ملحق: مراجع وقراءات إضافية

(١) أرشميدس: صاحب أقدم اكتشاف عَرَضي

  • “Archimedes.” Encyclopaedia Britannica. IX Edition. 1878. Vol. 2.
  • “Archimedes.” Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1962. Vol. 2.

(٢) كولومبوس: اكتشاف عالم جديد

  • “Columbus, Christopher.” Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1962. Vol. 6.
  • Judge, Joseph and J. L. Stanfield; Luis Marden; Eugene Lyon. “Columbus and the New World.” National Geographic, November 1986.

(٣) مريضٌ هندي يكتشف الكينين

  • Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1962. See “Cinchona” (Vol. 5) and “Quinine” (Vol. 18).
  • Accidental Scientific Discoveries. Chicago: Schaar and Co., 1955. P. 45.
  • Lednicer, Daniel, and Lester A. Mitscher. The Organic Chemistry of Drug Synthesis. Vol. 1. New York: Wiley-lnterscience, P. 337.
  • Silverman, M. Magic in a Bottle. New York: Macmillan, 1941. Chapter 2.

(٤) السير إسحاق نيوتن: قصة التفاحة وقانون الجاذبية

  • Andrade, E. N. da C. “Newton.” In Newton Tercentenary Celebrations. The Royal Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1947.
  • Andrade, E. N. da C. Isaac Newton. London: Max Parrish, 1950.
  • Anthony, H. D. Sir Isaac Newton. London: Abelard-Schuman, 1960.
  • Brewster, Sir David. Memoirs of the Life, Writings, and Discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton. Vols. I and II. Edinburgh: Edmonston and Douglas, 1850.
  • Cajori, Florian. “Newton’s Twenty Years’ Delay in Announcing the Law of Gravitation.” In Sir Isaac Newton, 1727–1927, A Bicentenary Evaluation of His Work. The History of Science Society. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1928.
  • de Villamil, R. Newton: The Man. London: Gordon D. Knox, 1931.
  • More, L. T. Isaac Newton: A Biography. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1934.
  • Stukeley, William. Memoirs of Sir Isaac Newton’s Life. 1752. Reprint. London: Taylor and Francis, 1936.
  • Sullivan, J. W. N. Isaac Newton, 1642–1727. New York: Macmillan, 1938.

(٥) البطارية الكهربائية والكهرومغناطيسية: اكتشافان من ملاحظة رِجْل ضفدعة وبوصلة

  • Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1962. See “Battery” (Vol. 3), “Electromagnet” (Vol. 8), and “Oersted” (Vol. 16).
  • Bailar, John C., et al. Electrochemistry. New York: Academic Press, 1978. Chapter 24.
  • Shamos, M. H., ed. Great Experiments in Physics. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1959. Chapter 9.
  • Shapiro, Gilbert. A Skeleton in the Darkroom. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1986. Chapter 2.

(٦) التطعيم: إدوارد جينر وحالِبة اللبن ومرض الجُدري

  • “Jenner, Edward.” Encyclopaedia Britannica. IX Edition. 1878. Vol. 13.
  • “Jenner, Edward.” Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1962. Vol. 12.
  • Compere, E. L. “Research, Serendipity, and Orthopedic Surgery.” Journal of the American Medical Association (21 December, 1957): P. 2070.
  • Clark, W. R. The Experimental Foundations of Modem Immunology. 3d ed. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1986. Pp. 4–7.

(٧) اكتشاف العناصر الكيميائية

  • Accidental Scientific Discoveries. Chicago: Schaar and Co., 1955. This book offers articles on oxygen, iodine, and helium.
  • “Chemistry.” Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1962. Vol. 5. A discussion of the phlogiston theory is given here in connection with the work of Priestley and Scheele. See also “Helium” (Vol. 11) and “Airship” (Vol. 1).

