الفصل الأول: التعريف بنهج الرؤى السلوكية
(1)Alexander Chernev and David Gal, “Categorization Effects in Value Judgments: Averaging Bias in Evaluating Combinations of Vices and Virtues,” Journal of Marketing Research 47, no. 4 (2010): 738–747.
(2)Natalina Zlatevska, Chris Dubelaar and Stephen S. Holden, “Sizing Up the Effect of Portion Size on Consumption: A Meta-Analytic Review,” Journal of Marketing 78, no. 3 (2014): 140–154.
(3)Gareth J. Hollands, Ian Shemilt, Theresa M. Marteau, Susan A. Jebb, Hannah B. Lewis, Yinghui Wei, Julian P. T. Higgins, and David Ogilvie, “Portion, Package or Tableware Size for Changing Selection and Consumption of Food, Alcohol and Tobacco,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 9 (2015).
(4)Barbara J. Rolls, Erin L. Morris, and Liane S. Roe, “Portion Size of Food Affects Energy Intake in Normal-Weight and Overweight Men and Women,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 76, no. 6 (2002): 1207–1213.
(5)Thomas L. Webb and Paschal Sheeran, “Does Changing Behavioral Intentions Engender Behavior Change? A Meta-Analysis of the Experimental Evidence,” Psychological Bulletin 132, no. 2 (2006): 249.
(6)Mark R. Leary and Robin M. Kowalski, “Impression Management: A Literature Review and Two-Component Model,” Psychological Bulletin 107, no. 1 (1990): 34.
(7)Department of Health, “Health Survey for England 2008” (London: HMSO, 2009).
(8)Uzma Khan and Daniella M. Kupor, “Risk (Mis)Perception: When Greater Risk Reduces Risk Valuation,” Journal of Consumer Research 43, no. 5 (2017): 769–786.
(9)Loran F. Nordgren, Frenk Van Harreveld, and Joop Van Der Pligt, “The Restraint Bias: How the Illusion of Self-Restraint Promotes Impulsive Behavior,” Psychological Science 20, no. 12 (2009): 1523–1528.
(10)Marieke A. Adriaanse, Charlotte D. W. Vinkers, Denise T. D. De Ridder, Joop J. Hox, and John B. F. De Wit, “Do Implementation Intentions Help to Eat a Healthy Diet? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Empirical Evidence,” Appetite 56, no. 1 (2011): 183–193.
(11)Barbara J. Rolls, Liane S. Roe, and Jennifer S. Meengs, “Reductions in Portion Size and Energy Density of Foods Are Additive and Lead to Sustained Decreases in Energy Intake,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 83, no. 1 (2006): 11–17.
(12)L. K. Bandy, P. Scarborough, R. A. Harrington, M. Rayner, and S. A. Jebb, “Reductions in Sugar Sales from Soft Drinks in the UK from 2015 to 2018,” BMC Medicine 18, no. 1 (2020): 20.
(13)Public Health England, Calorie Reduction: The Scope and Ambition for Action(London: HMSO, 2018).
(14)Susan E. Sinclair, Marcia Cooper, and Elizabeth D. Mansfield, “The Influence of Menu Labeling on Calories Selected or Consumed: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis,” Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics 114, no. 9 (2014): 1375–1388.
(15)Richard H. Thaler and Cass R. Sunstein, Nudge: Improving Decisions about Health, Wealth and Happiness (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2008).
(16)Itamar Simonson, “Choice Based on Reasons: The Case of Attraction and Compromise Effects,” Journal of Consumer Research 16, no. 2 (1989): 158–174.
(17)Kathryn M. Sharpe, Richard Staelin, and Joel Huber, “Using Extremeness Aversion to Fight Obesity: Policy Implications of Context Dependent Demand,” Journal of Consumer Research 35, no. 3 (2008): 406–422.
(18)Kelly Ann Schmidtke, Derrick G. Watson, Pendaran Roberts, and Ivo Vlaev, “Menu Positions Influence Soft Drink Selection at Touchscreen Kiosks,” Psychology & Marketing 36, no. 10 (2019): 964–970.
(19)Steven D. Levitt and John A. List, “On the Generalizability of Lab Behaviour to the Field,” Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue canadienne d’économique 40, no. 2 (2007): 347–370.
(20)Michael Hallsworth, “New Ways of Understanding Tax Compliance: From the Laboratory to the Real World,” in The Cambridge Handbook of Psychology and Economic Behaviour, ed. Alan Lewis (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018), 430–451.
(21)The Pensions Regulator, Automatic Enrolment Commentary and Analysis: April 2018–March 2019 (Brighton, UK: The Pensions Regulator, 2019).
