المراجع

الفصل الأول

  • definitions: Martha Crenshaw, ‘Current Research on Terrorism: the Academic Perspective’, Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 15 (1992); Sunil Khilnani, ‘The Politics of Terrorism’, Political Quarterly 64, 3 (1993).
  • fear: C. A. J. Coady, ‘The Morality of Terrorism’, Philosophy 60 (1985); Robert E. Goodin, What’s Wrong with Terrorism? (London: Polity Press, 2006).
  • agitation/enforcement: T. P. Thornton, ‘Terror as a Weapon of Political Agitation’, in Harry Eckstein (ed.), Internal War: Problems and Approaches (New York: Free Press of Glencoe, 1964).
  • strategies: Martha Crenshaw, Revolutionary Terrorism. The FLN in Algeria 1954–1962 (Stanford: Hoover Institute Press, 1978).
  • pity and remorse: Edgar O’Ballance, The Language of Violence: The Blood Politics of Terrorism (San Rafael, CA: Presidio Press, 1979).
  • women: Luisella Neuburger and Tizana Valentini, Women and Terrorism (London: St Martins Press, 1996); Geula Cohen, Woman of Violence. Memoirs of a Young Terrorist (New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1966).

الفصل الثاني

  • international convention: League of Nations First Conference on the Repression of Terrorism, Geneva, 1937. Public Record Office, London, HO 45 1801.
  • international terrorism: Brian Jenkins, ‘International Terrorism: the Other World War’, in Charles Kegley (ed.), International Terrorism: Characteristics, Causes, Controls (New York: St Martins Press, 1990); Kent L. Oots, A Political Organization Approach to Transnational Terrorism (New York: Greenwood Press, 1986); Thomas C. Schelling, ‘What Purposes Can “International Terrorism” Serve?’, in R. G. Frey and C. W. Morris (eds.), Violence, Terrorism, and Justice (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991).
  • state sponsorship: Yonah Alexander, ‘State Sponsored Terrorism’, Centre for Contemporary Studies (Occasional Paper No. 3), London, 1986.
  • superterror: Ehud Sprinzak, ‘The Great Superterrorism Scare’, Foreign Policy No. 112 (Fall 1998); Jessica Stern, The Ultimate Terrorists (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999); Thomas Copeland, ‘Is the “New Terrorism” Really New?’, Journal of Conflict Studies (Winter 2001); Graham Allison, Nuclear Terrorism (New York: Times, 2004).

الفصل الثالث

  • French Revolution: ‘Commission temporaire de Commune-affranchie’, quoted in Richard Cobb, Terreur et Subsistences (Paris: Librairie Clavreuil, 1965); Colin Lucas, ‘Revolutionary Violence, the People and the Terror’, in Keith M. Baker (ed.), The Terror (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994).
  • Georges Sorel: M. Anderson, ‘Georges Sorel, Reflections on Violence’, Terrorism and Political Violence 1, 1 (1989).
  • fascism: A. J. Gregor, ‘Fascism’s Philosophy of Violence and the Concept of Terror’, in David Rapoport and Yonah Alexander (eds.), The Morality of Terrorism (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982).
  • Nazism: Jeremy Noakes, ‘The Origins, Structure and Function of Nazi Terror’, in N. O’Sullivan (ed.), Terrorism, Ideology and Revolution (Brighton: Wheatsheaf Books, 1986).
  • Latin America: Amnesty International, Final Report of the Mission to Chile, April 1974; Robert Cox, ‘Total Terrorism: Argentina, 1969 to 1979’, in Martha Crenshaw (ed.), Terrorism, Legitimacy and Power (Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 1983).
  • ultras: Martha Crenshaw, ‘The Effectiveness of Terrorism in the Algerian War’, in Martha Crenshaw (ed.), Terrorism in Context (University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995); Michael Barkun, ‘Millenarian Aspects of “White Supremacist” Movements’, Terrorism 1, 4 (1989).

الفصل الرابع

  • concepts: Martha Crenshaw, ‘The Concept of Revolutionary Terrorism’, Conflict Resolution XVI, 3 (1972); Ariel Merari, ‘Terrorism as a Strategy of Insurgency’, Terrorism and Political Violence 5, 4 (1993).
  • anarchists: Ulrich Linse, ‘“Propaganda by Deed” and “Direct Action”; Two Concepts of Anarchist Violence’, in W. Mommsen and G. Hirschfeld (eds.), Social Protest, Violence and Terror in Nineteenth and Twentieth Century Europe (London: Macmillan, 1982); Peter Kropotkin, Le Révolté (Geneva, 1880), quoted in W. Laqueur, The Terrorism Reader (London: Wildwood House, 1979).
  • FALN: Carlos Marighela, For the Liberation of Brazil (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1971).
  • Tupamaros: Maria Esther Gilio, The Tupamaros (London: Secker and Warburg, 1972).
  • urban guerrillas: Martin Oppenheimer, Urban Guerrilla (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1970); Anthony Burton, Urban Terrorism: Theory, Practice and Response (London: L. Cooper, 1975).
  • groupuscules: Bommi Baumann, Terror or Love? The Personal Account of a West German Urban Guerrilla (London: John Calder, 1979); R. Drake, ‘Contemporary Terrorism and the Intellectuals: The Case of Italy’, and B. Cordes, ‘Euroterrorists Talk About Themselves: A Look at the Literature’, in P. Wilkinson (ed.), Contemporary Research on Terrorism (Aberdeen: Aberdeen University Press, 1987).