الأكسجين

  • Farber, E., ed. Great Chemists. New York: Interscience, 1961. This book offers articles on Joseph Priestley, Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Joseph Louis GayLussac, and Humphry Davy.
  • Moore, F. J. A History of Chemistry. 1st ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Co., 1918.
  • Priestley, Joseph. Experiments and Observations on Different Kinds of Air. Reprint No. 7. London: Alembic Club. This reprint gives the portions directly related to the discovery of oxygen.
  • Rhees, David J. “A Catalogue to an Exhibit Celebrating the 250th Birthday of Joseph Priestley and the Inauguration of the Center for History of Chemistry. Philadelphia: The Center for the History of Chemistry, 1983.

(٨) استخدام أكسيد النيتروز والإيثر في التخدير

  • Accidental Scientific Discoveries. Chicago: Schaar and Co., 1955. P. 17.
  • Farber, E., ed. Great Chemists. New York: Interscience, 1961.
  • Moore, F. J. A History of Chemistry. 1st ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Co., 1918.
  • Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1962. See “Anesthesia and Anesthetics” (Vol. 1) and “Davy, Sir Humphry” (Vol. 7).

(٩) تصنيع فولر لليوريا وبداية عصر الكيمياء العضوية

  • “Wöhler, Friedrich.” Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1962. Vol. 23.
  • Farber, E., ed. Great Chemists. New York: Interscience, 1961. P. 507.
  • Moore, F. J. A History of Chemistry. 1st ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Co., 1918. Chapter 12.
  • Williams, T. I., ed. A Biographical Dictionary of Scientists. 3d ed. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1982. P. 566.
  • Wheland, G. W. Advanced Organic Chemistry. 2d ed. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1949. P. 2.
  • Jaffe, Bernard. Crucibles: The Story of Chemistry. Premier Reprint. Greenwich, Conn.: Fawcett Publications, Inc., 1957.

(١٠) داجير واختراع التصوير الفوتوغرافي

  • Gernsheim, Helmut and Alison Gernsheim. The History of Photography. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1969. Chapter 6.
  • “Photography.” Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1962. Vol. 17.
  • Schaaf, Larry J. “Nineteenth Century Photographic Processes.” Report to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Texas at Austin (August 1973). Chapters 2 and 3. Includes a definitive description of the daguerreotype.

(١١) المطاط الطبيعي والصناعي

تصليد المطاط

  • Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1962. See “Rubber” (Vol. 19) and “Goodyear, Charles” (Vol. 10).
  • Halacy, D. S., Jr. Science and Serendipity. Philadelphia: Macrae Smith Co., 1967.
  • Garrett, A. B. The Flash of Genius. Princeton, N.J.: D. Van Nostrand Co., 1963.
  • Peirce, B. K. Trials of an Inventor, life and Discoveries of Charles Goodyear.
  • New York: Carlton and Porter, 1866. P. 106.

المطاط الصناعي

  • Berenbaum, M. B. Encyclopedia of Polymer Science and Technology. Vol. 11. New York: Wiley-lnterscience, 1969. Pp. 425–447.
  • Gaylord, N. G., ed. Polyethers. New York: Wiley-Interscience, 1962. Chapter 13.
  • Marvel, C. S. “The Development of Polymer Chemistry in America—The Early Days.” Journal of Chemical Education 58 (July 1981): 535.

(١٢) باستير: جزيئات الجانب الأيسر والجانب الأيمن لملح حمض الطرطير

  • Kauffman, G. B., and R. D. Myers. “The Resolution of Racemic Acid.” Journal of Chemical Education 52 (December 1975): 777.
  • “Pasteur, Louis.” Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1962. Vol. 17.
  • Moore, F. J. A History of Chemistry. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1918. P. 204ff.
  • Vallery-Radot, Rene. The Life of Pasteur. Translated from French by Mrs. R. L. Devonshire. 2 vols. New York: McClure, Phillips and Co., 1902.

(١٣) الصبغات ومواد التلوين

  • Harrow, B. Eminent Chemists of Our Time. 2d ed. New York: D. Van Nostrand Co., 1927. Pp. 1, 241.
  • Accidental Scientific Discoveries. Chicago: Schaar and Co., 1955. P. 7.
  • Perkin, W. H. Hofmann Memorial Lecture, Memorial Lectures delivered before the Chemical Society, 1893–1900. London: Gurney and Jackson, 1901.
  • Crowther, J. G. British Scientists of the Nineteenth Century. London: Pelican Books; Penguin Books, 1940-1941. P. 375.
  • Levinstein, H. Chemistry and Industry 16 (1938): 1137.
  • Cronshaw, C. J. T. Endeavour 1 (1936): 79.

