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our behaviour by one of the leading behavioural
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reward centre in the brain is correlated with purchases even on a
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the role of consumer goals for segmentation, new product development and
marketing in general.
Cialdini, R.B. (2006). Influence:
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bestselling book by American social psychologist and consultant Robert
Cialdini shows how the autopilot is noticeable in everyday
Coulter, Keith S., and Patricia Norberg, (2009) The effects
of physical distance between regular and sale prices on numeric
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minor revisions) September 1, 2008.
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self-generated stimuli. Social Cognitive and
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that provides evidence that the frontal lobe assesses not only real
products but also mental concepts for their relevance. Also confirms the
finding that the brain uses a common currency, that of ‘wanting to
Custers, R. and Aarts, H. (2010). The unconscious will: how
the pursuit of goals operates outside of conscious awareness. Science, 329, 47–50. Accounts of various
experiments that show behaviour is regulated by implicit
de Araujo, I.E., Rolls, E.T., Velazco, M.I., Margot, C. and
Cayeux, I. (2005). Cognitive modulation of olfactory processing.
Neuron, 46 (4), 671–679. Verbal
labels change the subjective pleasantness and neuronal activation of
De Martino, B. et al.
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Journal of Neuroscience, 29 (12),
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Degonda, N., Mondadori, C.R.A., Bosshardt, S., Schmidt,
C.F., Boesiger, P., Nitsch, R., Hock, C. and Henke Westerholt, K.
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interactions with explicit associative learning. Neuron, 46, S. 505–520. Article defining the foundation
of cultural implicit learning processes in the hippocampus and their
influence on conscious learning.
Deppe, M., Schwindt, W., Krämer, J., Kugel, H., Plassmann,
H., Kenning, P. and Ringelstein, E.B. (2005). Evidence for a neural
correlate of a framing effect: bias-specific activity in the
ventromedial prefrontal cortex during credibility judgments. Brain Research Bulletin, 67, S. 413–421.
Focuses on the framing effect for media brands at the neuronal
Dijksterhuis, A. and Arts, H. (2010). Goals, attention, and
(un)consciousness. Annual Review of
Psychology, 61, 467–490. Very good insight and overview
of the finding that our goals are implicitly regulated and that
attention and consciousness in the brain are two separate
Dijksterhuis, A., Maarten, W.B., Nordgren, L.F. and van
Baaren, R.B. (2006). On making the right choice: the
deliberation-without-attention-effect. Science, 311, S. 1005. Shows that (and how) thinking
often results in worse decisions compared with intuitive, ‘autopilot’
decisions—even in complex decisions.
Duhigg, C. (2012). The Power of
Habit: Why We Do What We Do in Life and Business. New
York: Random House. Excellent introduction to the power of
Earls, M. (2007). Herd?—How to
Change Mass Behaviour by Harnessing Our True Nature. West
Sussex: John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Former planner Mark Earls received
an award for his article in which he attacks the individualistic view of
marketing and stresses the social nature of man. This book, a great
read, arose from that article.
Elder, R.S. and Krishna, A. (2011). The ‘visual depiction
effect’ in advertising: facilitating embodied mental simulation through
product orientation. Journal of Consumer
Research, 38, 1–17. The way products are shown in ads
greatly influences persuasion through embodied mental
Ferguson, M.J. and Porter, S.C. (2010). What is implicit
about goal pursuit? B. Gawronski and K. Payne (Eds.), Handbook of
Implicit Social Cognition. Guilford Press.
Fitzsimons, G., Hutchinson, J.W. and Williams, P. (2002).
Non-conscious influences on consumer choice. Marketing Letters, 13, S. 269–279. Excellent
introduction and overview on implicit influences on consumer purchase
Franzen, G. and Bouwman, M. (2001). The Mental World of Brands. Trowbridge: Cromwell Press.
A thorough introduction to the world of brands in neural
Gallese, V. and Lakoff, G. (2005). The brain’s concepts:
The role of the sensorymotor system in conceptual knowledge. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 22 (3/4)
455–479. A linguist and a neuroscientist, both top experts in their
fields, put together the relevant findings from ‘embodied cognition’ to
explain how the body structures our mental world.
