References are presented in the order in which they appear in each chapter.


  • On the antiquity of theories of myth, see, for example, Richard Chase, Quest for Myth (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1949), chapter 1; Jan de Vries, Forschungsgeschichte der Mythologie (Freiburg: Alber, 1961), chapter 1.
  • On parallels between earlier theories and social scientific ones, see Burton Feldman and Robert D. Richardson, The Rise of Modern Mythology, 1680–1860 (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1972), pp. xxii-xxiii.
  • John Beattie, Other Cultures (New York: Free Press, 1964).
  • For a standard folkloristic classification of stories, see William Bascom, ‘The Forms of Folklore: Prose Narratives’, Journal of American Folklore, 78 (1965): 3–20. On the blurriness of these distinctions, see Stith Thompson, The Folktale (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1977 [1946]), p. 303.
  • William D. Rubinstein, The Myth of Rescue: Why the Democracies Could Not Have Saved More Jews from the Nazis (London and New York: Routledge, 1987).
  • Apollodorus, Gods and Heroes of the Greeks: The ‘Library’ of Apollodorus, tr. Michael Simpson (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1976); Ovid, Metamorphoses, tr. Rolfe Humphries (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1955).
  • For scepticism over the universality of theories, see Stith Thompson, ‘Myths and Folktales’, Journal of American Folklore, 68 (1955): 482–8; G. S. Kirk, Myth (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1970), p. 7.

الفصل الأول

  • On the history of creationism, see Ronald L. Numbers, The Creationists (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992).
  • On scientific reinterpretation of the Noah myth, see, for example, William Ryan and Walter Pitman, Noah’s Flood (London: Simon and Schuster, 1999). For a superb collection of the array of ways that flood stories worldwide have been approached, see Alan Dundes (ed.), The Flood Myth (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988).
  • In the passage on the plagues of Egypt, the reference is to Herbert G. May and Bruce M. Metzger (eds.), The New Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocrypha, Revised Standard Version (New York: Oxford University Press, 1977 [1962]). Quotations are taken from p. 75. For a comparable attempt to ‘naturalize’ myth from outside of the Bible, see Samuel Noah Kramer, Sumerian Mythology, rev. edn. (New York: Harper & Row, 1961 [1st edn. 1944]).
  • The classic attempt not to replace but to reconcile a theological account of the plagues with a scientific account is that of the Jewish existentialist philosopher Martin Buber, for whom the believer, on the basis of faith, attributes to divine intervention what the believer acknowledges can be fully accounted for scientifically. See Buber, Moses (New York: Harper Torchbooks, 1958 [1946]), especially pp. 60–8, 74–9. Buber is the Jewish counterpart to Rudolf Bultmann, considered in Chapter 2.
  • The classic work on finding science in myth is Giorgio de Santillana and Hertha von Dechend, Hamlet’s Mill (Boston: Gambit, 1969).
  • The work cited is Andrew Dixon White, A History of the Warfare of Science with Theology in Christendom (1896), abridged by Bruce Mazlish (New York: Free Press, 1965). For a balanced corrective, see John Hedley Brooke, Science and Religion (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991).
  • The classic work by Edward Burnett Tylor is Primitive Culture, 2 vols, 1st edn. (London: Murray, 1871). Citations are from the reprint of the 5th (1913) edition (New York: Harper Torchbooks, 1958). The work by Stephen Jay Gould quoted is Rocks of Ages (London: Vintage, 2002 [1999]). On possible ways of distinguishing myth from science, see my Theorizing about Myth (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1999), pp. 7–9.
  • For a refreshingly sensible postmodern approach to myth, see Laurence Coupe, Myth (London and New York: Routledge, 1997).
  • For a modern Tylorian perspective, see David Bidney, Theoretical Anthropology, 2nd edn. (New York: Schocken, 1967 [1st edn. 1953]), chapter 10; ‘Myth, Symbolism, and Truth’, Journal of American Folklore, 68 (1955): 379–92.
  • On the term ‘euhemerist’, see Joseph Fontenrose, The Ritual Theory of Myth (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1966), pp. 20–3.
  • Friedrich Max Müller, ‘Comparative Mythology’ (1856), in his Chips from a German Workshop (London: Longmans, Green, 1867), pp. 1–141.
  • A theologian who assumes that Genesis 1 is anything but an account of creation is Langdon Gilkey. See his Maker of Heaven and Earth (Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1985 [1959]), especially pp. 25–9, 148–55.
  • J. G. Frazer, The Golden Bough, 1st edn., 2 vols (London: Macmillan, 1890); 2nd edn., 3 vols (London: Macmillan, 1900); 3rd edn., 12 vols (London: Macmillan, 1911–15); one-vol. abridgment (London: Macmillan, 1922).
  • Hans Blumenberg, Work on Myth, tr. Robert M. Wallace (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1985).
  • Lucien Lévy-Bruhl, How Natives Think, tr. Lilian A. Clare (New York: Washington Square Press, 1966 [1926]).
  • Bronislaw Malinowski, ‘Magic, Science and Religion’ (1925) and ‘Myth in Primitive Psychology’ (1926), in his Magic, Science and Religion and Other Essays, ed. Robert Redfield (Garden City, NY: Doubleday Anchor Books, 1954 [1948]), pp. 17–92 and 93–148.
  • Claude Lévi-Strauss, The Savage Mind, tr. not given (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1966); Myth and Meaning (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1978); André Akoun et al., ‘A Conversation with Claude Lévi-Strauss’, Psychology Today, 5 (May 1972): 36–9, 74–82.
  • Robin Horton, ‘African Traditional Thought and Western Science’, Africa, 37 (1967): 50–71 (part I), 155–87 (part II).
  • Stewart Guthrie, Faces in the Clouds (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993).
  • Karl Popper, Conjectures and Refutations, 5th edn. (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1974 [1st edn. 1962]); The World of Parmenides, ed. Arne F. Peterson and Jorgen Mejer (London: Routledge, 1998).
  • F. M. Cornford, From Religion to Philosophy (London: Arnold, 1912); Principium Sapientiae, ed. W. K. C. Guthrie (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1952), chapters 1–11.