(١٤) كيكوليه: الأحلام واكتشاف التركيب الجزيئي للبنزين

  • Accidental Scientific Discoveries. Chicago: Schaar and Co., 1955. P. 10.
  • “Kekule.” Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1962. Vol. 13.
  • Benfey, O. T. Journal of Chemical Education 35 (January 1958): 21.
  • Chemical and Engineering News (November 4, 1985): 22; (January 20, 1986): 3.
  • Weiss, U. and R. A. Brown. Journal of Chemical Education 64 (September 1987): 770.
  • Cannon, W. B. The Way of an Investigator. New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1945. Chapter 5.

(١٥) نوبل: الإنسان والاكتشافات والجوائز

  • “Nobel, Alfred Bernhard.” Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1962. Vol. 16.
  • Bergengren, Erik. Alfred Nobel, The Man and His Work. 1st English ed. London: Thos. Nelson and Sons, Ltd., 1962.
  • Henriksson, F. The Nobel Prizes and Their Founder, Alfred Nobel. Stockholm: Alb. Bonniers, 1938.
  • Nobel Foundation, ed. Nobel, The Man and His Prizes. Amsterdam: Elsevier Publishing Co., 1962.
  • Halasz, N. Nobel: A Biography of Alfred Nobel. New York: Orion Press, 1959.
  • Sohlman, R. and H. Schuck. Nobel, Dynamite and Peace. New York: Cosmopolitan Book Corp., 1929.
  • Pauli, H. E. Alfred Nobel, Dynamite King—Architect of Peace. New York: L. B. Fischer, 1942.

(١٦) السيلولويد والرايون: العاج الصناعي والحرير الصناعي

  • “Celluloid.” Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1962. Vol. 5.
  • Accidental Scientific Discoveries. Chicago: Schaar and Co., 1955. P. 43.

(١٧) فريدل وكرافتس: ظهور كيمياء صناعية جديدة

  • Olah, G. A., and R. A. Dear. Friedel-Crafts and Related Reactions, edited by G. A. Olah. Vol. 1. New York: Interscience Publishers, 1963.
  • Roberts, R. M., and A. A. Khalaf. Friedel-Crafts Alkylation Chemistry. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc., 1984.

(١٨) أهم الاكتشافات الأَثرية العَرَضية

  • Fagan, Brian M. The Adventure of Archaeology. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society, 1985.

عمليات حفرٍ تقود إلى نتائج غير متوقَّعة

  • Hao, Q., C. Heyi, and R. Suichu. Out of China’s Earth. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., and Beijing: China Pictorial, 1981. P. 65.
  • “Neanderthal Man.” Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1962. Vol. 16.
  • Weaver, Kenneth F. “The Search for Our Ancestors.” National Geographic (November 1985).
  • Austin American-Statesman (8, 9, 11 January 1985; 14 August 1987; 31 January 1988).
  • Washington Post (January 13, 1985).

أشياء اكتُشِفت بمحض المصادفة

  • “Rosetta Stone.” Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1962. Vol. 19.
  • Andrews, Carol. The British Museum Book of the Rosetta Stone. New York: Peter Bedrick Books, 1985.
  • Cottrell, Leonard, ed. The Concise Encyclopaedia of Archaeology. 2d ed. New York: Hawthorn Books, Inc., 1971. Pp. 323, 324.

الطبيعة ودورها في الاكتشافات الأَثرية العَرَضية

  • Weaver, Kenneth F. “The Search for Our Ancestors.” National Geographic (November 1985).

الأولاد والكهوف

  • Tushingham, A. Douglas. “The Men Who Hid the Dead Sea Scrolls.” National Geographic (December 1958).