GfK (Gesellschaft für Konsumforschung) (2007). Typology of
watch purchases. Report by GfK (in German).
Gigerenzer, G. (2008). Gut
Feelings: The Intelligence of the Unconscious. London and
New York: Penguin Books. Excellent overview on how intuition works and
helps in decision making.
Gigerenzer, G., Todd P.M. and ABC Research Group (2000).
Simple Heuristics That Make Us
Smart. New York: Oxford University Press. Provides a deep
dive into the world of heuristics.
Gosling, S.D., Ko, S.J., Mannarelli, T. and Morris, M.E.
(2002). A room with a cue: judgments of personality based on offices and
bedrooms. Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology, 82, 379–398. Our autopilot easily decodes the
personalities of people simply from pictures of their
Graves, P. (2011). Consumer-ology:
The Market Research Myth, the Truth about Consumers and the
Psychology of Shopping. Boston and London: Nicholas
Brealey. Illustrates the implications for market research of the
implicit decision making level.
Hanks, A.S., Just, D.R., Smith, L.E. and Wansink, B.
(2012). Healthy convenience: nudging students toward healthier choices
in the lunchroom, Journal of Public
Health, 34 (3) 370–376. Describes the canteen experiment
(at the beginning of Chapter 4) and shows how changes to the decision
interface influence decision making.
Hare T.A. et al. (2008).
Dissociating the role of the orbitofrontal cortex and the striatum in
the computation of goal values and prediction. Journal of Neuroscience, 28, 5623–5630. Shows the
frontal lobe’s neural basis for the assessment of target value (goal
value) and its importance in making decisions.
Harrell PT, and Juliano LM (2009). Caffeine expectancies
influence the subjective and behavioral effects of caffeine.
Heath, R. (2012). Seducing the
Subconscious: The Psychology of Emotional Influence in
Advertising. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell. Provides an
in-depth overview of implicit advertising effects, including implicit
learning and peripheral perception.
Helbig, H. et al.
(2010). Action observation can prime visual object recognition.
Experimental Brain Research, 200,
251–258. Shows how gestures help in the identification of
Irmak, C. et al. (2005).
The placebo effect in marketing: sometimes you just have to want it to
work. Journal of Marketing Research,
42, 406–409. Shows the placebo effect of an energy drink in increasing
Isanski, B. and West, C. (2010). The body of knowledge.
Understanding embodied cognition. Observer, 23 (1). Very good and clear summary of the
current knowledge on ‘embodied cognition’ from the journal Observer of
the Association for Psychological Science.
Kahneman, D. and Frederick, S. (2002). Representativeness
revisited: Attribute substitution in intuitive judgment. In: Gilovich,
T., Griffin, D. and Kahneman, D. (eds.) Heuristics and Biases: The Psychology of Intuitive
Judgment. New York: Cambridge University Press. S. 67–83.
Classic paper by Daniel Kahneman showing how (product) attributes are
being used in intuitive decision making.
Kaufman, S.B. et al.
(2010). Implicit learning as an ability. Cognition, 116 (3) 321–340. Shows how the brain learns,
through implicit learning of environmental statistics, and how this
implicit learning corresponds with intelligence.
Knutson, B., Rick, S., Wimmer, E., Prelec, D. and
Loewenstein, G. (2007). Neural predictors of purchases. Neuron, 53, 147–156. Shows that the reward
system is activated when viewing products and brands whereas, in
contrast, price activates the pain centre.
Levin, I.P., Schreiber, J., Lauriola, M. and Gaeth, G.J.
(2002). A tale of two pizzas: building up from a basic product versus
scaling down from a fully-loaded product. Marketing Letters, 13 (4),
Li, W., Luxenberg, E., Parrish, T., and Gottfried, J.A.
(2006). Learning to smell the roses: experience-dependent neural
plasticity in human piriform and orbitofrontal cortices. Neuron 52:
Martin, A. (2007). The representation of object concepts in
the brain. Annual Review of
Psychology, 58, 25–45. Very well-founded overview of how
the brain organizes mental concepts.
Martin, N. (2008). Habit: The 95
Per Cent of Behavior Marketers Ignore. New Jersey: FT
Press. Overview of the power of habits and how to use them to good
effect in marketing.