الفصل الثاني

  • Paul Radin, Primitive Man as Philosopher, 2nd edn. (New York: Dover, 1957 [1st edn. 1927]); The World of Primitive Man (New York: Dutton, 1971), chapter 3.
  • Ernst Cassirer, The Philosophy of Symbolic Forms, tr. Ralph Manheim, II (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1955); The Myth of the State (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1946). On political myths, see also Cassirer, Symbol, Myth, and Culture, ed. Donald Phillip Verene (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1979), pp. 219–67.
  • Henri Frankfort and H. A. Frankfort, John A. Wilson, Thorkild Jacobsen, and William A. Irwin, The Intellectual Adventure of Ancient Man: An Essay on Speculative Thought in the Ancient Near East (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1946 [reprinted Phoenix Books, 1997]); paperback retitled Before Philosophy: The Intellectual Adventure of Ancient Man: An Essay on Speculative Thought in the Ancient Near East (Harmondsworth: Pelican Books, 1949).
  • Rudolf Bultmann, ‘New Testament and Mythology’ (1941), in Kerygma and Myth, ed. Hans-Werner Bartsch, tr. Reginald H. Fuller, I (London: SPCK, 1953), pp. 1–44; Jesus Christ and Mythology (New York: Scribner’s, 1958); Hans Jonas, Gnosis und spätantiker Geist, 2 vols, 1st edn. (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht, 1934 [vol. I] and 1954 [vol. II, part 1]); The Gnostic Religion, 2nd edn. (Boston: Beacon Press, 1963 [1958]), Epilogue.
  • For the myth of Sisyphus, see Albert Camus, The Myth of Sisyphus and Other Essays, tr. Justin O’Brien (New York: Vintage Books, 1960 [1955]), pp. 88–91; Homer, The Odyssey, tr. Richmond Lattimore (New York: Harper Torchbooks, 1968 [1965]), p. 183.

الفصل الثالث

  • Bultmann, ‘New Testament and Mythology’ and Jesus Christ and Mythology.
  • Jonas, The Gnostic Religion.
  • Jonas is not the only philosopher to ‘update’ Gnosticism. The political philosopher Eric Voegelin seeks to show how modern movements like positivism, Marxism, Communism, Fascism, and psychoanalysis evince what he calls ‘the Gnostic attitude’. See his Science, Politics and Gnosticism (Chicago: Regnery Gateway Editions, 1968) and The New Science of Politics (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1952).
  • On Norman Schwarzkopf, see Jack Anderson and Dale Van Atta, Stormin’ Norman: An American Hero (New York: Zebra Books, 1971).
  • Mircea Eliade, Myth and Reality, tr. Willard R. Trask (New York: Harper Torchbooks, 1968 [1963]); The Sacred and the Profane, tr. Willard R. Trask (New York: Harvest Books, 1968 [1959]).
  • On John F. Kennedy, Jr, see, for example, Wendy Leigh, Prince Charming (New York: New American Library, 2000); Christopher Anderson, The Day John Died (New York: William Morrow, 2000); Richard Blow, American Son (New York: Henry Holt, 2002).
  • On George Washington, see Barry Schwartz, George Washington (New York: Free Press; London: Collier Macmillan, 1987). From the bestselling hagiographical biography by Mason Weems comes the story that the scrupulously honest young George could not lie when asked who had cut down his father’s cherry tree. See Weems, The Life of Washington, 9th edn., ed. Peter S. Onuf (Armonk, NY: Sharpe, 1996 [1st edn. 1800; 9th edn. 1809]), pp. 9–10.