غوَّاصو الإسفنج

  • Bass, George F. “Oldest Known Shipwreck Reveals Splendors of the Bronze Age.” National Geographic (December 1987).
  • Katzev, Michael L. “Resurrecting the Oldest Known Greek Ship.” National Geographic (June 1970).
  • Throckmorton, Peter. “Oldest Known Shipwreck Yields Bronze Age Cargo.” National Geographic (May 1962).
  • ———. “Thirty-three Centuries Under the Sea.” National Geographic (May 1960).
  • Weaver, Kenneth F. “The Search for Our Ancestors.” National Geographic (November 1985).

(١٩) اكتشافاتٌ فلكية وليدة المصادفة

  • Hannan, Patrick J., Rustum Roy, and John F. Christman. “Serendipity in Chemistry, Astronomy, Defense, and Other Useless Fields.” Chemtech (July 1988): 402. Several other serendipitous discoveries, including others in astronomy, are described.
  • Shipman, Harry L. Black Holes, Quasars, and the Universe. 2d ed., Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1980. P. 51ff.
  • Trefil, James S. The Moment of Creation. New York: Collier Books, Mac-millan Publishing Co., 1983. Chapter 1.

(٢٠) اكتشافاتٌ طبية وليدة المصادفة

الأنسولين

  • Cannon, Walter B. The Way of an Investigator. New York: W. W. Norton & Co., Inc., 1945. P. 72.
  • Sourkes, T. L. Nobel Prize Winners in Medicine and Physiology. London: Abelard-Schuman, 19. P. 111.
  • Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1962. See “Diabetes Mellitus” (Vol. 7); “Insulin” (Vol. 12); “Mering, Baron Joseph von” (Vol. 15), and “Minkowski, Oskar” (Vol. 15).

الحساسية وفرط الحساسية والأدوية المضادة للهيستامين

  • Sourkes, T. L. Nobel Prize Winners in Medicine and Physiology. London: Abelard-Schuman, 19. P. 79.
  • Cannon, Walter B. The Way of an Investigator. New York: W. W. Norton & Co., Inc., 1945. Pp. 71, 179.
  • Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1962. See “Allergy and Anaphylaxis” (Vol. 1); “Immunity” (Vol. 12); and “Richet, Charles Robert” (Vol. 19).

الخردل النيتروجيني والعلاج الكيميائي للسرطان

  • Rhoads, C. P. Journal of Mt. Sinai Hospital, N. Y. 13 (1947): 299.

حبوب منع الحَمْل

  • Djerassi, Carl. “The Making of the Pill.” Science 84. P. 127.
  • Russell E. Marker, personal communication, April 1988. Center for the History of Chemistry News Letter, Philadelphia (June 1987): 3.

ثنائي إثيلاميد حمض الليسرجيك

  • Cohen, Sidney. The Beyond Within: The LSD Story. New York: Atheneum, 1970. Chapters 1 and 9.
  • Hofmann, Albert. “The Discovery and Subsequent Investigation on Naturally Occurring Hallucinogens.” In “Discoveries in Biological Psychiatry”, edited by F. J. Ayd, Jr. and B. Blackwell. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1970.

اختبار مسحة بَاب

  • Classics in Oncology 23 (May/June 1973).
  • Cameron, Charles S. “Dedication of the Papanicolaou Cancer Research Institute.” Journal of the American Medical Association 182 (3 November 1962): 556.
  • Stenkvist, B., R. Bergstrom, G. Eklund, and C. H. Fox. “Papanicolaou Smear Screening and Cervical Cancer, What Can You Expect? Journal of the American Medical Association 252 (21 September 1984): 1423.
  • “Death of ‘Dr. Pap’.” Medical World News 2 (1962): 46.17.

الضوء والصفرة عند حديثي الولادة

  • Fincher, Jack. “Notice: Sunlight may be necessary for your health.”
  • Smithsonian (June 1985): 71.

مُستقبِلات الكوليسترول

  • Banta, Bob. Austin American-Statesman (27 October 1985).
  • Brown, Michael S., and Joseph L. Goldstein. Science 232 (4 April 1986): 34.
  • Curtis, Gregory. Texas Monthly (December 1985).
  • Kolata, Gina. Science 221 (16 September 1983): 1164.