McClure, S.M., Li, J., Tomlin, D., Cypert, K.S., Montague,
L.M. and Montague, P.R. (2004). Neural correlates of behavioral
preference for culturally familiar drinks. Neuron, 44, S. 379–387. Classic neuro-economic study
replicating the blind test of Coca-Cola vs. Pepsi in the brain
Meyers-Levy, J. and Maheswaran, D. (1990). Message framing
effects on product judgments. Advances in Consumer Research, 17,
Moerman, D. (2009). Meaning,
Medicine, and the ‘Placebo Effect’. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press. This highly recommended book demonstrates, clearly and
concisely, the subtle and powerful effects of codes in medicine,
including the placebo effect of aspirin
Morwitz, V.G., Steckel, J. and Gupta, A. (2007). When do
purchase intentions predict sales? International
Journal of Forecasting, 23 (3),
Novemsky, N. et al.
(2007). The effect of preference fluency on consumer decision making.
Journal of Marketing Research,
19, 347–356. The authors show that the legibility of a font affects the
Nunes, J.C. and Drèze, X. (2006). The endowed progress
effect: how artificial advancement increases effort. Journal of Consumer Research, 32, 504–512.
Investigates the effect that we are much more likely to complete a
process if that process has already been started (the car wash example
in Chapter 4).
Pieters, R. and Wedel, M. (2012). Ad gist: ad communication
in a single eye fixation. Marketing
Science, 59–73. Shows that in some ads, brand and product
can be recognized in as little as 100 milliseconds—even when the ad is
Plassmann, H. et al. (2007). Orbitofrontal cortex encodes
willingness to pay in everyday economic transactions. Journal of Neuroscience, 27 (37),
9984–9988. Neuroscientific experiments, showing that the willingness to
pay is regulated in the frontal lobe.
Plassmann, H., O’ Doherty, J., Shiv, B. and Rangel, A.
(2008). Marketing actions can modulate neural representations of
experienced pleasantness. Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences (USA), 105 (3), 1050–1054. Shows that prices influence neuronal
activation of the reward centre, for example the same wine triggers
higher activation when framed with a higher
Quiroga, Q.R., Reddy, L., Kreiman, G., Koch, C. and Fried,
I. (2005). Invariant visual representation by single neurons in the
human brain. Nature, 435, S.
1102–1107. Shows that (and how) the brain decodes meaning (in this case
Halle Berry) irrespective of how it is presented (written form, visual,
Raghubir, P. and Krishna, A. (1999). Vital dimensions in
volume perception: can the eye fool the stomach? Journal of Marketing Research, 26 (3), 313–326.
Investigates the fact that consumers judge volume based on the
elongation of a package.
Rajagopal, R., Walker, R. and Hoyer, W. (2006). The
‘unhealthy = tasty’ intuition and its effects on taste inferences,
enjoyment, and choice of food products, Journal
of Marketing, 70 (4), 170–184. Uses an implicit
measurement technique to show that people employ an implicit rule
‘unhealthy = tasty’ and that this is widely reD ected in their
Rolls, E.T. (2006). Emotions
Explained. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Edmund T.
Rolls is one of the leading neuroscientists and his speciality is the
reward system in the brain, especially the orbitofrontal cortex. The
book is aimed at those with a scientific interest and gives a thorough
and comprehensive overview of what drives us: the pursuit of
Romaniuk, J. and Sharp, Byron. (2004). Conceptualizing and
measuring brand salience. Marketing Theory, vol. 4, no. 4, pp.
Schaefer, M. and Rotte, M. (2007). Favourite brands as
cultural objects modulate reward circuit. Neuroreport, 18 (2), 141–145. These experiments show
that brands activate the reward centre in the brain, and how they do
Schnall, S., Benton, J. and Harvey, S. (2008). With a clean
conscience: cleanliness reduces the severity of moral judgments.
