ملاحظات

الفصل الأول: أحلام رحلات الفضاء والمُقتضَيات العسكرية

(1)
Asif A. Siddiqi, The Red Rockets’ Glare: Spaceflight and the Soviet Imagination, 1857–1957 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010), 18–30; James T. Andrews, Red Cosmos: K. E. Tsiolkovskii, Grandfather of Soviet Rocketry (College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 2009). For an unflattering view, see Michael Hagemeister, “The Conquest of Space and the Bliss of the Atoms: Konstantin Tsiolkovskii,” in Soviet Space Culture: Cosmic Enthusiasm in Socialist Societies, edited by Eva Maurer, Julia Richers, Monica Rüthers, and Carmen Scheide (Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011), 27–41.
(2)
Tom D. Crouch, Aiming for the Stars: The Dreamers and Doers of the Space Age (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1999); Christopher Gainor, To a Distant Day: The Rocket Pioneers (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2008).
(3)
David A. Clary, Rocket Man: Robert H. Goddard and the Birth of the Space Age (New York: Hyperion, 2003). The only Oberth biography available in English is a translation from the German of a book originally published in Russian: Boris V. Rauschenbach, Hermann Oberth: The Father of Space Flight (Clarence, NY: West-Art Press, 1994). It is not critical or scholarly.
(4)
A Method was republished in Robert H. Goddard, Rockets (New York: American Rocket Society, 1946). On its impact, see Frank H. Winter, “The Silent Revolution: How R. H. Goddard Helped Start the Space Age,” in History of Rocketry and Astronautics: Proceedings of the Thirty-Eighth History Symposium of the International Academy of Astronautics,Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, 2004, edited by Å. Ingemar Skoog (San Diego: Univelt, Inc., 2011), 3–54.
(5)
Michael J. Neufeld, “Weimar Culture and Futuristic Technology: The Rocketry and Spaceflight Fad in Germany, 1923–1933,” Technology and Culture 31 (October 1990), 725–752.
(6)
Asif A. Siddiqi, “Deep Impact: Robert Goddard and the Soviet ‘Space Fad’ of the 1920s,” History and Technology 20 (June 2004): 97–113.
(7)
Neufeld, “Weimar Culture”; Jared S. Buss, Willy Ley: Prophet of the Space Age (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2017), 25–55. Still valuable as an overview is Frank H. Winter, Prelude to the Space Age: The Rocket Societies: 1924–1940 (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1983).
(8)
Michael J. Neufeld, Von Braun: Dreamer of Space, Engineer of War (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2007), 7–48.
(9)
Tom D. Crouch, Rocketeers and Gentlemen Engineers: A History of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics … and What Came Before (Reston, VA: AIAA, 2006), 25–52.
(10)
Clary, Rocket Man; J. D. Hunley, “The Enigma of Robert H. Goddard,” Technology and Culture 36 (April 1995): 327–350; Alexander MacDonald, The Long Space Age: The Economic Origins of Space Exploration from Colonial America to the Cold War (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2017), 105–159.
(11)
Michael J. Neufeld, The Rocket and the Reich: Peenemünde and the Coming of the Ballistic Missile Era (New York: The Free Press, 1995).
(12)
Michael J. Neufeld, “Hitler, the V-2, and the Battle for Priority, 1939–1943,” Journal of Military History 57 (July 1993): 511–538.
(13)
Michael J. Neufeld, “Wernher von Braun, the SS and Concentration Camp Labor: Questions of Moral, Political and Criminal Responsibility,” German Studies Review 25 (February 2002): 57–78.
(14)
Neufeld, The Rocket and the Reich; Jens-Christian Wagner, Produktion des Todes: Das KZ Mittelbau-Dora (Göttingen: Wallstein, 2001); André Sellier, A History of the Dora Camp (Chicago: Ivan Dee, 2003).
(15)
Frank H. Winter, America’s First Rocket Company: Reaction Motors, Inc. (Reston, VA: AIAA, 2017); Clayton R. Koppes, JPL and the American Space Program: A History of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1982).
(16)
Siddiqi, The Red Rockets’ Glare, 155–195.
(17)
Neufeld, The Rocket and the Reich, 267–279.
(18)
Asif A. Siddiqi, Challenge to Apollo: The Soviet Union and the Space Race, 1945–1974 (Washington, DC: NASA, 2000); Boris Chertok, Rockets and People, vol. 1 (Washington, DC: NASA, 2005).
(19)
Neufeld, Von Braun, 199–222; Brian Crim, Our Germans: Project Paperclip and the National Security State (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2018).
(20)
Michael J. Neufeld, “The Nazi Aerospace Exodus: Towards a Global, Transnational History,” History and Technology 28 (2012): 49–67; Olivier Huwart, Du V2 à Veronique: La naissance des fusées françaises (Rennes: Marines éditions, 2004).
(21)
Siddiqi, The Red Rockets’ Glare, and his Challenge to Apollo.
(22)
David H. DeVorkin, Science with a Vengeance: How the Military Created the US Space Sciences after World War II (New York: Springer-Verlag, 1992); J. D. Hunley, The Development of Propulsion Technology for U.S. Space-Launch Vehicles, 1926–1991 (College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 2007). For a popular history that gives the air force and its contractors due credit, see T. A. Heppenheimer, Countdown: A History of Space Flight (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1997).
(23)
Christopher Gainor, The Bomb and America’s Missile Age (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2018); Jacob Neufeld, The Development of Ballistic Missiles in the United States Air Force, 1945–1960 (Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History, 1990).
(24)
Howard E. McCurdy, Space and the American Imagination (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1997), 29–51; Siddiqi, The Red Rockets’ Glare, 290–331.