(22)Michael Hallsworth, Tim Chadborn, Anna Sallis, Michael Sanders, Daniel Berry, Felix Greaves, Lara Clements and Sally C. Davies, “Provision of Social Norm Feedback to High Prescribers of Antibiotics in General Practice: A Pragmatic National Randomised Controlled Trial,” Lancet 387, no. 10029 (2016): 1743–1752; Daniella Meeker, Jeffrey A. Linder, Craig R. Fox, Mark W. Friedberg, Stephen D. Persell, Noah J. Goldstein, Tara K. Knight, Joel W. Hay and Jason N. Doctor, “Effect of Behavioral Interventions on Inappropriate Antibiotic Prescribing among Primary Care Practices: A Randomized Clinical Trial,” JAMA 315, no. 6 (2016): 562–570.
(23)Peter Bergman and Eric W. Chan, “Leveraging Parents through Low-Cost Technology: The Impact of High-Frequency Information on Student Achievement” (New York: Columbia University Working Paper, 2019).
(24)Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Behavioural Insights and Public Policy: Lessons from Around the World (Paris: OECD Publishing, 2017).
الفصل الثاني: التاريخ والفكر وراء نهج الرؤى السلوكية
(1)Michael Hallsworth and Elspeth Kirkman, “A Tale of Two Systems: What Can Behavioral Science Learn from Literature?,” The Behavioral Scientist (blog), October 27, 2018.
(2)John Stuart Mill, “On the Definition of Political Economy; and on the Method of Philosophical Investigation in that Science,” London and Westminster Review 4, no. 26 (1836): 1–29.
(3)The theory of utilitarianism attempted to address this issue by prioritizing “the greatest happiness of the greatest number.” However, we are primarily interested in the concept of individuals maximizing their utility, as taken up by economists.
(4)Joseph Persky, “The Ethology of Homo Economicus,” Journal of Economic Perspectives 9, no. 2 (1995): 221–231.
(5)Edward P. Lazear, “Economic Imperialism,” Quarterly Journal of Economics 115, no. 1 (2000): 99–146.
(6)Herbert A. Simon, Models of Man; Social and Rational (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1957).
(7)Richard H. Thaler, Misbehaving: The Making of Behavioral Economics (New York: W. W. Norton, 2015).
(8)Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman, “Judgment under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases,” Science 185, no. 4157 (1974): 1124–1131.
(9)Daniel Kahneman, Thinking, Fast and Slow (New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 2011).
(10)Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman. “Availability: A Heuristic for Judging Frequency and Probability,” Cognitive Psychology 5, no. 2 (1973): 207–232.
(11)Barbara J. McNeil, Stephen G. Pauker, Harold C. Sox Jr., and Amos Tversky, “On the Elicitation of Preferences for Alternative Therapies,” New England Journal of Medicine 306, no. 21 (1982): 1259.
(12)Justine S. Hastings and Jesse M. Shapiro, “Fungibility and Consumer Choice: Evidence from Commodity Price Shocks,” Quarterly Journal of Economics 128, no. 4 (2013): 1449–1498.
(13)George A. Akerlof and Robert J. Shiller, “How ‘Animal Spirits’ Destabilize Economies,” McKinsey Quarterly 3 (2009): 127–135.
(14)Josseph Henrich, Robert Boyd, Samuel Bowles, Colin Camerer, Ernst Fehr, Herbert Gintis and Richard McElreath, “In Search of Homo Economicus: Behavioral Experiments in 15 Small-Scale Societies,” American Economic Review 91, no. 2 (2001): 73–78.
(15)Eric J. Johnson and Daniel Goldstein, “Medicine: Do Defaults Save Lives?” Science 302, no. 5649 (2003): 1338–1339.
(16)Richard H. Thaler and Shlomo Benartzi, “Save More Tomorrow™: Using Behavioral Economics to Increase Employee Saving,” Journal of Political Economy 112, no. S1 (2004): S164–187.
(17)William James, The Principles of Psychology, vol. 1 (London: Macmillan, 1890).
(18)Alan G. Sanfey and Luke J. Chang, “Multiple Systems in Decision Making,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1128, no. 1 (2008): 53–62.
(19)John A. Bargh and Tanya L. Chartrand, “The Unbearable Automaticity of Being,” American Psychologist 54, no. 7 (1999): 462–479.
(20)Colin Camerer, George Loewenstein, and Drazen Prelec, “Neuroeconomics: How Neuroscience Can Inform Economics,” Journal of Economic Literature 43, no. 1 (2005): 9–64; Matthew D. Lieberman, “Social Cognitive Neuroscience: A Review of Core Processes,” Annual Review of Psychology 58 (2007): 259–289.
(21)Thaler and Sunstein, Nudge.
(22)Peter M. Todd and Gerd Gigerenzer, Ecological Rationality: Intelligence in the World (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012).
(23)Ralph Hertwig and Till Grüne-Yanoff, “Nudging and Boosting: Steering or Empowering Good Decisions,” Perspectives on Psychological Science 12, no. 6 (2017): 973–986.
(24)Roger E. Backhouse, The Penguin History of Economics (London: Penguin, 2002).
(25)Gary S. Becker, “Crime and Punishment: An Economic Approach,” in The Economic Dimensions of Crime, ed. Nigel G. Fielding, Alan Clarke and Robert Witt (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 1968), 13–68.