(٢١) أشعة إكس والنشاط الإشعاعي والانشطار النووي

اكتشاف أشعة إكس على يد رونتجن

  • Accidental Scientific Discoveries. Chicago: Schaar and Co., 1955. P. 57.
  • Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1962. See “Röntgen, Wilhelm Conrad” (Vol. 19) and “X Rays” (Vol. 23).
  • Garrett, A. B. The Flash of Genius. Princeton, N.J.: D. Van Nostrand Co., Inc., 1963. P. 57.
  • Moore, F. J. A History of Chemistry. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1918. P. 252.
  • Nobel Foundation, ed. Nobel, The Man and His Prizes. Amsterdam: Elsevier Publishing Co., 1962. Pp. 446–448.
  • Shapiro, Gilbert. A Skeleton in the Darkroom. San Francisco: Harper and Row, 1986.

اكتشاف النشاط الإشعاعي على يد بيكريل

  • Accidental Scientific Discoveries. Chicago: Schaar and Co., 1955. P. 47.
  • “Becquerel.” Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1962. Vol. 3.
  • Wolke, Robert L. “Marie Curie’s Doctoral Thesis.” Journal of Chemical Education 65 (1988): 561.

النشاط الإشعاعي الصناعي والانشطار النووي

  • Lightman, Alan P. “To Cleave an Atom.” Science 84: 103.
  • “Bohr, Niels.” Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1962. Vol. 3.

(٢٢) بدائل السكر: مذاق السكر الحلو ولكن بسعرات حرارية أقل

  • Fieser, L. F. and M. Advanced Organic Chemistry. New York: Reinhold Publishing Co., 1961. P. 701.
  • Abstracts, Journal of the Chemical Society (1879): 628. A brief summary in English of the original article in the German journal (see the next reference).
  • Fahlberg, C., und I. Remsen. “Ueber die Oxydation des Orthotoluolsulfamids.” Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft 12 (1879): 469. This is the first publication that mentions the sweet taste of saccharin.
  • Journal of the Chemical Society (1927): 3186. Obituary notice for Ira Remsen.
  • O’Brien, L., and R. C. Gelardi. “Artificial Sweeteners.” Chemtech (May 1981): 274.
  • Bakal, A. I. “Functionality of Combined Sweeteners in Several Food Applications.” Chemistry and Industry (19 September 1983): 700.
  • Kirk-Othmer, ed. Concise Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1985. P. 1147.

(٢٣) زجاج الأمان

  • “Glass.” Encyclopaedia Britannica. IX Edition. 1878. Vol. 10.
  • “Glass.” Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1962. Vol. 10.
  • Boyd, David C., and David A. Thompson. “Glass.” Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. Vol. 11. 3d ed. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1982.
  • Lavin, Edward, and James A, Snelgrove. “Vinyl Polymers.” Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. Vol. 23. 3d ed. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1982.
  • Sowers, Robert M. “Laminated Materials, Glass.” Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. Vol. 13. 3d ed. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1982.
  • Wilson, J. “Safety Glass: Its History, Manufacture, Testing, and Development. Journal of the Society of Glass Technology 16 (1932): 67.
  • “Face-Saving Windshields.” DuPont Magazine (September-October 1986): 20.

(٢٤) المضادات الحيوية: البِنسلين وأدوية السَّلْفا والماجانينات

البِنسلين: فليمنج وفلوري وتشين

  • Ludovici, J. Nobel Prize Winners. London: Arco Publishers Ltd., 1957. P. 165.
  • Kauffman, G. B. “Maize, Melon and Mould—Keys to Penicillin Production.” Education in Chemistry 17 (1980): 180.
  • Abraham, E. P. “Introduction.” In Chemistry and Biology of ß-Lactam Antibiotics, edited by R. B. Morin and M. Gorman. Vol. 1. New York: Academic Press, 1982.
  • Sourkes, T. L. Nobel Prize Winners in Medicine and Physiology. London: Abelard-Schuman, 1966. P. 235.
  • Garrett, A. B. The Flash of Genius. Princeton, NJ: D. Van Nostrand Co., Inc., 1963. P. 31.
  • Halacy, D. S. Jr. Science and Serendipity. Philadelphia: Macrae Smith Co., 1967. P. 31.
  • Fieser, L. F. and M. Topics in Organic Chemistry. New York: Reinhold Publishing Corp., 1963. Pp. 309, 313ff.
  • Accidental Scientific Discoveries. Chicago: Schaar and Co., 1955. P. 35.