Psychological Science, 19,
1219–1222. Shows the interaction between physical and moral
Seymour, B. and McClure, S.M. (2008). Anchors, scales and
the relative coding of value in the brain. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 18, 1–6. Discusses the
relativity of value from a neuroscience
Shapiro, S. (1999). When an ad’s influence is beyond our
conscious control: perceptual and conceptual D uency effects caused by
incidental ad exposure, Journal of Consumer
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influence decisions even when processed by the
Song, H. and Schwarz, N. (2008). If it’s hard to read, it’s
hard to do. Processing D uency affects effort prediction and motivation.
Psychological Science, 19,
986–988. Shows the effect of typography on
Stoll, M., Baecke, S. and Kenning, P. (2008). What they see
is what they get? An fMRI-Study on neural correlates of attractive
packaging. Journal of Consumer
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the neural effects of attractive packaging.
Strahan, E.J., Spencer, S.J. and Zanna, M.P. (2002).
Subliminal priming and persuasion: striking while the iron is hot.
Journal of Experimental Social
Psychology, 38, S. 556–568. Shows that subliminal priming
works if, and only if, there is a goal activated in the consumer mind
that matches the subliminal stimulation.
Sutherland, R. (2011). The Wiki
Man. London: Ogilvy Digital Labs. An introduction to the
thinking and ideas of one of the leading marketing A gures. Includes a
liberal dose of behavioural economics insights.
Tanner, R.J. and Maeng, A. (in press). A tiger and a
president: imperceptible celebrity facial cues influence trust and
preference. Journal of Consumer
Research, December. Shows the subtle yet powerful
influence of faces in advertising.
Todorovic, A., van Ede, F., Maris, E. and de Lange, F.P.
(2011). Prior expectation mediates neural adaptation to repeated sounds
in the auditory cortex: an MEG study. Journal of
Neuroscience, 31, 9118–9123.
Tusche, A., Bode, S. and Haynes, J.D. (2010). Neural
responses to unattended products predict later consumer choices.
Journal of Neuroscience, 30 (23),
8024–8031. Consumer choices could be predicted equally well in a
low-attention group as they can in a high-attention group. This suggests
that neural evaluation of products and associated choice-related
processing does not necessarily depend on attentional processing of
available stimuli. Overall, the present findings emphasize the potential
of implicit, automatic processes in guiding even important and complex
Van Rompay, T.J.L., Pruyn, A.T.H. and Tieke, P. (2009).
Symbolic meaning integration in design and its influence on product and
brand evaluation. International Journal of
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Vogt, J., De Houwer, J., Moors, A., Van Damme, S. and
Crombez, G. (2010). The automatic orienting of attention to
goal-relevant stimuli. Acta
Psychologica, 134 (1), 61–69. Shows that attention is
based on goal-relevance, and how.
Wansink, B. (2006). Mindless
Eating: Why We Eat More Than We Think. New York:
Bantam-Dell. Brilliant overview of the influence of implicit processing
on the consumption of food by one of the leading researchers in this
Wansink, B., van Itterrsum, K. and Painter, J.M. (2005).
How descriptive food names bias sensory perceptions in restaurants.
Food Quality and Preference, 16
(5), 393–400. Shows how verbal labels can frame and influence the
perceived quality of food.
Wedel, M. and Pieters, R. (2007). Goal control of attention
to advertising: the Yarbus implication. Journal
of Consumer Research, 34, 224–233. Highly recommended
article that shows the influence of goals on the processing of
Williams, L.E. and Bargh, J.A. (2008). Experiencing
physical warmth promotes interpersonal warmth. Science, 322, 606-607. Shows the effect of temperature
on mental concepts.
Yang, S., Kimes, S.E. and Sessarego, S.S. (2009) Menu price
presentation influences on consumer purchase behavior in restaurants.
International Journal of Hospitality Management, 28 (1),
Yarbus, Alfred L. (1967), Eye Movements and Vision, New
York: Plenum Press.
Yoon, C. et al. (2006).
A functional magnetic resonance imaging study of neural dissociations
between brand and person judgments. Journal of
Consumer Research, 33, 31–40. Shows, in a neuroscience
experiment, that, in the brain, brands are not seen as people but as
Zhong, C.B. and Leonardelli, G.J. (2008). Cold and lonely:
does social exclusion literally feel cold? Psychological Science, 19, 838–842. The experiment, from
Chapter 5, showing the link between social exclusion and the consequent
desire for a hot soup or hot coffee.