قراءات إضافية

مراجع عامة

  • W. F. Bynum and Helen Bynum (eds), Dictionary of Medical Biography, 5 vols (Westport, Connecticut, and London: Greenwood Press, 2007). Biographies of major medical figures from all over the world who have contributed to clinical medicine, plus introductory essays on the major medical traditions.
  • W. F. Bynum and Roy Porter (eds), Companion Encyclopedia of the History of Medicine, 2 vols (London: Routledge, 1993). A collection of essays covering the whole of the field.
  • W. F. Bynum, Anne Hardy, Stephen Jacyna, Christopher Lawrence, and E. M. (Tilli) Tansey, The Western Medical Tradition, 1800–2000 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006). A general survey of Western medicine during the past two centuries.
  • Lawrence I. Conrad, Michael Neve, Vivian Nutton, Roy Porter, and Andrew Wear, The Western Medical Tradition, 800BC–AD1800 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995). A general survey of the history of the Western medical tradition up to 1800.
  • Jacylyn Duffin, History of Medicine: A Scandalously Short Introduction (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1999). An excellent introduction, with good coverage of modern North American developments.
  • Stephen Lock, John M. Last, and George Dunea (eds), The Oxford Illustrated Companion to Medicine (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001). Arranged alphabetically, most of the articles have generous historical content.
  • John Pickstone, Ways of Knowing: A New History of Science, Technology and Medicine (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2000). A stimulating introduction to these fields by a leading expert.
  • Roy Porter, The Greatest Benefit to Mankind: A Medical History of Humanity from Antiquity to the Present (London: HarperCollins Publishers, 1999). A widely admired, always readable survey.
  • Andrew Wear (ed.), Medicine in Society: Historical Essays (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992). An excellent collection of wide-ranging essays, especially written for teaching purposes.
  • David Weatherall, Science and the Quiet Art: Medical Research and Patient Care (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995). Historically sensitive study by an outstanding clinician and medical scientist.

الفصل الأول: ممارسة الطِّبِّ عند فراش المريض

  • Noga Arokha, Passions and Tempers: A History of the Humours (New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 2007). A full history of the continuing influence of the doctrine of the humours within medicine and science.
  • M. D. Grmek, Diseases in the Ancient Greek World (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989). An authoritative account of the evidence for the range of diseases prevalent in classical antiquity, using both written and material sources.
  • Helen King, Hippocrates’ Woman: Reading the Female Body in Ancient Greece (London: Routledge, 1998). A stimulating account of women’s diseases in ancient medical writings.
  • G. E. R. Lloyd (ed.), Hippocratic Writings (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1978). A very useful selection of the Hippocratic writings with a fine introduction.
  • Vivian Nutton, Ancient Medicine (London: Routledge, 2004). A full and well-written survey by a leading scholar.
  • Owsei Temkin, Galenism: Rise and Decline of a Medical Philosophy (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1973). An account of Galen’s continuing influence for more than a millennium after his death.

الفصل الثاني: طِبُّ المكتبات

  • Laurence Brockliss and Colin Jones, The Medical World of Early Modern France (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997). A monumental account of four centuries of medical life in France.
  • W. F. Bynum and Roy Porter (eds), William Hunter and the Eighteenth-Century Medical World (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1895). A wide-ranging collection of essays on Enlightenment medicine and anatomy.
  • Peter Pormann and Emilie Savage-Smith, Medieval Islamic Medicine (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2007). An up-to-date summary of a complex subject.
  • Roy Porter, Quacks: Fakers and Charlatans in English Medicine (Stroud, Gloucestershire: Tempus Publishing, 2000). An entertaining volume, rich in anecdote but also developing Porter’s notion of the continuing importance of the medical marketplace.
  • Carole Rawcliffe, Medicine and Society in Later Medieval England (Stroud, Gloucestershire: A. Sutton, 1995). An accessible and wide-ranging survey.
  • Guenter B. Risse, Hospital Life in Enlightenment Scotland: Care and Teaching in the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986). An outstanding study of clinical medicine and medical education on the eve of the French Revolution.
  • Nancy G. Siraisi, Medieval and Early Renaissance Medicine (Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1990). An excellent introduction to the medicine of the period.