الفصل الثاني: سباق الفضاء في الحرب الباردة

(1)
Michael J. Neufeld, “Orbiter, Overflight and the First U.S. Satellite: New Light on the Vanguard Decision,” in Reconsidering Sputnik, edited by Roger D. Launius, John M. Logsdon, and Robert W. Smith (Amsterdam: Harwood Academic Publishers, 2000), 231–257.
(2)
Allan A. Needell, Science, Cold War and the American State: Lloyd V. Berkner and the Balance of Professional Ideals (Amsterdam: Harwood Academic, 2000), 297–353.
(3)
Walter A. McDougall, … the Heavens and the Earth: A Political History of the Space Age (New York: Basic Books, 1985), 112–134; R. Cargill Hall, “The Eisenhower Administration and the Cold War: Framing American Astronautics to Serve National Security,” Prologue 27 (Spring 1995): 58–72.
(4)
Siddiqi, The Red Rockets’ Glare, 313–324.
(5)
Neufeld, “Orbiter, Overflight.”
(6)
Siddiqi, The Red Rockets’ Glare, 324–335.
(7)
Kim McQuaid, “Sputnik Reconsidered: Image and Reality in the Early Space Age,” Canadian Review of American Studies 37 (2007): 371–401; McDougall, … the Heavens, 141–156.
(8)
Siddiqi, Challenge to Apollo, 167–174.
(9)
McDougall, … the Heavens, 141–156; Neufeld, Von Braun, 311–323.
(10)
Michael J. Neufeld, “The End of the Army Space Program: Interservice Rivalry and the Transfer of the Von Braun Group to NASA, 1958-1959,” Journal of Military History 69 (July 2005): 737–758.
(11)
On applying economic signaling theory to the space race, see MacDonald, The Long Space Age, 7–11, 160–206.
(12)
Dwayne A. Day, John M. Logsdon, and Brian Latell, eds., Eye in the Sky: The Story of the Corona Spy Satellites (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1998); James E. David, Spies and Shuttles: NASA’s Secret Relationships with the DoD and CIA (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2015).
(13)
Margaret A. Weitekamp, Right Stuff, Wrong Sex: America’s First Women in Space Program (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004).
(14)
John M. Logsdon, John F. Kennedy and the Race to the Moon (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010); Michael R. Beschloss, “Kenney and the Decision to Go to the Moon,” in Spaceflight and the Myth of Presidential Leadership, edited by Roger D. Launius and Howard E. McCurdy (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1997), 51–67.
(15)
A readable history of Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo from the engineers’ point of view is Charles Murray and Catherine Bly Cox, Apollo: The Race to the Moon (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1989).
(16)
On the Soviet program in the sixties, see Siddiqi, Challenge to Apollo.
(17)
John M. Logsdon, After Apollo? Richard Nixon and the American Space Program (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015); Joan Hoff, “The Presidency, Congress, and the Deceleration of the U.S. Space Program in the 1970s,” in Launius and McCurdy, Spaceflight and the Myth, 92–132.
(18)
Asif A. Siddiqi, “Soviet Space Power during the Cold War,” in Harnessing the Heavens: National Defense through Space, edited by Paul G. Gillespie and Grant T. Weller (Chicago: Imprint Publications, 2008), 135–150.
(19)
Angelina Callahan, “The Origins and Flagship Project of NASA’s International Program: The Ariel Case Study,” in NASA Spaceflight: A History of Innovation, edited by Roger D. Launius and Howard E. McCurdy (Chur: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017), 33–55; Andrew B. Godefroy, Defence and Discovery: Canada’s Military Space Program, 1945–74 (Vancouver: UBC Press, 2011); J. Krige, A. Russo, and L. Sebesta, A History of the European Space Agency 1958–1987, 2 vols. (Noordwijk: ESA, 2000); Iris Chang, Thread of the Silkworm (New York: Basic Books, 1995); Gregory Kulacki and Jeffrey G. Lewis, A Place for One’s Mat: China’s Space Program, 1956–2003 (Cambridge, MA: American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 2009), https://www.amacad.org/publications/spaceChina.pdf, accessed November 22, 2017.
(20)
Roger D. Launius, Space Stations: Base Camps to the Stars (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Books, 2003).
(21)
Michael J. Neufeld, “The ‘von Braun Paradigm’ and NASA’s Long-Term Planning for Human Spaceflight,” in NASA’s First 50 Years: Historical Perspectives, edited by Steven J. Dick (Washington, DC: NASA, 2010), 325–347; Lyn Ragsdale, “Politics Not Science: The U.S. Space Program in the Reagan and Bush Years,” in Launius and McCurdy, Spaceflight and the Myth, 133–171, esp. 156–161.
(22)
Logsdon, After Apollo?, 143–301; Heppenheimer, Countdown, 305–328.
(23)
John M. Logsdon, “Selling the Space Shuttle: Early Developments,” in Launius and McCurdy, NASA Spaceflight, 185–214. For a study of how NASA and the media framed the shuttle and space station, see Valerie Neal, Spaceflight in the Shuttle Era and Beyond: Redefining Humanity’s Purpose in Space (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2017).
(24)
Frances FitzGerald, Way Out There in the Blue: Reagan, Star Wars and the End of the Cold War (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2000).