أدوية السَّلْفا: دوماك وفورنو وآل تريفويل

  • Northey, E. H. The Sulfonamides and Allied Compounds. American Chemical Society Monographs. New York: Reinhold Publishing Corp., 1948. P. 1ff.
  • Sourkes, T. L. Nobel Prize Winners in Medicine and Physiology. London: Abelard-Schuman, 1966. P. 214.
  • Silverman, M. Magic in a Bottle. New York: Macmillan: 1941. P. 283ff.
  • Noller, C. R. Chemistry of Organic Compounds. 3d ed. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Co., 1965. P. 534.
  • Solomons, T. W. G. Fundamentals of Organic Chemistry. 2d ed. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1986. P. 743.
  • “Domagk, Gerhard.” Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1962. Vol. 7.

الماجانينات: مضاد حيوي من جلد الضفادع

  • Okie, Susan (Washington Post Service). Austin American-Statesman (30 July 1987).
  • Chemical and Engineering News (3 August 1987): 22.

(٢٥) تصنيع النايلون وعملية السحب على البارد

  • Marvel, C. S. “The Development of Polymer Chemistry in America—The Early Days.” Journal of Chemical Education 58 (July 1981): 535.
  • Farber, E., ed. Great Chemists. New York: Interscience, 1961. P. 1600.

(٢٦) اكتشاف البولي إثيلين بسبب تسرُّبٍ أو تلوث في أدوات البحث

  • Swallow, J. C. “The History of Polythene.” Polythene—The Technology and Uses of Ethylene Polymers, edited by A. Renfrew. 2d ed. London: Iliffe and Sons, Ltd., 1960.
  • Chien, J. C. W. Coordination Polymerization, A Memorial to Karl Ziegler. New York: Academic Press, Inc., 1975.
  • Friedrich, M. E. P., and C. S. Marvel. “The Reaction Between Alkali Metal Alkyls and Quaternary Arsonium Compounds.” Journal of the American Chemical Society 52 (1930): 376. This article briefly mentions the polymerization of ethylene by butyllithium.
  • Owen, E. D., ed. Degradation and Stabilization of PVC. London: Elsevier Applied Science Publishers, 1984. Chapter 1.
  • Myerly, Richard C. Journal of Chemical Education 57 (1980): 437.
  • Price, Charles C. et al. Journal of the American Chemical Society 78 (1956): 690.

(٢٧) التيفلون: من القنبلة الذرية إلى المِقلاة

  • The American Institute of Chemists. “The Original Teflon Man.” The Chemist (May 1985): 4.
  • Midgely, T., Jr. The Perkin Medal address. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 29 (1937): 241.
  • Plunkett, Roy J. “The History of Polytetrafluoroethylene Discovery and Development.” Paper given at the AAAS Meeting in Philadelphia, May 1986.

(٢٨) تكنولوجيا البنزين: نظريات فلاوري، وإنتاج البنزين من الغاز الطبيعي

  • Robert, Joseph C. Ethyl, A History of the Corporation and the People Who Made It. Charlottesville, Va.: University of Virginia Press, 1983. P. 104ff.
  • Chemical and Engineering News (22 June 1987).

(٢٩) أدوية اكتُشِفت بالمصادفة فائدتُها في علاج أمراضٍ أخرى

الأسبرين

  • Badger, G. M. In Proceedings of the Royal Australian Chemical Institute. October 1973. P. 273.
  • Van, Jon (Chicago Tribune Service). Austin American-Statesman (February 16, 1988): C9.