الفصل الخامس

  • Armenians: Khachig Tololyan, ‘Cultural Narrative and the Motivation of the Terrorist’, Journal of Strategic Studies 10, 4 (1987); Michael Gunter, ‘Contemporary Armenian Terrorism’, Terrorism 8, 3 (1986).
  • Irish republicanism: Charles Townshend, introduction to P. J. P. Tynan, The Irish National Invincibles and their Times (first published 1894; reprinted Millwood, NY: Kraus Reprint, 1983); M. Taylor and E. Quayle, Terrorist Lives (London: Brassey’s, 1994).
  • Basques: R. Clark, ‘Patterns of ETA Violence: 1968–1980’, in P. Merkl (ed.), Political Violence and Terror (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986); W. Douglass and J. Zulaika, ‘On the Interpretation of Terrorist Violence: ETA and the Basque Political Process’, Comparative Studies in Society and History 32, 2 (1990).

الفصل السادس

  • definitions: Bruce Hoffman, Inside Terrorism (London: Victor Gollancz, 1998); David Rapoport, ‘Fear and Trembling: Terrorism in Three Religious Traditions’, American Political Science Review (1984).
  • messianism: David Rapoport, ‘Why Does Religious Messianism Produce Terror?’, in P. Wilkinson (ed.), Contemporary Research on Terrorism (Aberdeen: Aberdeen University Press, 1987).
  • Islam: Mark Anspach, ‘Violence Against Violence: Islam in Historical Context’, Terrorism and Political Violence 3, 3 (1991).
  • Hezbollah and Hamas: A. R. Norton, ‘Hizballah: From Radicalism to Pragmatism’, Middle East Policy 5, 4 (1998); Matthew Levitt, Hamas: Politics, Charity and Terrorism in the Service of Jihad (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2006).
  • suicide: Ariel Merari, ‘The Readiness to Kill and Die: Suicidal Terrorism in the Middle East’, in W. Reich (ed.), Origins of Terrorism: Psychologies, Ideologies, Theologies, States of Mind (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990); Abdelwahab El-Affendi, ‘The Terror of Belief and the Belief in Terror: On Violently Serving God and Nation’, in M. Al-Rasheed and M. Shterin (eds.), Dying for Faith (London: Tauris, 2009).
  • fundamentalism: Al-Jihad, quoted in John L. Esposito, The Islamic Threat: Myth or Reality? (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992), p. 135; Malise Ruthven, ‘Signposts on the Road’, Times Literary Supplement, 7 December 2001; A Fury for God (London: Granta Books, 2002).
  • 9/11: Don DeLillo, ‘In the Ruins of the Future’, Harper’s Magazine , December 2001.
  • near and far enemies: Mary Habeck, Knowing the Enemy: Jihadist Ideology and the War on Terror (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2006).

الفصل السابع

  • measuring threats: Walter Laqueur, ‘Reflections on Terrorism’, Foreign Affairs (Fall 1986).
  • proportionality: Jeffrey D. Simon, ‘Misunderstanding Terrorism’, Foreign Policy 67 (1987); Adam Roberts, ‘Terrorism and International Order’, in L. Freedman et al. (eds.), Terrorism and International Order (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1986).
  • international action: Home Office minute, 20 July 1937, Public Record Office, London, HO 45 18080; Martha Crenshaw, Terrorism and International Cooperation (New York: Westview Press, 1989).
  • state sponsorship: US Department of State, ‘Overview of State-Sponsored Terrorism’, Patterns of Global Terrorism, http://www.state.gov/www/global/terrorism/2001/report/sponsor.html.
  • democracy: Alex P. Schmid, ‘Terrorism and Democracy’, in A. Schmid and R. Crelinsten (eds.), Western Responses to Terrorism (London: Frank Cass, 1993); Kimbra L. Thompson Kruger, ‘The Destabilisation of Republican Regimes: The Effects of Terrorism on Democratic Societies’, Low Intensity Conflict and Law Enforcement 5, 2 (1996).
  • media: Alex P. Schmid, ‘Terrorism and the Media: The Ethics of Publicity’, Terrorism and Political Violence 1, 4 (1989).
  • extralegal measures: Alan Dershowitz, Why Terrorism Works (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2002), Chapter 4.
  • conclusion: Ronald D. Crelinsten, ‘Terrorism, Counter-Terrorism and Democracy: The Assessment of National Security Threats’, Terrorism and Political Violence 1, 2 (1989); Seth G. Jones and Martin C. Libicki, ‘How Terrorist Groups End’, RAND Corporation Research Brief, 2008.

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