الفصل الثالث: علوم الفضاء واستكشافه

(1)
Paul Ceruzzi, “An Unforeseen Revolution: Computers and Expectations, 1935–1985,” in Imagining Tomorrow: History, Technology, and the American Future, edited by Joseph J. Corn (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1986), 188–201; Roger D. Launius and Howard E. McCurdy, Robots in Space: Technology, Evolution, and Interplanetary Travel (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008).
(2)
DeVorkin, Science with a Vengeance.
(3)
Abigail Foerstner, James Van Allen: The First Eight Billion Miles (Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 2007).
(4)
Wesley T. Huntress Jr. and Mikhail Ya. Marov, Soviet Robots in the Solar System: Mission Technologies and the Discoveries (Chichester, UK: Springer Praxis, 2011), 67–142; Edward Clinton Ezell and Linda Neuman Ezell, On Mars: Exploration of the Red Planet, 1958–1978 (Washington, DC: NASA, 1984), 25–50.
(5)
Koppes, JPL, 113–133, 161–184.
(6)
Needell, Science, 155–162.
(7)
William David Compton, Where No Man Has Gone Before: A History of Apollo Lunar Exploration Missions (Washington, DC: NASA, 1989).
(8)
Huntress and Marov, Soviet Robots, 21–25.
(9)
Ibid., 143–366.
(10)
Robert S. Kraemer, Beyond the Moon: A Golden Age of Planetary Exploration, 1971–1978 (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 2000); Ezell and Ezell, On Mars; W. Henry Lambright, Why Mars: NASA and the Politics of Space Exploration (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2014), 17–69.
(11)
DeVorkin, Science with a Vengeance.
(12)
David DeVorkin, “The Space Age and Disciplinary Change in Astronomy,” in Dick, NASA’s First 50 Years, 389–426; Robert W. Smith, “The Making of Space Astronomy: A Gift of the Cold War,” in Earth-Bound to Satellite: Telescopes, Skills and Networks, edited by A. D. Morrison-Low, Sven Dupre, Stephen Johnston, and Giorgio Strano (Leiden: Brill, 2011), 235–249.
(13)
David H. DeVorkin, Fred Whipple’s Empire: The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 1955–1973 (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press, 2018).
(14)
Robert W. Smith, The Space Telescope: A Study of NASA, Science, Technology and Politics, revised edition with a new afterword (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993); W. Henry Lambright, “Big Science in Space: Viking, Cassini, and the Hubble,” in Exploring the Solar System: The History and Science of Planetary Exploration, edited by Roger D. Launius (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013), 129–148.
(15)
Karl Hufbauer, Exploring the Sun: Solar Science since Galileo (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1991), 160–312.
(16)
Smith, “The Making of Space Astronomy.”
(17)
Steven J. Dick, Life on Other Worlds: The 20th-Century Extraterrestrial Life Debate (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998), 169–199.
(18)
See the contributions of Edward S. Goldstein, James R. Fleming, and Erik M. Conway in Dick, NASA’s First 50 Years, 503–585, and those of Erik M. Conway, Andrew K. Johnston, and Roger D. Launius in Launius, Exploring the Solar System, 183–243.
(19)
John M. Logsdon, “The Survival Crisis of the US Solar System Exploration Program in the 1980s,” in Launius, Exploring the Solar System, 45–76.
(20)
On the mirror flaw, see the afterword in Smith, The Space Telescope; Roger D. Launius and David H. DeVorkin, eds., Hubble’s Legacy: Reflections by Those Who Dreamed It, Built It, and Observed the Universe with It (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press, 2014), http://opensi.si.edu/index.php/smithsonian/catalog/book/57, accessed November 22, 2017.
(21)
Huntress and Marov, Soviet Robots, 367–405.
(22)
Howard E. McCurdy, Faster, Better, Cheaper: Low-Cost Innovation in the U.S. Space Program (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001); Peter J. Westwick, Into the Black: JPL and the American Space Program, 1976–2004 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2007).
(23)
Michael J. Neufeld, “Transforming Solar System Exploration: The Origins of the Discovery Program, 1989–1993,” Space Policy 30 (2014): 5–12; Erik M. Conway, Exploration and Engineering: The Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the Quest for Mars (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2015), 87–139.
(24)
Conway, Exploration, 140–343; Michael J. Neufeld, “The Discovery Program: Competition, Innovation, and Risk in Planetary Exploration,” in Launius and McCurdy, NASA Spaceflight, 267–290, and my “First Mission to Pluto: Policy, Politics, Science and Technology in the Origins of New Horizons, 1989–2003,” Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences 44 (2014): 234–276.
(25)
Arturo Russo, “Parachuting onto Another World: The European Space Agency’s Huygens Mission to Titan,” in Launius, Exploring the Solar System, 275–321, and his “Europe’s Path to Mars: The European Space Agency’s Mars Express Mission,” Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences 41 (2011): 123–178; Patrick Besha, “Policy Making in China’s Space Program: A History and Analysis of the Chang’e Lunar Orbiter Project,” Space Policy 26 (2010): 214–221.