أدوية العلاج النفسي

  • Snyder, Solomon H. “Medicated Minds.” Science 84. P. 141.
  • Center for the History of Chemistry News Letter, Philadelphia (Fall 1986): 6.

الأدوية المضادة لاختلال نظْم القلب

  • Katz, R. L., and G. J. Katz. In Lidocaine in the Treatment of Ventricular Arrhythmias: Proceedings of a Symposium held in Edinburgh in September 1970, edited by D. B. Scott and D. G. Julian. Edinburgh: E. and S. Livingstone, 1971. P. 112.
  • Burstein, Charles. “Treatment of Acute Arrhythmias During Anesthesia by Intravenous Procaine.” Anesthesiology 7 (1 March 1946): 113.

المينوكسيديل وأثره في نمو الشعر

  • Steinbrook, Robert (Los Angeles Times Service). Austin American-Statesman (21 September 1986).
  • Rumsfield, J. A., D. P. West, and V. Fiedler, Weiss. “Topical Minoxidil Therapy for Hair Regrowth.” Clinical Pharmacy 6 (May 1987): 386.
  • Stern, Robert S. “Topical Minoxidil.” Archives of Dermatology 123 (January 1987): 62.
  • “Topical Minoxidil for Baldness,” The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics 29 (September 1987): 87.

الإنترفيرون: علاجٌ للسرطان والتهاب المفاصل

  • Taylor-Papadimitriou, Joyce, ed. Interferons: Their Impact in Biology and Medicine. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985.
  • “Interferon found to relieve arthritis.” Austin American-Statesman (AP) (October 9, 1985).

(٣٠) اكتشاف أدوية من الصرف الصحي والتربة

السيفالوسبورينات

  • Abraham, E. P. “Introduction.” In Chemistry and Biology of ß-Lactam Antibiotics, edited by R. B. Morin and M. Gorman. Vol. 1. New York: Academic Press, 1982.
  • Manhas, M. S., and A. K. Bose. ß-Lactams: Natural and Synthetic. New York: Wiley-Interscience, 1971. Part 1, pp. 31–49.
  • Research papers by E. P. Abraham and co-workers in the Biochemical Journal, Vol. 50, p. 168 (1951); Vol. 58, p. 94 (1954); Vol. 79, p. 377 (1961).
  • Gregory, G. I., ed. Recent Advances in the Chemistry of ß-Lactam Antibiotics: Proceedings of the Second International Symposium, Cambridge, England. London: The Royal Society of Chemistry, 1981.
  • Hodgkin, D. C., and E. N. Maslen. Biochemical Journal 79 (1961): 393.
  • Brown, A. G., and S. M. Roberts eds. Recent Advances in the Chemistry of ß-Lactam Antibiotics: Proceedings of the Third International Symposia, Cambridge, England. London: The Royal Society of Chemistry, 1985.
  • Glatt, A. E. “Third-Generation Cephalosporins.” Physician Assistant (January 1986).

السيكلوسبورين

  • Borel, J. F. In Cyclosporin A: Proceedings of an International Conference on Cyclosporin A, Cambridge, England, edited by D. J. G. White. Amsterdam: Elsevier Biomedical Press, 1982.
  • Kolata, Gina. “Drug Transforms Transplant Medicine.” Science (July 1983): 40.

(٣١) براون وفيتيج: استخدام البورون والفسفور في عمليات التصنيع العضوي

تفاعل الهيدروبورونية

  • Brown, H. C. Hydroboration. New York: W. A. Benjamin, Inc., 1962. Chapter 2.
  • Brown, H. C. Boranes in Organic Chemistry. Ithaca, N. Y.: Cornell University Press, 1972. P. 258.
  • Loudon, G. Marc. Organic Chemistry. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., 1984. Pp. 916, 917.
  • The Robert A. Welch Foundation. Research Bulletin N. 33 and Program of the XVII Conference on Chemical Research (5–7 November 1973). Houston, Texas.