الفصل الرابع

  • William Robertson Smith, Lectures on the Religion of the Semites, First Series, 1st edn. (Edinburgh: Black, 1889), Lecture 1.
  • Tylor, Primitive Culture, 5th edn., II, chapter 18.
  • Frazer, The Golden Bough, abridged edn., especially chapters 29–33 (first myth-ritualist scenario); 6–8, 24 (second myth-ritualist scenario).
  • Jane Ellen Harrison, Themis, 1st edn. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1912); Alpha and Omega (London: Sidgwick & Jackson, 1915), chapter 6; Epilegomena to the Study of Greek Religion (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1921); on myth and art, Ancient Art and Ritual (New York: Holt; London: Williams and Norgate, 1913).
  • S. H. Hooke, ‘The Myth and Ritual Pattern of the Ancient East’, in Myth and Ritual, ed. Hooke (London: Oxford University Press, 1933), chapter 1; Introduction to The Labyrinth, ed. Hooke (London: SPCK; New York: Macmillan, 1935), pp. v–x; The Origins of Early Semitic Ritual (London: Oxford University Press, 1938); ‘Myth and Ritual: Past and Present’, in Myth, Ritual, and Kingship, ed. Hooke (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1958), chapter 1.
  • Gregory Nagy, ‘Can Myth Be Saved?’, in Myth, ed. Gregory Schrempp and William Hansen (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2002), chapter 15. See also Edmund Leach, Political Systems of Highland Burma (Boston: Beacon, 1965 [1954]); ‘Ritualization in Man’, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Series B, no. 772, vol. 251 (1966): 403–8.
  • Gilbert Murray, ‘Excursis on the Ritual Forms Preserved in Greek Tragedy’, in Harrison, Themis, pp. 341–63; Euripides and His Age, 1st edn. (New York: Holt; London: Williams and Norgate, 1913), pp. 60–8; Aeschylus (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1940); ‘Dis Geniti’, Journal of Hellenic Studies, 71 (1951): 120–8; on myth and literature, ‘Hamlet and Orestes: A Study in Traditional Types’, Proceedings of the British Academy, 6 (1913-14): 389–412.
  • F. M. Cornford, ‘The Origin of the Olympic Games’, in Harrison, Themis, chapter 7; The Origin of Attic Comedy (London: Arnold, 1914); ‘A Ritual Basis for Hesiod’s Theogony’ (1941), in his The Unwritten Philosophy and Other Essays, ed. W. K. C. Guthrie (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1950), pp. 95–116; Principium Sapientiae, ed. W. K. C. Guthrie (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1952), pp. 191–256.
  • A. B. Cook, Zeus, 3 vols in 5 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1914–40).
  • Ivan Engnell, Studies in Divine Kingship in the Ancient Near East, 1st edn. (Uppsala: Almqvist & Wiksells, 1943); A Rigid Scrutiny, ed. and tr. John T. Willis (Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, 1969) (retitled Critical Essays on the Old Testament [London: SPCK, 1970]).
  • Aubrey R. Johnson, ‘The Role of the King in the Jerusalem Cults’, in The Labyrinth, ed. Hooke, pp. 73–111; ‘Hebrew Conceptions of Kingship’, in Myth, Ritual, and Kingship, ed. Hooke, pp. 204–35; Sacral Kingship in Ancient Israel, 1st edn. (Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 1955).
  • Sigmund Mowinckel, The Psalms in Israel’s Worship, tr. D. R. Ap-Thomas, 2 vols (New York: Abingdon, 1962); He That Cometh, tr. G. W. Anderson (Nashville: Abingdon, 1954), chapter 3.
  • Malinowski, ‘Myth in Primitive Psychology’; ‘Magic, Science and Religion’, especially pp. 83–4; ‘The Role of Myth in Life’, Psyche, 6 (1926): 29–39; Malinowski and the Work of Myth, ed. Ivan Strenski (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1992).
  • Eliade, The Sacred and the Profane, chapter 2; Myth and Reality.
  • Applications of the theory of myth to literature: Jessie L. Weston, From Ritual to Romance (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1920); E. M. Butler, The Myth of the Magus (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; New York: Macmillan, 1948); C. L. Barber, Shakespeare’s Festive Comedy (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1959); Herbert Weisinger, Tragedy and the Paradox of the Fortunate Fall (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul; East Lansing: Michigan State College Press, 1953); Francis Fergusson, The Idea of a Theater (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1949); Lord Raglan, ‘Myth and Ritual’, Journal of American Folklore, 68 (1955): 454–61; Northrop Frye, Anatomy of Criticism (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1957), pp. 131–239; Stanley Edgar Hyman, ‘Myth, Ritual, and Nonsense’, Kenyon Review, 11 (1949): 455–75.
  • René Girard, Violence and the Sacred, tr. Patrick Gregory (London: Athlone Press; Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1977); ‘To Double Business Bound’ (London: Athlone Press; Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1978); The Scapegoat, tr. Yvonne Freccero (London: Athlone Press; Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986); Things Hidden since the Foundation of the World, tr. Stephen Bann and Michael Metteer (London: Athlone Press; Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1987); Job, the Victim of his People, tr. Yvonne Freccero (London: Athlone Press; Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1987); ‘Generative Scapegoating’, in Violent Origins, ed. Robert G. Hamerton-Kelly (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1987), pp. 73–105. Against Frazer, see Violence and the Sacred, pp. 28–30, 96, 121–3, 316–18; The Scapegoat, p. 120.
  • Clyde Kluckhohn, ‘Myths and Rituals: A General Theory’, Harvard Theological Review, 35 (1942): 45–79.
  • Walter Burkert, Structure and History in Greek Mythology and Ritual (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979), especially pp. 56–8, 99–101; Homo Necans, tr. Peter Bing (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983), especially pp. 29–34; Ancient Mystery Cults (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1987), pp. 73–8; ‘The Problem of Ritual Killing’, in Violent Origins, ed. Hamerton-Kelly, pp. 149–76; Creation of the Sacred (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1996), chapters 2-3.

