locke in Nine Volumes, 12th edn. (London: Rivington, 1824), Vol. 8, Chapter: Some Thoughts Concerning Education; http://oll.libertyfund.org/title/1444/81467/1930382.
(6)
Horace, Sermones, I, 6, ll. 7-8.
(7)
Ibid., 11. 34–37.
(8)
Ascriptive identities to which one is assigned by birth, such as family membership, can, I should insist, be relevant bases for partiality. You are entitled (indeed, sometimes required) to treat A better than B solely because A is your sister and B is unrelated to you. But recognizing something as a form of partiality is recognizing that there is nothing intrinsically superior about those to whom one is partial: if there were, one’s reasons for favoring them could be impartial. See Appiah, The Ethics of Identity, chapter 6.
(9)
David Hume, Enquiries Concerning the Human Understanding and Concerning the Principles of Morals by David Hume, ed. L. A. Selby-Bigge, M.A. 2nd edn. (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1902), 265.
(10)
Newman, The Idea of a University, 208–11.
(11)
Rupert Brooke, “The Dead,” from 1914: Five Sonnets (London: Sidgwick & Jackson, 1914): 3.
(12)
For reasons for thinking this, see Paul Robinson, Military Honour and Conduct of War: From Ancient Greece to Iraq (London: Routledge, 2006).
(13)
Brennan and Pettit, op. cit., 260.
(14)
This is the reverse of a public good: a public evil.
(15)
Atul Gawande, “The Cost Conundrum: What a Texas Town Can Teach Us About Health Care,” The New Yorker, June 1, 2009; http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2009/06/01/090601fa_fact_gawande.
(16)
“Rumsfeld Testifies Before Armed Services Committee,” Transcript of Senate testimony on Friday, May 7, 2004, at washingtonpost.com, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A8575-2004May7.html.
(17)
Ian Fishback, letter to Senator John McCain, printed in The Washington Post, September 28, 2005, under the headline “A Matter of Honor”; http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/09/27/AR2005092701527_pf.html. See also Tara McKelvey, Monstering: Inside Americas Policy of Secret Interrogations and Torture in the Terror War (New York: Basic Books, 2008): 6-7.
(18)
Coleen Rowley, “Ian Fishback,” Time magazine, Apr. 30, 2006; http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1187384,00.html.
(19)
McKelvey, op. cit. 179.
(20)
Tim Dickinson, “The Solider: Capt. Ian Fishback,” Rolling Stone, Dec. 15, 2005; http://www.rollingstone.com/news/story/8957325/capt_ian_fishback.
(21)
McKelvey, op. cit., 179.
(22)
Nicholas Kristof, Foreword to Mukhtar Mai’s In the Name of Honor: A Memoir, xiv-xv.

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