(26)Aaron Chalfin, Benjamin Hansen, Jason Lerner and Lucie Parker, “Reducing Crime through Environmental Design: Evidence from a Randomized Experiment of Street Lighting in New York City,” NBER Working Paper 25798 (Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2019).
(27)Rüdiger Graf, “Nudging before the Nudge? Behavioural Traffic Safety Regulation and the Rise of Behavioural Economics,” in Handbook of Behavioural Change and Public Policy (Northampton, MA: Elgaronline, 2019), 23, https://doi.org/10.4337/9781785367854.
(28)Jessica Pykett, Rhys Jones and Mark Whitehead, eds., Psychological Governance and Public Policy: Governing the Mind, Brain and Behaviour (London: Taylor & Francis, 2016).
(29)Erich Kirchler, The Economic Psychology of Tax Behaviour (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007).
(30)Annette Boaz and Huw Davies, eds., What Works Now? Evidence-Informed Policy and Practice (Bristol, UK: Policy Press, 2019).
(31)Technically, nudging and libertarian paternalism are not identical (Pelle Guldborg Hansen, “The Definition of Nudge and Libertarian Paternalism: Does the Hand Fit the Glove?” European Journal of Risk Regulation 7, no. 1 : 155–174). However, this requires a longer discussion.
(32)Cass Sunstein, Simpler: The Future of Government (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2013).
(33)Rhys Jones, Jessica Pykett and Mark Whitehead, Changing Behaviours: On the Rise of the Psychological State (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2013).
(34)Prime Minister’s Strategy Unit, Personal Responsibility and Changing Behaviour: The State of Knowledge and Its Implications for Public Policy (London: HMSO, 2004).
(35)David Halpern, Inside the Nudge Unit: How Small Changes Can Make a Big Difference (London: Random House, 2015).
(36)MINDSPACE actually produces the anagram PANDEMICS, which was noted and—probably wisely—rejected.
(37)Adam Oliver, The Origins of Behavioural Public Policy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017), 113.
(38)Holger Straßheim and Silke Beck, eds., Handbook of Behavioural Change and Public Policy (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2019).
(39)George Osborne and Richard Thaler, “We Can Make You Behave,” Guardian 28 (2010); Richard H. Thaler, Misbehaving: The Making of Behavioral Economics (New York: W. W. Norton, 2015).
(40)The Conservative Party, Regulation in the Post-bureaucratic Age (London: The Conservatives, 2009), 3.
(41)The authors were early members of the BIT and still work there.
(42)Peter John, How Far to Nudge? Assessing Behavioural Public Policy (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2018).
(43)Halpern, Inside the Nudge Unit.
(44)Laura Haynes, Ben Goldacre and David Torgerson, “Test, Learn, Adapt: Developing Public Policy with Randomised Controlled Trials” (London: Cabinet Office, 2012).
(45)Sarah Ball and Joram Feitsma, “The Boundaries of Behavioural Insights: Observations from Two Ethnographic Studies,” Evidence & Policy: A Journal of Research, Debate and Practice (2019), https://doi.org/10.1332/1744264 19X15643724702722.
(46)Oliver, Origins of Behavioural Public Policy, 113.
(47)Straßheim and Beck, Handbook of Behavioural Change and Public Policy.
(48)Straßheim and Beck, Handbook of Behavioural Change and Public Policy.
(49)William J. Congdon and Maya Shankar, “The White House Social & Behavioral Sciences Team: Lessons Learned from Year One,” Behavioral Science & Policy 1, no. 2 (2015): 77–86.
(50)Mark Whitehead, Rhys Jones and Jessica Pykett, “Nudging around the World: A Critical Geography of the Behaviour Change Agenda,” in Handbook of Behavioural Change and Public Policy, 90–101.
(51)Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Behavioural Insights and New Approaches to Policy Design. The Views from the Field (Paris: OECD Publishing, 2015).
(52)Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Behavioural Insights and Public Policy.
(53)Rachel Bowlby, Shopping with Freud (London: Routledge, 2006). Tim E. Kasser and Allen D. Kanner, Psychology and Consumer Culture: The Struggle for a Good Life in a Materialistic World (Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2004).
(54)Jim Manzi, Uncontrolled: The Surprising Payoff of Trial-and-Error for Business, Politics, and Society (New York: Basic Books, 2012).
(55)Rembrand Koning, Sharique Hasan, and Aaron Chatterji, Experimentation and Startup Performance: Evidence from A/B Testing, no. w26278 (Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2019).
(56)Sherry Jueyu Wu and Elizabeth Levy Paluck, “Designing Nudges for the Context: Golden Coin Decals Nudge Workplace Behavior in China,” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes (2018). https://doi.org/10.1016/j/obdhp.2018.10.002.
(57)Iris Bohnet, What Works (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2016).
(58)Greer K. Gosnell, John A. List and Robert D. Metcalfe, “The Impact of Management Practices on Employee Productivity: A Field Experiment with Airline Captains,” Journal of Political Economy128, no. 4 (2020), https://doi.org/10.1086/705375.
