مراجع

الفصل الأول

The quotations from the Hippocratic works ‘On the Sacred Disease’ and ‘Aphorisms’ are taken from Francis Adams (ed.), The Genuine Works of Hippocrates, 2 vols (London: The Sydenham Society, 1849). Shakespeare’s question about the seat of fancy comes from The Merchant of Venice, Act 3.

الفصل الثاني

Sydenham’s famous comment about the constancy of symptoms in different persons suffering from the same disease was made in his Medical Observations. I have used R. G. Latham (ed.), The Works of Thomas Sydenham, 2 vols (London: The Sydenham Society, 1848).

الفصل الثالث

Antoine Fourcroy’s summary of the basis of Parisian medical education is quoted in Erwin Ackerknecht, Medicine at the Paris Hospital, 1794–1848 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1967); Bichat’s ringing injunction also is quoted in Ackerknecht’s monograph. The phrase ‘gateways to death’ as a description of bad hospitals originated with the physician and man of letters John Aikin (1747–1822), now better known as a writer than a physician. Francis Bacon’s phrase ‘Footsteps of diseases’ comes from his Advancement of Learning, originally published in 1605.

الفصل الرابع

Edward VII’s stirring directive, said of tuberculosis, is quoted in Thomas Dormandy, The White Death: A History of Tuberculosis (London: Hambledon Press, 1999), with the note that Edward was cribbing from William Withering, the physician who introduced digitalis into clinical medicine in 1785. Mr Gradgrind’s insistence on ‘Facts’ is a recurring trope in Charles Dickens’s Hard Times, first published in 1854.

الفصل الخامس

Robert Hooke used the word ‘cell’ in his Micrographia (1665). Löffler’s summary of the steps we know as ‘Koch’s Postulates’ is quoted in Thomas D. Brock, Robert Koch: A Life in Medicine and Bacteriology (Madison, Wisconsin: Science Tech Publishers, 1988).

الفصل السادس

William Wordsworth’s memorable phrase first appeared in his poem ‘The Tables Turned’, published in 1798. Ivan Illich elaborated his notion of ‘iatrogenesis’ in several works, most centrally in Medical Nemesis: The Expropriation of Health (London: Calder and Boyars, 1975). C. P. Snow’s lecture on what he called The Two Cultures was published by Cambridge University Press in 1959.

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