الفصل الرابع: البنية التحتية للفضاء العالمي

(1)
Jürgen Osterhammel and Neils P. Petersson, Globalization: A Short History (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2005).
(2)
Day, Logsdon, and Latell, Eye in the Sky; Jeffrey T. Richelson, America’s Secret Eyes in Space: The U.S. Keyhole Spy Satellite Program (New York: Harper & Row. 1990); contributions by Henry R. Hertzfeld and Ray A. Williamson; Erik M. Conway; David J. Whalen; and W. Henry Lambright in Societal Impact of Spaceflight, edited by Steven J. Dick and Roger D. Launius (Washington, DC: NASA, 2007), 237–330.
(3)
Peter Gorin, “ZENIT: The Soviet Response to CORONA,” in Day, Logsdon, and Latell, Eye in the Sky, 157–170; Siddiqi, “Soviet Space Power”; Bart Hendrickx, “A History of Soviet/Russian Meteorological Satellites,” JBIS Space Chronicle 57 (2004), suppl. 1: 56–102.
(4)
Erik M. Conway, “Satellites and Security: Space in Service to Humanity,” in Dick and Launius, Societal Impact, 267–288, and his Atmospheric Science at NASA: A History (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008).
(5)
Jeffrey T. Richelson, America’s Space Sentinels: The History of the DSP and SBIRS Satellite Systems, 2nd ed. (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2012); Pavel Podvig, “History and the Current Status of the Russian Early-Warning System,” Science and Global Security 10 (2002): 21–60, http://russianforces.org/podvig/2002/03/history_and_the_current_status.shtml, accessed November 22, 2017.
(6)
Declassified GAMBIT and HEXAGON official histories and information are available at http://www.nro.gov/history/csnr/gambhex/, accessed November 22, 2017.
(7)
Richelson, America’s Secret Eyes.
(8)
Asif A. Siddiqi, “Staring at the Sea: The Soviet Rorsat and Eorsat Programmes,” JBIS 52 (1999): 397–416.
(9)
On the impact of satellite-enabled global transparency on the Cold War, see John Lewis Gaddis, “The Long Peace: Elements of Stability in the Postwar International System,” International Security 10 (4) (Spring 1986): 99–142.
(10)
Roger D. Launius, “Global Instantaneous Telecommunications and the Development of Satellite Technology,” in Launius and McCurdy, NASA Spaceflight, 57–87.
(11)
On advocacy for deploying weapons, and on comsats in the U.S. military, see the contributions of Everett C. Dolman, “Astropolitics and Astropolitik Strategy and Space Deployment,” and Rick W. Sturdevant, “Giving Voice to Global Reach, Global Power: Satellite Communications in U.S. Military Affairs, 1966–2007,” respectively, in Gillespie and Weller, Harnessing the Heavens, 111–133 and 191–213.
(12)
Martin J. Collins, A Telephone for the World: Iridium, Motorola, and the Making of a Global Age (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2018).
(13)
Paul Ceruzzi, GPS (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2018); Richard D. Easton and Eric F. Frazier, GPS Declassified: From Smart Bombs to Smartphones (n.p.: Potomac Books, 2013).
(14)
Ceruzzi, GPS; Rick W. Sturdevant, “NAVSTAR, the Global Positioning System: A Sampling of Its Military, Civil, and Commercial Impact,” in Dick and Launius, Societal Impact, 331–351.
(15)
Satellite Industry Association, “State of the Satellite Industry Report,” May 2012, https://www.sia.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/FINAL-2012-State-of-Satellite-Industry-Report-20120522.pdf, accessed November 24, 2017.
(16)
Dean Cheng, “The Long March Upward: A Review of China’s Space Program,” in Gillespie and Weller, Harnessing the Heavens, 151–163.