(59)Ralph Hertwig and Till Grüne-Yanoff, “Nudging and Boosting: Steering or Empowering Good Decisions,” Perspectives on Psychological Science 12, no. 6 (2017): 973–986; Owain Service and Rory Gallagher, Think Small: The Surprisingly Simple Ways to Reach Big Goals (London: Michael O’Mara Books, 2017).
(60)Alison W. Brooks, “Get Excited: Reappraising Pre-Performance Anxiety as Excitement,” Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 143, no. 3 (2014): 1144.
الفصل الثالث: أمثلة على التطبيق العملي لنهج الرؤى السلوكية
(1)Daniel Pichert and Konstantinos V. Katsikopoulos, “Green Defaults: Information Presentation and Pro-Environmental Behaviour,” Journal of Environmental Psychology 28, no. 1 (2008): 63–73.
(2)Jean Galbraith, “Treaty Options: Towards a Behavioral Understanding of Treaty Design,” Virginia Journal of International Law 53 (2012): 309–363.
(3)Brett Theodos, Christina P. Stacy, Margaret Simms, Katya Abazajian, Rebecca Daniels, Devlin Hanson, Amanda Hahnel and Joanna Smith-Ramani, “An Evaluation of the Impacts of Two ‘Rules of Thumb’ for Credit Card Revolvers” (Washington, DC: Urban Institute, 2016).
(4)Alejandro Drexler, Greg Fischer and Antoinette Schoar, “Keeping It Simple: Financial Literacy and Rules of Thumb,” American Economic Journal: Applied Economics 6, no. 2 (2014): 1–31.
(5)Nava Ashraf, Oriana Bandiera and B. Kelsey Jack, “No Margin, No Mission? A Field Experiment on Incentives for Public Service Delivery,” Journal of Public Economics 120 (2014): 1–17.
(6)Jeffrey T. Kullgren, Andrea B. Troxel, George Loewenstein, David A. Asch, Laurie A. Norton, Lisa Wesby, Yuanyuan Tao, Jingsan Zhu and Kevin G. Volpp, “Individual versus Group-Based Financial Incentives for Weight Loss: A Randomized, Controlled Trial,” Annals of Internal Medicine 158, no. 7 (2013): 505–514.
(7)Michael Hallsworth, John A. List, Robert D. Metcalfe and Ivo Vlaev, “The Behavioralist as Tax Collector: Using Natural Field Experiments to Enhance Tax Compliance,” Journal of Public Economics 148 (2017): 14–31.
(8)Elizabeth Linos, “More than Public Service: A Field Experiment on Job Advertisements and Diversity in the Police,” Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 28, no. 1 (2017): 67–85.
(9)Adam M. Grant and David A. Hofmann, “Outsourcing Inspiration: The Performance Effects of Ideological Messages from Leaders and Beneficiaries,” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 116, no. 2 (2011): 173–187.
(10)Jonathan Meer, “Brother, Can You Spare a Dime? Peer Pressure in Charitable Solicitation,” Journal of Public Economics 95, no. 7-8 (2011): 926–941; Dean Karlan and John A. List, How Can Bill and Melinda Gates Increase other People’s Donations to Fund Public Goods? no. w17954 (Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2012).
(11)Johanna Catherine Maclean, John Buckell and Joachim Marti, Information Source and Cigarettes: Experimental Evidence on the Messenger Effect, no. w25632 (Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2019).
(12)Scott S. Boddery and Jeff Yates, “Do Policy Messengers Matter? Majority Opinion Writers as Policy Cues in Public Agreement with Supreme Court Decisions,” Political Research Quarterly 67, no. 4 (2014): 851–863.
(13)John Austin, Sigurdur Oli Sigurdsson and Yonata Shpak Rubin, “An Examination of the Effects of Delayed Versus Immediate Prompts on Safety Belt Use,” Environment and Behavior 38, no. 1 (2006): 140–149.
(14)International Labor Organization, “World Statistic,” 2019 (accessed January 30, 2020), https://www.ilo.org/moscow/areas-of-work/occupational-safety-and-health/WCMS_249278/lang--en/index.htm.
(15)Sherry Jueyu Wu and Elizabeth Levy Paluck, “Designing Nudges for the Context: Golden Coin Decals Nudge Workplace Behavior in China,” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes (2018), https://doi.org/10.1016/j/obdhp.2018.10.002.
(16)Donald A. Redelmeier, Joel Katz and Daniel Kahneman, “Memories of Colonoscopy: A Randomized Trial,” Pain 104, no. 1-2 (2003): 187–194.
الفصل الرابع: تطبيق نهج الرؤى السلوكية
(1)Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Tools and Ethics for Applied Behavioural Insights: The BASIC Toolkit (Paris: OECD, 2019).