تصنيع الألكينات

  • March, J. Advanced Organic Chemistry. 2d ed. New York: Wiley-Interscience, 1985. P. 845.
  • Wittig, G., and G. Geissler. “The Course of Reactions of Pentaphenylphosphorus and Certain Derivatives.” Annalen der Chemie 580 (1953): 44.
  • Wittig, G., and U. Schoellkopf. “Triphenylphosphinemethylene as an Olefinforming Reagent.” Chemische Berichte 97 (1954): 1318.
  • Wittig, G. “Variationen zu einem Thema von Staudinger; ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Phosphororganischen Carbonylolefinierung.” Pure and Applied Chemistry 9 (1964): 245. Contains a summary in English.
  • “Nobel Prizes.” Encyclopaedia Britannica, Yearbook for 1980. P. 101.

(٣٢) مركبات البولي كربونات: مادة متينة

  • Fox, D. W. “From Plant Pigments to Polymers.” The Chemist (September 1987): 12. This is the text of Dr. Fox’s 1987 Chemical Pioneer Address.
  • Fox, D. W. “Polycarbonates.” In Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. Vol. 18. 3d ed. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1982. P. 479.

(٣٣) الفيلكرو ومنح أخرى أهدتها السرنديبية إلى الحياة الحديثة

الفيلكرو: من نباتات الأرقطيون إلى سفن الفضاء

  • Brochures published by Velcro USA, Inc.
  • “Cocklebur.” Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1962. Vol. 5.

صابون أيفوري ورقائق الإفطار المصنوعة من الذرة والقمح

  • Fichter, George. United Airlines Magazine 31 (October 1986): 87, 90.

الملاحظات اللاصقة

  • Hutchinson, Julie. Austin American-Statesman (1 September 1985).
  • Brochure available from the 3M Company, courtesy of Rich Sanders in the Technical Services Department and Judy Boroski, Staff Marketing Services, St. Paul, Minn.

(٣٤) الحمض النووي: ملف الحياة

  • Watson, James D. The Double Helix, New York: Atheneum, 1968.
  • Watson, James D., and F. H. C. Crick. “A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid.” Nature 171 (1953): 737, 748.

(٣٥) عمليات التصنيع الحيوي الناتجة عن تصوراتٍ واعتقاداتٍ خاطئة وأحداثٍ عارضة

  • Encyclopaedia Britannica, Yearbook for 1970. See “Barton, Derek H. R.” (p. 138) and “Hassel, Odd,” (p. 149).
  • Barton, D. H. R. In Stereochemistry of Organic and Bioorganic Transformations, edited by W. Bartmann and K. B. Sharpless. Weinheim, Federal Republic of Germany, VCH Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, 1987. P. 205.
  • Barton, D. H. R. Experientia 6 (1950): 316.
  • Barton, D. H. R. “The Invention of Organic Reactions Useful in Bioorganic Chemistry.” In Frontiers in Bioorganic Chemistry and Molecular Biology; edited by Yu. A. Ovchinnikov and M. N. Kolosov. Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical Press, 1979.
  • Barbier, M., D. H. R. Barton, M. Devys, and R. S. Topgi. “A Simple Synthesis of the Tropone Nucleus.” Journal of the Chemical Society, Chemical Communications (1984): 743.

(٣٦) الإثيرات التاجية والكريبتاندات

  • “Winners of Nobels in Chemistry and Physics.” New York Times (October 19, 1987).
  • “Nobel Prizes: U. S., French Chemists Share Award.” Chemical and Engineering News (19 October 1987): 4.
  • “Progress Made in Synthesizing Enzyme Mimics.” Chemical and Engineering News (19 October 1987): 30.
  • “Chemistry in the Image of Biology.” Science (30 October 1987): 611.
  • Du Pont Magazine, College Report supplement (January-February 1988).
  • Industrial Chemist (February 1988): 22. An interview with Charles J. Pedersen.
  • Pedersen, C. J. “Cyclic Polyethers and Their Complexes with Metal Salts.” Journal of the American Chemical Society 89 (1967): 7017.
  • Pedersen, C. J. “The Discovery of the Crown Ethers” (Nobel lecture). Angewandte Chemie, International Edition in English 27 (1988): 1021.

خاتمة

  • Lenox, Ronald S., Journal of Chemical Education 64(1985): 282.

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