الفصل الخامس

  • On the preservation of classical mythology, see, for example, Douglas Bush, Mythology and the Renaissance Tradition in English Poetry (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1932); Mythology and the Romantic Tradition in English Poetry (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1937); Gilbert Highet, The Classical Tradition (New York: Oxford University Press, 1939): Jean Seznec, The Survival of the Pagan Gods (New York: Pantheon Books, 1953 [1940]). For a useful sourcebook on three classical myths, see Geoffrey Miles (ed.), Classical Mythology in English Literature (London: Routledge, 1999).
  • Jessie L. Weston, From Ritual to Romance.
  • Francis Fergusson, The Idea of a Theater; ‘‘‘Myth’’ and the Literary Scruple’, Sewanee Review, 64 (1956): 171–85.
  • Northrop Frye, ‘The Archetypes of Literature’ (1951) and ‘Myth, Fiction, and Displacement’ (1961), in his Fables of Identity (New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1963), pp. 7–20 and 21–38; Anatomy of Criticism (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1957), pp. 131–239; ‘Literature and Myth’, in Relations of Literary Study, ed. James Thorpe (New York: Modern Language Association, 1967), pp. 27–55; ‘Symbolism of the Unconscious’ (1959) and ‘Forming Fours’ (1954), in Northrop Frye on Culture and Literature, ed. Robert D. Denham (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1978), pp. 84–94 and 117–29; ‘Myth’, Antaeus 43 (1981): 64–84.
  • See, as classical Jungians, Maud Bodkin, Archetypal Patterns in Literature (London: Oxford University Press, 1934); Bettina L. Knapp, A Jungian Approach to Literature (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1984).
  • See, as archetypal psychologists, James Hillman, Re-Visioning Psychology (New York: Harper & Row, 1975); David L. Miller, The New Polytheism (Dallas: Spring Publications, 1981).
  • Girard, Violence and the Sacred.
  • On the distinction between story and narrative, see Shlomith Rimmon-Kenan, Narrative Fiction, 2nd edn. (London and New York: Routledge, 2002 [1st edn. 1983]), p. 3. On the yet further distinction among story, narrative, and plot—all of which I innocently use interchangeably—see Paul Cobley, Narrative (London and New York: Routledge, 2001), pp. 4–7.
  • Kenneth Burke, The Rhetoric of Religion (Boston: Beacon Press, 1961); A Grammar of Motives (New York: Prentice-Hall, 1945), pp. 430–40; ‘Myth, Poetry and Philosophy’, Journal of American Folklore, 73 (1960): pp. 283–306.
  • Tylor, Primitive Culture, 5th edn., I, pp. 281–2. Hero myths are a surprising category for someone for whom all myths are seemingly about physical events.
  • On the application of cognitive psychology to religion, under which would fall myth, see Pascal Boyer, The Naturalness of Religious Ideas (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994).
  • Johann Georg von Hahn, Sagwissenschaftliche Studien (Jena: Mauke, 1876), p. 340; tr. Henry Wilson in John C. Dunlop, History of Prose Fiction, rev. Wilson (London: Bell, 1888), in an unnumbered attachment to the last page of vol. I.
  • Vladimir Propp, Morphology of the Folktale, tr. Laurence Scott, 2nd edn., rev. and ed. Louis A. Wagner (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1968 [1958]).
  • Otto Rank, The Myth of the Birth of the Hero, 1st edn., tr. F. Robbins and Smith Ely Jelliffe (New York: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease Publishing, 1914).
  • Joseph Campbell, The Hero with a Thousand Faces, 1st edn. (New York: Pantheon Books, 1949).
  • Lord Raglan, The Hero (London: Methuen, 1936). Citations are from the reprint of Part 2, which is on myth, in Otto Rank et al., In Quest of the Hero (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1990), pp. 89–175.