(2)Michael Sanders and Elspeth Kirkman, “I’ve Booked You a Place, Good Luck: A Field Experiment Applying Behavioral Science to Improve Attendance at High Impact Recruitment Events,” Journal of Behavioral Public Administration 2, no. 1 (2019), https://doi.org/10.30636/jbpa.21.24.
(3)Susan Michie, Maartje M. Van Stralen and Robert West, “The Behaviour Change Wheel: A New Method for Characterising and Designing Behaviour Change Interventions,” Implementation Science 6, no. 1 (2011): 42.
(4)Michael Hallsworth, Mark Egan, Jill Rutter and Julian McCrae, Behavioural Government: Using Behavioural Science to Improve How Governments Make Decisions (London: The Behavioural Insights Team, 2018), https://www.bi.team.
(5)Peter Leopold S. Bergman and Todd Rogers, “The Impact of Defaults on Technology Adoption, and its Underappreciation by Policymakers,” CESifo Working Paper no. 6721, 2017.
(6)Behavioral Insights Team, “EAST: Four Simple Ways to Apply Behavioural Insights” (London: The Behavioural Insights Team, 2014).
(7)Dean Karlan, Melanie Morten and Jonathan Zinman, “A Personal Touch: Text Messaging for Loan Repayment,” National Bureau of Economic Research, no. w17952, 2012.
(8)Marco Caliendo, Deborah A. Cobb-Clark and Arne Uhlendorff, “Locus of Control and Job Search Strategies,” Review of Economics and Statistics 97, no. 1 (2015): 88–103.
(9)Elisabetta Sagone and Maria Elvira De Caroli, “Locus of Control and Academic Self-Efficacy in University Students: The Effects of Self-Concepts,” Procedia—Social and Behavioral Sciences 114, no. 21 (2014): 222–228.
(10)Michael Sanders, Guglielmo Briscese, Rory Gallagher, Alex Gyani, Samuel Hanes and Elspeth Kirkman, “Behavioural Insight and the Labour Market: Evidence from a Pilot Study and a Large Stepped-Wedge Controlled Trial,” Journal of Public Policy (2019): 1–24, https://doi.org/10.1017/S0143814X19000242.
الفصل الخامس: الانتقادات والاعتبارات ومواطن القصور
(1)David Hagmann, Emily H. Ho and George Loewenstein, “Nudging Out Support for a Carbon Tax,” Nature Climate Change 9 (2019): 484–489.
(2)Matteo M. Galizzi and Lorraine Whitmarsh, “How to Measure Behavioral Spillovers: A Methodological Review and Checklist,” Frontiers in Psychology 10 (2019): 342.
(3)John Beshears, James J. Choi, David Laibson, Brigitte C. Madrian and William L. Skimmyhorn, Borrowing to Save? The Impact of Automatic Enrollment on Debt, no. w25876 (Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2019).
(4)Dietrich Dörner, The Logic of Failure: Recognizing and Avoiding Error in Complex Situations (New York: Basic Books, 1996); Raymond Fisman and Miriam Golden, Corruption: What Everyone Needs to Know (New York: Oxford University Press, 2017).
(5)Dora L. Costa and Matthew E. Kahn, “Energy Conservation ‘Nudges’ and Environmentalist Ideology: Evidence from a Randomized Residential Electricity Field Experiment,” Journal of the European Economic Association 11, no. 3 (2013): 680–702.
(6)Theo Lorenc, Mark Petticrew, Vivian Welch and Peter Tugwell, “What Types of Interventions Generate Inequalities? Evidence from Systematic Reviews,” Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 67, no. 2 (2013): 190–193.
(7)Jonathan Cribb and Carl Emmerson, “What Happens to Workplace Pension Saving when Employers Are Obliged to Enrol Employees Automatically?” International Tax and Public Finance (2019): 1–30.
(8)Hunt Allcott and Todd Rogers, “The Short-Run and Long-Run Effects of Behavioral Interventions: Experimental Evidence from Energy Conservation,” American Economic Review 104, no. 10 (2014): 3003–3037.
(9)Michael Hallsworth, John A. List, Robert D. Metcalfe and Ivo Vlaev, “The Behavioralist as Tax Collector: Using Natural Field Experiments to Enhance Tax Compliance,” Journal of Public Economics 148 (2017): 14–31.
(10)Alan S. Gerber, Donald P. Green and Ron Shachar, “Voting May Be Habit-Forming: Evidence from a Randomized Field Experiment,” American Journal of Political Science 47, no. 3 (2003): 540–550.
(11)Gary Charness and Uri Gneezy, “Incentives to Exercise,” Econometrica 77, no. 3 (2009): 909–931.
(12)Katherine L. Milkman, Julia A. Minson and Kevin G. M. Volpp, “Holding the Hunger Games Hostage at the Gym: An Evaluation of Temptation Bundling,” Management Science 60, no. 2 (2013): 283–299.
(13)Kelli A. Bird, Benjamin L. Castleman, Jeffrey T. Denning, Joshua Good-man, Cait Lamberton and Kelly Ochs Rosinger, Nudging at Scale: Experimental Evidence From FAFSA Completion Campaigns, no. w26158 (Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2019).