الفصل الخامس: الثقافة الفلكية: رحلات الفضاء والخيال

(1)
Alexander C. T. Geppert, “European Astrofuturism, Cosmic Provincialism; Historicizing the Space Age,” in Imagining Outer Space: European Astroculture in the Twentieth Century, edited by Alexander C. T. Geppert (Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012), 8.
(2)
Brian W. Aldiss, with David Wingrove, Trillion Year Spree: The History of Science Fiction (New York: Atheneum, 1986); David Seed, Science Fiction: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013).
(3)
Winter, “The Silent Revolution”; Koppes, JPL, 8, 19.
(4)
DeWitt Douglas Kilgore, Astrofuturism: Science, Race, and Visions of Utopia in Space (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2003), 2; McCurdy, Space and the American Imagination, 29–51.
(5)
Siddiqi, The Red Rockets’ Glare, 290–313.
(6)
Steven J. Dick, Plurality of Worlds: The Origins of the Extraterrestrial Life Debate from Democritus to Kant (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982); Michael J. Crowe, The Extraterrestrial Life Debate, 1750–1900: The Idea of the Plurality of Worlds from Kant to Lowell (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986).
(7)
Robert Markley, Dying Planet: Mars in Science and the Imagination (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2005); K. Maria D. Lane, Geographies of Mars: Seeing and Knowing the Red Planet (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2011).
(8)
Dick, Life on Other Worlds, 137–168; Greg Eghigian, “‘A Transatlantic Buzz’: Flying Saucers, Extraterrestrials, and America in Postwar Germany,” Journal of Transatlantic Studies, 12 (2014): 282–303; Alexander C. T. Geppert, “Extraterrestrial Encounters: UFOs, Science and the Quest For Transcendence, 1947–1972,” History and Technology 28 (September 2012): 335–362.
(9)
McCurdy, Space and the American Imagination, 109–137; Dick, Life on Other Worlds, 53–65.
(10)
Dick, Life on Other Worlds, 200–235.
(11)
Michael J. Neufeld, ed., Spacefarers: Images of Astronauts and Cosmonauts in the Heroic Age of Spaceflight (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press, 2013), especially the contributions of Margaret A. Weitekamp, Matthew H. Hersch, James Spiller, Andrew Jenks, and Trevor S. Rockwell.
(12)
Matthew H. Hersch, “‘Capsules Are Swallowed’: The Mythology of the Pilot in American Spaceflight,” in Neufeld, Spacefarers, 35–55, and his Inventing the American Astronaut (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012).
(13)
James T. Andrews and Asif A. Siddiqi, eds., Into the Cosmos: Space Exploration and Soviet Culture (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2011), especially Asif A. Siddiqi, “Cosmic Contradictions, Popular Enthusiasm and Secrecy in the Soviet Space Program,” 47–76, and Slava Gerovitch, “The Human inside a Propaganda Machine: The Public Image and Professional Identity of Soviet Cosmonauts,” 77–106.
(14)
