قراءات إضافية

الجزء الأول: النظرية

الفصل الأول: الجينات والمدارس والتعلُّم

  • Collins, Francis (2010). The Language of Life: DNA and the Revolution in Personalized Medicine. New York: HarperCollins Publishers. Provides a first-rate and highly readable account of developments and precedents in personalized medicine.
  • Pinker, Steven (2002). The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature. New York: Penguin Putnam Inc. An important and entertaining discussion of why humans can no longer be viewed as “blank slates,” and why they ever were.

الفصل الثاني: كيف نعرف ما نعرف

  • Plomin, R. (2008). State-of-Science Review: SR-D7 Genetics and the Future Diagnosis of Learning Disabilities. Review commissioned as part of UK Government’s Foresight Project, Mental Capital and Wellbeing. London: Government Office for Science. A discussion of the potential for using genetic information to predict and prevent common learning difficulties.
  • Plomin, R. (2013). Child development and molecular genetics: 14 years later. Child Development, 84(1), 104–20. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2012.01757.x. An account of the progress made—and the problems encountered—in identifying and using genes in developmental research and how this differs from what we expected.
  • Plomin, R. and Schalkwyk, L. C. (2007). Microarrays. Developmental Science, 10, 19–23. For further information about “gene chips.”
  • Plomin, R., DeFries, J. C., Knopik, V. S., and Neiderhiser, J. M. (2013). Behavioral Genetics 6th ed. New York: Worth. The leading textbook in behavioral genetics. The sixth edition provides an up-to-date account of developments in the field.
  • Trouton, A., Spinath, F. M., and Plomin, R. (2002). Twins Early Development Study (TEDS): A multivariate, longitudinal genetic investigation of language, cognition, and behavior problems in childhood. Twin Research, 5, 444–448. A description of the TEDS sample and study.
  • http://www.genome.gov/11006943. For more information regarding the Human Genome Project (accessed 17 June 2013).

الفصل الثالث: المهارات الأساسية الثلاث، المهارتان الأولى والثانية: القراءة والكتابة

  • Haworth, C. M. A., Davis, O. S. P., and Plomin, R. (2013). Twins Early Development Study (TEDS): A genetically sensitive investigation of cognitive and behavioral development from childhood to young adulthood. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 16, 117–125.

الفصل الرابع: المهارات الأساسية الثلاث، المهارة الثالثة: الحساب

  • Docherty, S. J., Davis, O. S. P., Kovas, Y., Meaburn, E. L., Dale, P. S., Petrill, S. A., Schalkwyk L. C., and Plomin, R. (2010). A genome-wide association study identifies multiple loci associated with mathematics ability and disability. Genes, Brain and Behavior, 9, 234–247. This first GWAS study of math finds the usual result of many genes of small effect.
  • Kovas, Y., Haworth, C. M. A., Dale, P. S., and Plomin, R. (2007). The Genetic and Environmental Origins of Learning Abilities and Disabilities in the Early School Years. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development 72 (3). New York, Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. A detailed account of TEDS findings related to school achievement and cognitive ability in the elementary school years.
  • Kovas, Y., Doherty, S., Davis, O., Meaburn , E., Dale, P. S., Petrill, Schalkwyk, L., and Plomin, R. (2009). Generalist genes and mathematics: The latest quantitative and molecular genetic results from the TEDS study. Behavior Genetics, 39(6), 663-664. More detail on the generalist genes hypothesis. What matters most for schools is the finding that environments are specialists.

الفصل الخامس: التربية البدنية: أسئلة مطروحة

  • For further information on Professor Claude Bouchard’s ongoing work on genetic and environmental influences on fitness and fatness and the HERITAGE Family Study, go to: www.pbrc.edu/heritage (accessed 17 June 2013).
  • For a detailed review of genetically sensitive research into smoking behavior try: Rose, R. J., Broms, U., Korhonen, T., Dick, D. M., and Kaprio, J. (2009). Genetics of smoking behavior. In Y.-K. Kim (ed.) Handbook of Behavior Genetics (pp. 411–432). New York: Springer.
  • Smoking research becomes ever more nuanced. This paper, for instance, presents evidence that how people experience their first ever cigarettes is influenced by genes and nonshared environmental influence. Haberstick, B. C., Ehringer, M. A., Lessem, J. M., Hopfer, C. J., and Hewitt, J. K. (2011). Dizziness and the genetic influences on subjective experiences of initial cigarette use. Addiction, 106, 391–399.

الفصل السابع: كيف يتوافق معدل الذكاء مع الدافعية؟

  • Dweck, C. (2006). Mindset: The new psychology of success. New York: Random House. A popular account of Dweck’s theory of fixed vs growth mindsets and how to develop them. For a slightly more academic treatment, try Dweck, C. (2000). Self-Theories: Their Role in Motivation, Personality and Development. New York: Psychology Press.
  • Plotz, D. (2005). The Genius Factory: The Curious History of the Nobel Prize Sperm Bank. New York: Random House. An entertaining and fascinating account of Plotz’s follow-up of the babies born of the Nobel Prize sperm bank, the Repository for Germinal Choice.

الفصل التاسع: «مُستنسَخون» في حجرة الدراسة

  • For a further example of talking to the families of identical twins in order to generate new ideas about how the environment works see: Asbury, K., Dunn, J., and Plomin, R. (2006). The use of discordant MZ twins to generate hypotheses regarding nonshared environmental influence on anxiety in middle childhood. Social Development, 15, 564–570. This paper looks at influences such as bullying and traumatic events around the birth as possible predictors of anxiety.

الفصل العاشر: الفجوة بين المكانة الاجتماعية وجودة المدرسة

  • For more information on Ken Hanscombe’s genetically sensitive research into the nature and nurture of family chaos we suggest the following two papers: Hanscombe, K. B., Haworth, C., Davis, O. S., Jaffee, S. R., and Plomin, R. (2010). The nature (and nurture) of children’s perceptions of family chaos. Learning and Individual Differences, 20(5), 549–553; and Hanscombe, K. B., Haworth, C., Davis, O. S., Jaffee, S. R., and Plomin, R. (2011). Chaotic homes and school achievement: a twin study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 52(11), 1212–1220.
  • For a different take on the implications of relationships between genes, social status and achievement Charles Murray’s book makes for an interesting read: Murray, C. (2008). Real Education: Four Simple Truths for Bringing America’s Schools Back to Reality. New York: Three Rivers Press.

الجزء الثاني: التطبيق العملي

الفصل الثاني عشر: التطبيق العملي لتخصيص التعليم

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