(14)Gerd Gigerenzer, “The Psychology of Good Judgment: Frequency Formats and Simple Algorithms,” Medical Decision Making 16, no. 3 (1996): 273–280.
(15)Till Grüne-Yanoff and Ralph Hertwig, “Nudge Versus Boost: How Coherent Are Policy and Theory?” Minds and Machines 26, no. 1-2 (2016): 149–183.
(16)Will Leggett, “The Politics of Behaviour Change: Nudge, Neoliberalism and the State,” Policy & Politics 42, no. 1 (2014): 3–19.
(17)Joram Feitsma, “The Behavioural State: Critical Observations on Technocracy and Psychocracy,” Policy Sciences 51, no. 3 (2018): 387–410.
(18)Michael Muthukrishna and Joseph Henrich, “A Problem in Theory,” Nature Human Behaviour 3 (2019): 221–229.
(19)Joseph Henrich, Steven J. Heine and Ara Norenzayan, “Beyond WEIRD: Towards a Broad-Based Behavioral Science,” Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33, nos. 2-3 (2010): 111.
(20)Dorsa Amir, Matthew R. Jordan, Katherine McAuliffe, Claudia R. Valeggia, Lawrence S. Sugiyama, Richard G. Bribiescas, J. Josh Snodgrass and Yarrow Dunham, “The Developmental Origins of Risk and Time Preferences Across Diverse Societies,” Journal of Experimental Psychology: General (2019), https://doi.org/10.1037/xge0000675.
(21)Joseph Henrich, Robert Boyd, Samuel Bowles, Colin Camerer, Ernst Fehr, Herbert Gintis, Richard McElreath, et al., “‘Economic Man’ in Cross-Cultural Perspective: Behavioral Experiments in 15 Small-Scale Societies,” Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28, no. 6 (2005): 795–815.
(22)Walter Mischel, Yuichi Shoda and Philip K. Peake, “The Nature of Adolescent Competencies Predicted by Preschool Delay of Gratification,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 54, no. 4 (1988): 687.
(23)Anuja Pandey, Daniel Hale, Shikta Das, Anne-Lise Goddings, Sarah-Jayne Blakemore and Russell M. Viner, “Effectiveness of Universal Self-Regulation–Based Interventions in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis,” JAMA Pediatrics 172, no. 6 (2018): 566–575.
(24)Tyler W. Watts, Greg J. Duncan, and Haonan Quan, “Revisiting the Marshmallow Test: A Conceptual Replication Investigating Links between Early Delay of Gratification and Later Outcomes,” Psychological Science 29, no. 7 (2018): 1159–1177.
(25)See also Armin Falk, Fabian Kosse and Pia Pinger, “Revisiting the Marshmallow Test: On the Interpretation of Replication Results,” Psychological Science (in press).
(26)Rachid Laajaj, Karen Macours, Daniel Alejandro Pinzon Hernandez, Omar Arias, Samuel D. Gosling, Jeff Potter, Marta Rubio-Codina and Renos Vakis, “Challenges to Capture the Big Five Personality Traits in Non-WEIRD Populations,” Science Advances 5, no. 7 (2019): eaaw5226.
(27)Joan E. Sieber, ed., The Ethics of Social Research: Surveys and Experiments (New York: Springer Science & Business Media, 2012). See also Evan Selinger, Jules Polonetsky and Omer Tene, eds., The Cambridge Handbook of Consumer Privacy (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2018).
(28)Arunesh Mathur, Gunes Acar, Michael J. Friedman, Elena Lucherini, Jonathan Mayer, Marshini Chetty and Arvind Narayanan, “Dark Patterns at Scale: Findings from a Crawl of 11K Shopping Websites,” Proceedings of the ACM on Human-Computer Interaction 3, no. CSCW (2019): 81.
(29)Pamela Herd and Donald P. Moynihan, Administrative Burden: Policymaking by Other Means (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2019).
(30)Mark White, The Manipulation of Choice: Ethics and Libertarian Paternalism (New York: Palgrave, 2013).
(31)Nick Chater, The Mind Is Flat: The Illusion of Mental Depth and the Improvised Mind (London: Penguin UK, 2018).
(32)Jeremy Waldron, “It’s All for Your Own Good,” New York Review of Books, October 9, 2014, https://www.nybooks.com/articles/2014/10/09/cass-sunstein-its-all-your-own-good/.
(33)Michael Sanders, Veerle Snijders and Michael Hallsworth, “Behavioural Science and Policy: Where Are We Now and Where Are We Going?” Behavioural Public Policy 2, no. 2 (2018): 144–167.
(34)John Stuart Mill, On Liberty (London: J. W. Parker & Son, 1859).
(35)Thaler and Sunstein, Nudge.
(36)Michael Hallsworth and Michael Sanders, “Nudge: Recent Developments in Behavioural Science and Public Policy,” in Beyond Behaviour Change: Key Issues, Interdisciplinary Approaches and Future Directions, ed. Fiona Spotswood (Bristol: Policy Press, 2016), 113–133.