Slava Gerovitch, Soviet Space Mythologies: Public Images, Private Memories, and the Making of a Cultural Identity (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2015); Andrew Jenks, “The Sincere Deceiver: Yuri Gagarin and the Search for a Higher Truth,” in Andrews and Siddiqi, Into the Cosmos, 107–132; Andrew L. Jenks, The Cosmonaut Who Wouldn’t Stop Smiling: The Life and Legend of Yuri Gagarin (Dekalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 2012).
(15)
Maurer, Richers, Rüthers and Scheide, Soviet Space Culture, especially Asif A. Siddiqi, “From Cosmic Enthusiasm to Nostalgia for the Future: A Tale of Soviet Space Culture,” 283–306; Andrews and Siddiqi, Into the Cosmos.
(16)
Matthew D. Tribbe, No Requiem for the Space Age: The Apollo Moon Landings and American Culture (New York: Oxford University Press, 2014); Neal, Spaceflight in the Shuttle Era, 63–98. For the best biography of an astronaut, see James R. Hansen, First Man: The Life of Neil A. Armstrong (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2005).
(17)
Weitekamp, Right Stuff, Wrong Sex; Neil M. Maher, Apollo in the Age of Aquarius (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2017), 10–53, 137–182.
(18)
Jennifer Ross-Nazzal, “You’ve Come a Long Way, Maybe: The First Six Women Astronauts and the Media,” in Neufeld, Spacefarers, 175–201; Amy E. Foster, Integrating Women into the Astronaut Corps: Politics and Logistics at NASA, 1972–2004 (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2011).
(19)
Roshanna P. Silvester, “She Orbits over the Sex Barrier: Soviet Girls and the Tereshkova Moment,” in Andrews and Siddiqi, Into the Cosmos, 195–212; Neal, Spaceflight in the Shuttle Era, 83–98.
(20)
Benjamin Lazier, “Earthrise, or the Globalization of the World Picture,” American Historical Review 116 (June 2011), 602–30; Robert Poole, Earthrise: How Man First Saw the Earth (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2008); Maher, Apollo in the Age of Aquarius, 93–136.
(21)
Alexander C. T. Geppert, “Where the Beyond Begins: Pierre Teilhard de Chardin and the Spatialization of Space …,” unpublished article, courtesy Alexander Geppert.
(22)
Steven J. Dick, “Space, Time and Aliens: The Role of the Imagination in Outer Space,” in Geppert, Imagining Outer Space, 27–44; Steven J. Dick and Mark L. Lupisella, Cosmos and Culture: Cultural Evolution in a Cosmic Context (Washington, DC: NASA, 2009); Keay Davidson, Carl Sagan: A Life (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1999).
(23)
Elizabeth A. Kessler, Picturing the Cosmos: Hubble Space Telescope Images and the Astronomical Sublime (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2012).
(24)
Teasel Muir-Harmony, “Selling Space Capsules, Moon Rocks, and America: Spaceflight in U.S. Public Diplomacy, 1961–1979,” in Reasserting America in the 1970s, edited by Hallvard Notiker, Giles Scott-Smith, and David J. Snyder (Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 2016), 127–142; Maurer, Richers, Rüthers, and Scheide, Soviet Space Culture, 167–225.
(25)
James R. Hansen, “The Taikonaut as Icon: The Cultural and Political Significance of Yang Liwei, China’s First Space Traveler,” in Dick and Launius, Societal Impact, 103–117.