الفصل السادس

  • Sigmund Freud, The Interpretation of Dreams, vols IV-V, Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, ed. and tr. James Strachey et al. (London: Hogarth Press and Institute of Psycho-Analysis 1953 [1913]).
  • Karl Abraham, Dreams and Myths, tr. William A. White (New York: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease Publishing, 1913).
  • Rank, The Myth of the Birth of the Hero, 1st edn. Citations are from the reprint in Rank et al., In Quest of the Hero pp. 3–86. See also Rank’s even more Oedipal The Incest Theme in Literature and Language, 1st edn., tr. Gregory Richter (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992). See also Rank and Hanns Sachs, The Significance of Psychoanalysis for the Mental Sciences, tr. Charles R. Payne (New York: Nervous and Mental Disease Publishing, 1913). For post-Freudian Rank, see The Trauma of Birth, tr. not given (London: Kegan Paul; New York: Harcourt Brace, 1929).
  • On male creation myths, see Alan Dundes, ‘Earth-Driver: Creation of the Mythopoeic Male’, American Anthropologist, 64 (1962): 1032–51.
  • Jacob A. Arlow, ‘Ego Psychology and the Study of Mythology’, Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 9 (1961): 371–93.
  • Bruno Bettelheim, The Uses of Enchantment (New York: Vintage Books, 1977 [1976]).
  • Géza Róheim, ‘Psycho-Analysis and the Folk-Tale’, International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 3 (1922): 180–6; ‘Myth and Folk-Tale’, American Imago, 2 (1941): 266–79; The Riddle of the Sphinx, tr. R. Money-Kyrle (New York: Harper Torchbooks, 1974 [1934]); Fire in the Dragon and Other Psychoanalytic Essays on Folklore, ed. Alan Dundes (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1992).
  • Alan Dundes, Analytic Essays in Folklore (The Hague: Mouton, 1975); Interpreting Folklore (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1980); Parsing through Customs (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1987); Folklore Matters (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1989).
  • On creation myths, see Erich Neumann, The Origins and History of Consciousness, tr. R. F. C. Hull (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1970 [1954]); Marie-Louise von Franz, Creation Myths, rev. edn. (Boston: Shambhala, 1995 [1st edn. (entitled Patterns of Creativity Mirrored in Creation Myths) 1972]).
  • Campbell, The Hero with a Thousand Faces. Citations are from the second edition (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1968).
  • On Adonis, see especially C. G. Jung, Symbols of Transformation, Collected Works of C. G. Jung, ed. Sir Herbert Read et al., tr. R. F. C. Hull et al., V, 2nd edn. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1967 [1956]), pp. 219, 223 n. 32, 258–9, 343 n. 79.
  • On the archetype of the puer aeternus, see especially Jung, Symbols of Transformation, pp. 257–9, 340; ‘Psychological Aspects of the Mother Archetype’, in The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious, Collected Works, IX, Part 1, 2nd edn. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1968 [1959]), p. 106; Marie-Louise von Franz, Puer aeternus, 2nd edn. (Santa Monica, CA: Sigo, 1981 [1970]).
  • On the archetype of the Great Mother, see especially Jung, ‘Psychological Aspects of the Mother Archetype’, pp. 75–110; Symbols of Transformation, pp. 207–444.