(37)Sanders, Snijders and Hallsworth, “Behavioural Science and Policy.”
(38)Luc Bovens, “The Ethics of Nudge,” in Preference Change, ed. T. Grüne-Yanoff and Sven Ove Hansson (Dordrecht: Springer, 2009), 207–219.
(39)Emily Pronin, Daniel Y. Lin and Lee Ross, “The Bias Blind Spot: Perceptions of Bias in Self Versus others,” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 28, no. 3 (2002): 369–381.
(40)Emily Pronin and Kathleen Schmidt, “Claims and Denials of Bias and their Implications for Policy,” in The Behavioral Foundations of Public Policy, ed. E. Shafir (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2013), 195–216.
(41)Eric Luis Uhlmann and Geoffrey L. Cohen, “‘I Think It, Therefore It’s True’: Effects of Self-Perceived Objectivity on Hiring Discrimination,” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 104, no. 2 (2007): 207–223.
(42)George Loewenstein, Cindy Bryce, David Hagmann, and Sachin Rajpal, “Warning: You Are about to Be Nudged,” Behavioral Science & Policy 1, no. 1 (2015): 35–42.
(43)Nuffield Council on Bioethics, Public Health: Ethical Issues (London: Nuffield Council on Bioethics, 2007).
(44)Peter A. Ubel and Meredith B. Rosenthal, “Beyond Nudges—When Improving Health Calls for Greater Assertiveness,” New England Journal of Medicine 380, no. 4 (2019): 309–311.
(45)Luc Bovens terms this “token interference transparency.”
(46)Hansen and Jespersen have produced a useful framework that uses this insight to create four categories of nudges, depending on whether they activate the reflective system or not and whether they are transparent or not. Pelle Guldborg Hansen and Andreas Maaløe Jespersen, “Nudge and the Manipulation of Choice: A Framework for the Responsible Use of the Nudge Approach to Behaviour Change in Public Policy,” European Journal of Risk Regulation 4, no. 1 (2013): 3–28.
(47)Keith Hawton, Helen Bergen, Sue Simkin, Sue Dodd, Phil Pocock, William Bernal, David Gunnell and Navneet Kapur, “Long Term Effect of Reduced Pack Sizes of Paracetamol on Poisoning Deaths and Liver Transplant Activity in England and Wales: Interrupted Time Series Analyses,” BMJ 346 (2013): 403.
(48)Keith Hawton, Christopher Ware, Hamant Mistry, Jonathan Hewitt, Stephen Kingsbury, Dave Roberts and Heather Weitzel, “Why Patients Choose Paracetamol for Self Poisoning and their Knowledge of Its Dangers,” BMJ 310, no. 6973 (1995): 164. In this case there was actually evidence regarding strength of intention. Interviews with people who had been admitted with paracetamol overdoses showed that the act was impulsive and based on easy availability.
(49)Cass R. Sunstein, Lucia A. Reisch and Micha Kaiser, “Trusting Nudges? Lessons from an International Survey,” Journal of European Public Policy 26, no. 10 (2019): 1417–1443.
(50)David Tannenbaum, Craig R. Fox and Todd Rogers, “On the Misplaced Politics of Behavioural Policy Interventions,” Nature Human Behaviour 1, no. 7 (2017): 130.
(51)Joe Soss and Sanford F. Schram, “A Public Transformed? Welfare Reform as Policy Feedback,” American Political Science Review 101, no. 1 (2007): 111–127.
(52)Mark Whitehead, Rhys Jones, Rachel Lilley, Jessica Pykett and Rachel Howell, Neuroliberalism: Behavioural Government in the Twenty-First Century (Abingdon: Routledge, 2017).
الفصل السادس: مستقبل الرؤى السلوكية
(1)Michael Sanders, Veerle Snijders and Michael Hallsworth, “Behavioural Science and Policy: Where Are We Now and Where Are We Going?” Behavioural Public Policy 2, no. 2 (2018): 144–167.
(2)Holger Straßheim and Silke Beck, eds., Handbook of Behavioural Change and Public Policy (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2019).
(3)Pelle Guldborg Hansen, “The Definition of Nudge and Libertarian Paternalism: Does the Hand Fit the Glove?” European Journal of Risk Regulation 7, no. 1 (2016): 155–174.
(4)Caitlin Dewey, “Why the British Soda Tax Might Work Better than Any of the Soda Taxes that Came Before It,” Washington Post, March 21, 2018, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2018/03/21/why-the-british-soda-tax-might-work-better-than-any-of-the-soda-taxes-that-came-before-it.
(5)Denis Hummel and Alexander Maedche, “How Effective Is Nudging? A Quantitative Review on the Effect Sizes and Limits of Empirical Nudging Studies,” Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics 80 (2019): 47–58.
(6)Romain Cadario and Pierre Chandon, “Which Healthy Eating Nudges Work Best? A Meta-Analysis of Field Experiments,” Marketing Science (in press).
