قراءات إضافية

مقدمات ودراسات عامة

An older but still valuable introduction to existentialism is Irrational Man: A Study in Existential Philosophy by William Barrett (New York: Anchor Books, 1962, 2nd edn. 1990). Two helpful collections of writings by leading existentialist authors are Existentialism: Basic Writings, ed. Charles Guignon and Derk Pereboom (Indianapolis, IN: Hackett, 1995) and The Existentialist Reader: An Anthology of Key Texts, ed. Paul S. MacDonald (New York: Routledge, 2001). Someone wishing to pursue essays on the basic concepts of existential and phenomenological thought by a variety of authors, as well as existential and phenomenological contributions to a number of topics in current philosophical discussion should consult Hubert L. Dreyfus and Mark A. Wrathall (eds.), A Companion to Existentialism and Phenomenology (Oxford: Blackwell, 2006).
Chapter-length essays on existentialism, phenomenology, and most of the individual philosophers discussed here, along with helpful suggestions for further reading, are available in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, online at http://plato.stanford.edu. Relevant essays on individual philosophers can be found in The Macmillan Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2nd edn. (Farmington Hills, MI: Thomson Gale, 2006); The Routledge History of Philosophy, especially vol. 7, The Nineteenth Century, ed. C. L. Ten, and vol. 8, Continental Philosophy in the 20th Century, ed. Richard Kearney (London: Routledge, 1994); The Edinburgh Encyclopedia of Continental Philosophy, ed. Simon Glendinning (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1999); and A Companion to Continental Philosophy, ed. Simon Critchley and William Schroeder (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998).

الفصل الأول: الفلسفة كأسلوب حياة

Those interested in this topic might consult Pierre Hadot, What is Ancient Philosophy? (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2004), Michel Foucault, Fearless Speech (Los Angeles, CA: Semiotext(e), 2004), and Alexander Nehamas, The Art of Living: Socratic Reflections from Plato to Foucault (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998). Among the many arresting examples of the overlap between existential philosophy and imaginative literature are Fyodor Dostoevsky’s Notes from Underground (New York: Penguin, 2004) and Franz Kafka’s The Trial (New York: Schocken Books, 1998), or its film version by Orson Welles (1963) with Anthony Perkins (DVD). A concise introduction to the thought of Husserl is Robert Sokolowski’s Introduction to Phenomenology (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999).

الفصل الثاني: التحول إلى الفردية

A valuable survey of this topic is Becoming a Self: A Reading of Kierkegaard’s Concluding Unscientific Postscript, by Merold Westphal (West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Press, 1996). Individualizing choice is a theme of Sartre’s play The Flies in No Exit and Three Other Plays (New York: Vintage, 1989). Albert Camus’s The Outsider (London: Penguin, 1970), translated in America as The Stranger, is a classic study of becoming an existentialist individual. Of the many existential themes not treated here, ‘alienation’ is certainly a major one. To fill this gap, consider Richard Schmitt’s Alienation and Freedom (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2003). An excellent biography of Nietzsche is provided by Rüdiger Safranski, Nietzsche: A Philosophical Biography (New York: Norton, 2002).

الفصل الثالث: الفلسفة الإنسانية: ما لها وما عليها

A helpful historical survey is Tony Davies’s Humanism (London: Routledge, 1997). For an introduction to atheistic or naturalist humanism, consider Richard Norman’s On Humanism (London: Routledge, 2004). For a theistic critique, see Henri de Lubac, The Drama of Atheistic Humanism (San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 1995). Two relevant classics are Martin Buber’s I and Thou (New York: Touchstone, 1996) and Paul Tillich’s The Courage to Be (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2000).

الفصل الرابع: الصدق

A valuable overview is Jacob Golomb’s In Search of Authenticity: From Kierkegaard to Camus (London: Routledge, 1995). The Ethics of Authenticity by Charles Taylor (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1991) has rightly become an influential study of this topic by a non-existentialist. Charles Guignon’s On Being Authentic (London: Routledge, 2004) assesses the strengths and weaknesses of this concept in an accessible manner. Two careful studies of this topic in Sartre’s thought are Ronald E. Santoni’s Bad Faith, Good Faith, and Authenticity in Sartre’s Early Philosophy (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1995) and Joseph S. Catalano’s Good Faith and Other Essays: Perspectives on Sartre’s Ethics (Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 1996).

الفصل الخامس: فردية مكبوتة؟ الوجودية والفكر الاجتماعي

De Beauvoir’s autobiography, especially Force of Circumstance, covering 1944–62 (New York: Putnam, 1965), and All Said and Done, covering 1962–72 (New York: Putnam, 1974), provides a first-hand account of those years of the existentialist movement. William McBride, Sartre’s Political Theory (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1991) offers a thorough analysis of Sartre’s political thought throughout his life. Thomas R. Flynn, Sartre and Marxist Existentialism: The Test Case of Collective Responsibility (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984) analyses Sartre’s social ontology. Many of Merleau-Ponty’s political essays are reprinted in Sense and Non-Sense and in Signs (Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 1964, both texts). Daniel Conway argues for the political significance of Nietzsche’s thought in Nietzsche and the Political (New York: Routledge, 1996). Similarly, see Tracy B. Strong, Friedrich Nietzsche and the Politics of Transfiguration (Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2000).

الفصل السادس: الوجودية في القرن الحادي والعشرين

A rich and useful study is Kierkegaard in Post/Modernity, ed. Martin J. Matuštík and Merold Westphal (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1995). The Cambridge Companion to Nietzsche, ed. Bernd Magnus and Kathleen Higgins (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996) contains several relevant essays. The collection Questioning Ethics: Contemporary Debates in Continental Philosophy, ed. Richard Kearney and Mark Dooley (London: Routledge, 1999) brings existentialist concepts and authors into the recent discussion either explicitly or by implication. Gary Gutting, Foucault: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005) introduces Sartre into the discussion, as does Thomas R. Flynn, Sartre, Foucault and Historical Reason, 2 vols (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997 and 2005).

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