الفصل السادس: رحلات الفضاء المأهولة بعد الحرب الباردة

(1)
George H. W. Bush speech, July 20, 1989, http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=17321, accessed November 7, 2017; George W. Bush speech, January 14, 2004, https://www.nasa.gov/missions/solarsystem/bush_vision.html, accessed October 6, 2017; Neal, Spaceflight in the Shuttle Era, 176–190.
(2)
Michael Cassutt, “Secret Space Shuttles,” Air & Space Smithsonian, August 2009, https://www.airspacemag.com/space/secret-space-shuttles-35318554/, accessed October 9, 2017.
(3)
Ragsdale, “Politics not Science,” in Launius and McCurdy, Spaceflight and the Myth, 156–61; Neal, Spaceflight in the Shuttle Era, 134–162.
(4)
Thor Hogan, Mars Wars: The Rise and Fall of the Space Exploration Initiative (Washington, DC: NASA, 2007); Neufeld, “The ‘von Braun Paradigm.’”
(5)
Marcia S. Smith, “NASA’s Space Station Program: Evolution and Current Status, Testimony before the House Science Committee,” April 4, 2001, https://history.nasa.gov/isstestimony2001.pdf, accessed October 15, 2017; Launius, Space Stations, 151–163.
(6)
Launius, Space Stations, 163–173.
(7)
Ibid., 175–194.
(8)
Diane Vaughan, The Challenger Launch Decision: Risky Technology, Culture and Deviance at NASA (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996); Columbia Accident Investigation Board, Report Volume 1 (Washington, DC: NASA, 2003).
(9)
Kulacki and Lewis, A Place for One’s Mat, 19–29; Hansen, “The Taikonaut as Icon.”
(10)
Chris Dubbs and Emiline Paat-Dahlstrom, Realizing Tomorrow: The Path to Private Spaceflight (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2011); Julian Guthrie, How to Make a Spaceship: A Band of Renegades, an Epic Race and the Birth of Private Space Flight (New York: Penguin Press, 2016).
(11)
Christian Davenport, The Space Barons: Elon Musk, Jeff Bezos, and the Quest to Colonize the Cosmos (New York: Public Affairs, 2018).
(12)
John M. Logsdon, “Encouraging New Space Firms,” and W. Henry Lambright, “NASA, Industry, and the Commercial Crew Development Program: The Politics of Partnership,” respectively, in Launius and McCurdy, NASA Spaceflight, 237–265 and 349–377.
(13)
Lambright, “NASA, Industry,” 365–375.
(14)
Glen R. Asner and Stephen J. Garber, Origins of 21st Century Spaceflight: A History of NASA’s Decadal Planning Team and the Vision for Space Exploration, 1999–2004 (Washington, DC: NASA, 2018).

الخاتمة: ماضي رحلات الفضاء ومُستقبلها

(1)
Launius and McCurdy, Robots in Space.
(2)
For a worst-case scenario in the form of a novella, see Naomi Oreskes and Erik M. Conway, The Collapse of Western Civilization: A View from the Future (New York: Columbia University Press, 2014).

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