(7)Avni Shah, Matthew Osborne, Jaclyn Lefkowitz, Alissa Fishbane, and Dilip Soman, “Can Making Family Salient Increase Financial Savings? Quantifying Heterogeneous Treatment Effects in Voluntary Retirement Contributions Using a Field Experiment in Mexico” (September 25, 2019). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3460722 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3460722.
(8)David Yaffe-Bellany, “Would You Like Fries with That? McDonald’s Already Knows the Answer,” New York Times, October 28, 2019, https://www.nytimes.com/2019/10/22/business/mcdonalds-tech-artificial-intelligence-machine-learning-fast-food.html .
(9)Rene van Bavel and François J. Dessart, “The Case for Qualitative Methods in Behavioural Studies for EU Policy-Making,” JRC Science for Policy Report, European Commission, https://ec.europa.eu/jrc/en/publication/eur-scientific-and-technical-research-reports/case-qualitative-methods-behavioural-studies-eu-policy-making (2018).
(10)Rhys Jones, Jessica Pykett and Mark Whitehead, Changing Behaviours: On the Rise of the Psychological State (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2013).
(11)Donald A. Norman, The Psychology of Everyday Things (New York: Basic Books, 1988).
(12)Sara B. Heller, Anuj K. Shah, Jonathan Guryan, Jens Ludwig, Sendhil Mullainathan and Harold A. Pollack, “Thinking, Fast and Slow? Some Field Experiments to Reduce Crime and Dropout in Chicago,” Quarterly Journal of Economics 132, no. 1 (2017): 1–54.
(13)Thaler and Sunstein, Nudge.
(14)Gerd Gigerenzer, “I Think, Therefore I Err,” Social Research: An International Quarterly 72, no. 1 (2005): 195–218.
(15)Mark E. Button, “Bounded Rationality without Bounded Democracy: Nudges, Democratic Citizenship and Pathways for Building Civic Capacity,” Perspectives on Politics 16, no. 4 (2018): 1034–1052.
(16)Cass R. Sunstein and Reid Hastie, Wiser: Getting beyond Groupthink to Make Groups Smarter (Boston: Harvard Business Press, 2015).
(17)Hugo Mercier and Hélene Landemore, “Reasoning Is for Arguing: Understanding the Successes and Failures of Deliberation,” Political Psychology 33, no. 2 (2012): 243–258.
(18)Christian R. Grose, “Field Experimental Work on Political Institutions,” Annual Review of Political Science 17 (2014): 355–370; Brendan Nyhan and Jason Reifler, “The Effect of Fact-Checking on Elites: A Field Experiment on US State Legislators,” American Journal of Political Science 59, no. 3 (2015): 628–640.
(19)Michael Hallsworth, “How Complexity Economics Can Improve Government: Rethinking Policy Actors, Institutions and Structures,” in Complex New World: Translating New Economic Thinking into Public Policy (London: IPPR [Institute for Public Policy Research], 2012), 39–49.
(20)Michael Macy, Sebastian Deri, Alexander Ruch and Natalie Tong, “Opinion Cascades and the Unpredictability of Partisan Polarization,” Science Advances 5, no. 8 (2019): eaax0754.
(21)Matthew J. Salganik, Peter Sheridan Dodds and Duncan J. Watts, “Experimental Study of Inequality and Unpredictability in an Artificial Cultural Market,” Science 311, no. 5762 (2006): 854–856.
(22)Gerlinde Fellner, Rupert Sausgruber and Christian Traxler, “Testing Enforcement Strategies in the Field: Threat, Moral Appeal and Social Information,” Journal of the European Economic Association 11, no. 3 (2013): 634–660.
(23)Francesco Drago, Friederike Mengel and Christian Traxler, “Compliance Behavior in Networks: Evidence from a Field Experiment,” American Economic Journal: Applied Economics (in press).
(24)Paul Ormerod, “Nudge Plus Networks,” RSA Journal 156, no. 5543 (2010): 10–15.
(25)Elisabeth Costa and David Halpern, “The Behavioural Science of Online Harm and Manipulation and What to Do about It” (London: The Behavioural Insights Team, 2019), https://www.bi.team.
(26)Paul K. Presson and Victor A. Benassi, “Illusion of Control: A Meta-Analytic Review,” Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 11, no. 3 (1996): 493.
(27)Mark S. Horswill and Frank P. McKenna, “Drivers’ Hazard Perception Ability: Situation Awareness on the Road,” in A Cognitive Approach to Situation Awareness: Theory and Application, ed. Simon Banbury and Sebastien Tremblay (Farnham: Ashgate, 2004), 155–175.
(28)Joram Feitsma, “Brokering Behaviour Change: The Work of Behavioural Insights Experts in Government,” Policy & Politics 47, no. 1 (2019): 37–56.
(29)Michael Hallsworth, Mark Egan, Jill Rutter and Julian McCrae, Behavioural Government, https://www.bi.team.