الفصل الثالث: طِبُّ المستشفيات

  • Erwin H. Ackerknecht, Medicine at the Paris Hospital, 1794–1848 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1967). The classic study of the French school in the early 19th century.
  • W. F. Bynum, Science and the Practice of Medicine in the Nineteenth Century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994). A general account of the increasing role of science within clinical medicine.
  • Jacylyn Duffin, To See with a Better Eye: A Life of R. T. H. Laennec (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1998). A fine biography of the inventor of the stethoscope.
  • Michel Foucault, The Birth of the Clinic: An Archaeology of Medical Perception, tr. A. M. Sheridan Smith (London: Tavistock, 1973). One of the most accessible books of this influential thinker, in which he develops his ideas about power within medicine, focusing on the French clinical school.
  • Caroline Hannaway and Ann La Berge (eds), Constructing Paris Medicine (Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1998). A good series of essays by leading scholars, evaluating the French school.
  • Russell Maulitz, Morbid Appearances: The Anatomy of Pathology in the Early Nineteenth Century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987). A stimulating study of the fortunes of pathology during its period of dominance within clinical medicine.
  • Guenter B. Risse, Mending Bodies, Saving Souls: A History of Hospitals (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999). An exceptionally elegant and thoughtful study of the hospital throughout history. Risse dissects the French hospitals of the early 19th century, discussed in Chapter 6.
  • Andrew Scull, The Most Solitary of Afflictions: Madness and Society in Britain, 1700–1900 (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1993). Although focusing on Britain, Scull’s powerful account highlights many common features of psychiatry and insanity throughout Europe and North America during this period.

الفصل الرابع: الطِّبُّ المجتمعي

  • John Duffy, The Sanitarians: A History of American Public Health (Urbana, Ill.: University of Illinois Press, 1990). A sound account of the public health movement in the United States.
  • Christopher Hamlin, Public Health and Social Justice in the Age of Chadwick: Britain, 1800–1854 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998). An important study of the relationship between poverty and disease.
  • Daniel Kevles, In the Name of Eugenics: Genetics and the Uses of Human Heredity (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1986). Still the best general account of the eugenics movement.
  • Ann La Berge, Mission and Method: The Early Nineteenth- Century French Public Health Movement (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992). An excellent synthesis of the French movement.
  • Thomas McKeown, The Role of Medicine: Dream, Mirage or Nemesis? (Oxford: Blackwell, 1979). The most pungent statement of McKeown’s vision of medicine and its history.
  • Dorothy Porter, Health, Civilization and the State: A History of Public Health from Ancient to Modern Times (London: Routledge, 1999). A good synthesis of a vast topic.
  • Dorothy Porter (ed.), The History of Public Health and the Modern State (Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1994). A fine collection of essays on many countries, by leading experts.

الفصل الخامس: طِبُّ المعامل

  • Erwin H. Ackerknecht, Rudolf Virchow: Doctor, Statesman, Anthropologist (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1953). This old biography is still an excellent introduction to the many facets of Virchow’s career.
  • Claude Bernard, An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine, tr. Henry Copley Green (New York: Dover Publications, 1957). Originally published in 1865, Bernard’s classic monograph is still well worth reading.
  • William Coleman and Frederic Lawrence Holmes (eds), The Investigative Enterprise: Experimental Physiology in Nineteenth-Century Medicine (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988). An outstanding collection of essays on experimental physiology and its relevance for medical practice.
  • Patrice Debré, Louis Pasteur, tr. Elborg Forster (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998). A full biography of Pasteur, sympathetic but not uncritical.
  • Henry Harris, The Birth of the Cell (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1998). A good introduction to 19th-century microscopy.
  • Owen H.Wangensteen and Sarah D. Wangensteen, The Rise of Surgery: From Empiric Craft to Scientific Discipline (Folkestone, Kent: Dawson, 1978). Old-fashioned and in the heroic mode, but wonderfully cosmopolitan and accurate in its details.
  • Michael Worboys, Spreading Germs: Disease Theories and Medical Practice in Britain, 1865–1900 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000). A subtle investigation of the impact of bacteriology and germs theories on British medicine.

الفصل السادس: الطِّبُّ في العالم الحديث

  • Michael Bliss, The Discovery of Insulin (Edinburgh: Harris, 1983). A balanced account of this famous episode in the history of medicine.
  • Thomas Neville Bonner, Becoming a Physician: Medical Education in Great Britain, France, Germany and the United States, 1750–1945 (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1995). A fine comparative study, with many resonances for earlier chapters of this Introduction as well.
  • Roger Cooter and John Pickstone (eds), Medicine in the Twentieth Century (Amsterdam: Harwood Academic Publishers, 2000). A large collection of essays on many aspects of medicine in the last century.
  • John Farley, The International Health Division of the Rockefeller Foundation: The Russell Years, 1920–1934 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995). An excellent introduction to the important dimension of international health, and the Americanization of the world.
  • Joel Howell, Technology in the Hospital: Transforming Patient Care in the Early Twentieth Century (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995). A fine monograph on how medical science and technology influenced what doctors did in the hospital.
  • James Le Fanu, The Rise and Fall of Modern Medicine (London: Little, Brown and Co., 1999). A perceptive account of 20th-century medicine by a shrewd general practitioner and medical journalist.
  • Harry Marks, The Progress of Experiment: Science and Therapeutic Reform in the United States, 1900–1990 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997). An excellent introduction to the clinical trial, and much else besides.
  • Rosemary Stevens, In Sickness and in Wealth: American Hospitals in the Twentieth Century (New York: Basic Books, 1989). A full analysis of the economic and medical dimensions of American hospitals.

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