الفصل السابع

  • Claude Lévi-Strauss, ‘The Structural Study of Myth’, Journal of American Folklore, 68 (1955): 428–44, reprinted in Myth: A Symposium, ed. Thomas A. Sebeok (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1958), paperback (1965); also reprinted, slightly revised, in Lévi-Strauss, Structural Anthropology, tr. Claire Jacobson and Brooke Grundfest Schoepf (New York: Basic Books, 1963), chapter 11. Citations are from the Sebeok paperback. Introduction to a Science of Mythology, tr. John and Doreen Weightman, 4 vols (New York: Harper & Row, 1969–81), paperback (New York: Harper Torchbooks, 1970–82). Citations are from the paperback. The volumes are individually named: The Raw and the Cooked, From Honey to Ashes, The Origin of Table Manners, and The Naked Man. ‘The Study of Asdiwal’, tr. Nicholas Mann, in The Structural Study of Myth and Totemism, ed. Edmund Leach (London: Tavistock, 1967), pp. 1–47. André Akoun et al., ‘A Conversation with Claude Lévi-Strauss’.
  • On Lévi-Strauss’ myth-ritualism, see ‘The Structural Study of Myth’; ‘Structure and Dialectics’, in his Structural Anthropology, chapter 12; ‘Comparative Religions of Nonliterate Peoples’, in his Structural Anthropology, II, tr. Monique Layton (New York: Basic Books, 1976), chapter 5.
  • Vladimir Propp, Morphology of the Folktale; Georges Dumézil, Archaic Roman Religion, tr. Philip Krapp, 2 vols (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1970).
  • Jean-Pierre Vernant, Myth and Thought among the Greeks. tr. not given (London and Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1983); Vernant and Pierre Vidal-Naquet, Myth and Tragedy in Ancient Greece, tr. Janet Lloyd (Brighton: Harvester Press, 1981); Nicole Loraux, The Invention of Athens, tr. Alan Sheridan (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1987).
  • Marcel Detienne, The Gardens of Adonis, tr. Janet Lloyd (Hassock: Harvester Press; Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press, 1977).

الفصل الثامن

  • Malinowski, ‘Myth in Primitive Psychology’.
  • Georges A. Sorel, Reflections on Violence, tr. T. E. Hulme and J. Roth (New York: Collier Books; London: Collier-Macmillan, 1961 [1950]).
  • On myth and ideology, see Ben Halpern, ‘‘‘Myth’’ and ‘‘Ideology’’ in Modern Usage’, History and Theory, 1 (1961): 129–49; Christopher G. Flood, Political Myth (New York: Routledge, 2001 [1996]).
  • Girard, Violence and the Sacred.
  • On matriarchy in Greece and elsewhere, see, classically, J. J. Bachofen, Myth, Religion, and Mother Right, tr. Ralph Manheim (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1967).
  • Herodotus, The Histories, tr. Aubrey de Sélincourt, rev. and ed. A. R. Burn (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1972 [1954]).
  • Aristotle, Constitution of Athens and Related Texts, tr. Kurt von Fritz and Ernst Kapp (New York: Hafner Press, 1974 [1950]).
  • Antony Andrewes, The Greeks (New York: Knopf, 1967).
  • Pierre Vidal-Naquet, ‘The Black Hunter and the Origin of the Athenian Ephebeia’, in R. L. Gordon (ed.), Myth, Religion and Society (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981), pp. 147–62.
  • Aristophanes, Lysistrata, tr. Benjamin Bickley Rogers, Loeb Classical Library (London: Heinemann; New York: Harvard University Press, 1924).


  • D. W. Winnicott, ‘Transitional Objects and Transitional Phenomena’ (1951), in his Through Paediatrics to Psychoanalysis (London: Karnac Books, 1992 [1958]), chapter 18. Slightly revised version in his Playing and Reality (London and New York: Routledge, 1982 [1971]), chapter 1. The citation is from the revised version.

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