ملاحظات

الفصل الأول: مقدمة إلى المرونة العصبية

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Rosenzweig, M. R. 1996. Aspects of the search for neural mechanisms of memory. Annual Review of Psychology 47: 1–32.
(2)
Costandi, M. 2006. The discovery of the neuron. Neurophilosophy blog, 29 August, 2006. https://neurophilosophy.wordpress.com/2006/08/29/the-discovery-of-the-neuron/.
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Rosenzweig, M. R. 1996. Aspects of the search for neural mechanisms of memory. Annual Review of Psychology 47: 1–32.

الفصل الثاني: التعويض الحسي

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Finger, S. 1994. Origins of Neuroscience: A History of Explorations into Brain Function. Oxford University Press.
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Costandi, M. 2008. Wilder Penfield: Neural cartographer. Neurophilosophy blog. https://neurophilosophy.wordpress.com/2008/08/27/wilder_penfield_neural_cartographer/.
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Bach-y-Rita, P., C. C. Collins, F. A. Saunders, B. White, and L. Scadden. 1969. Visual substitution by tactile image projection. Nature 221(5184): 963-964.
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Thaler, L., S. R. Arnott, and M. A. Goodale. 2011. Neural correlates of natural human echolocation in early and late blind echolocation experts. PLoS ONE 6(5): e20162. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0020162.
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Striem-Amit, E., and A. Amedi. 2014. Visual cortex extrastriate body-selective area activation in congenitally blind people “seeing” by using sounds. Current Biology 24(6): 687–692.
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Voss, P., and R. J. Zattore. 2012. Organization and reorganization of sensory-deprived cortex. Current Biology 22(5): R168–173.
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Sadato, N. 2005. How the blind “see” braille: Lessons from functional magnetic resonance imaging. Neuroscientist 11(6): 577–582.
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Lyness, R. C., I. Alvarez, M. I. Sereno, and M. MacSweeney. 2014. Microstructural differences in the thalamus and thalamic radiations in the congenitally deaf. NeuroImage 100: 347–357.
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Ward, J., and T. Wright. 2014. Sensory substitution as an artificially acquired synaesthesia. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 41: 26–35.
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Zembrzyckia, A., C. G. Perez-Garcia, C.-F. Wang, S.-J. Choub, and D. D. M. O’Leary. 2014. Postmitotic regulation of sensory area patterning in the mammalian neocortex by Lhx2. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112(21): 6736–6741.

الفصل الثالث: مرونة النمو

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Purves, D., and J. W. Lichtman. 1985. Principles of Neural Development. Sinaeur.
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Hamburger, V., and R. Levi-Montalcini. 1949. Proliferation, differentiation and degeneration in the spinal ganglia of the chick embryo under normal and experimental conditions. Journal of Experimental Zoology 111(3): 457–502.
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Cohen, S., R. Levi-Montalcini, and V. Hamburger. 1954. A nerve growth stimulating factor isolated from sarcomas 37 and 180. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 40(10): 1014–1018.
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Aloe, L. 2004. Rita Levi-Montalcini: The discovery of nerve growth factor and modern neurobiology. Trends in Cell Biology 14 (7): 395–399.
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Harrington, A. W., and D. D. Ginty. 2013. Long-distance retrograde neurotrophic factor signaling in neurons. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 14(3): 177–187.
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Yamaguchi, Y., and M. Miura. 2015. Programmed cell death in neurodevelopment. Developmental Cell 32 (4): 478–490.
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Kandel, E. R., J. H. Schwartz, and T. M. Jessell. 1995. Essentials of Neural Science and Behavior. Appleton & Lange.
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Webb, S. J., C. S. Monk, and C. A. Nelson. 2001. Mechanisms of postnatal neurobiological development: Implications for human development. Developmental Neuropsychology 19(2): 147–171.
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Petanjek, Z., M. Judaš, G. Šimić, M. L. Rašin, H. B. M. Uylings, P. Rakic, and I. Kostović. 2011. Extraordinary neoteny of synaptic spines in the human prefrontal cortex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108(32): 13281–13286.
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Selemon, L. D. 2013. A role for synaptic pruning in the adolescent development of executive function. Translational Psychiatry 3: e238.
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Hubel, D. H. and T. N. Wiesel 1959. Receptive fields of single neurones in the cat’s striate cortex. Journal of Physiology 148(3): 574–591.
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Hubel, D. H., and T. N. Wiesel. 1962. Receptive fields, binocular interaction and functional architecture in the cat’s visual cortex. Journal of Physiology 160(1): 106–154.
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Hubel, D. H., and T. N. Wiesel. 1965. Binocular interaction in striate cortex of kittens reared with artificial squint. Journal of Neurophysiology 28(6): 1041–1059.
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Wiesel, T. N., and D. H. Hubel. 1965. Extent of recovery from the effects of visual deprivation in kittens. Journal of Neurophysiology 28(6): 1060–1072.
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Sugiyama, S., A. A. Di Nardo, S. Aizawa, I. Matsuo, M. Volovitch, A. Prochiantz, and T. K. Hensch. 2008. Experience-dependent transfer of Otx2 homeoprotein into the visual cortex activates postnatal plasticity. Cell 134(3): 508–520.
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Hensch, T. K. 2005. Critical period mechanisms in developing visual cortex. Current Topics in Developmental Biology 69: 215–237.
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Southwell, D. G., R. C. Froemke, A. Alvarez-Buylla, M. P. Stryker, and S. P. Gandhi. 2010. Cortical plasticity induced by inhibitory neuron transplantation. Science 327(5969): 1145–1148.
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Bardin, J. 2012. Unlocking the brain. Nature 487(7405): 24–26.

الفصل الرابع: مرونة المشابك العصبية

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Kandel, E. R., J. H. Schwartz, and T. M. Jessell. 1995. Essentials of Neural Science and Behavior. Appleton & Lange.
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Sheng, M., and E. Kim. 2011. The postsynaptic organization of synapses. Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology 3: a005678.
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Südhof, T. C. 2013. A molecular machine for neurotransmitter release: Synaptotagmin and beyond. Nature Medicine 19(10): 1227–1231.
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Kandel, E. R., J. H. Schwartz, and T. M. Jessell. 1995. Essentials of Neural Science and Behavior. Appleton & Lange.
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Sheng, M., and E. Kim. 2011. The postsynaptic organization of synapses. Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology 3: a005678.
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Rosenzweig, M. R. 1996. Aspects of the search for neural mechanisms of memory. Annual Review of Psychology 47: 1–32.
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Bliss, T. V., and T. Lømo. 1973. Long-lasting potentiation of synaptic transmission in the dentate area of the anaesthetized rabbit following stimulation of the perforant path. Journal of Physiology 232(2): 331–356.
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Kandel, E. R., J. H. Schwartz, and T. M. Jessell. 1995. Essentials of Neural Science and Behavior. Appleton & Lange.
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Malenka, R. C. 2003. The long-term potential of LTP. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 4(11): 923–926.
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Malinov, R., and R. C. Malenka. 2002. AMPA receptor trafficking and synaptic plasticity. Annual Review of Neuroscience 25: 103–126.
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Sheng, M., and E. Kim. 2011. The postsynaptic organization of synapses. Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology 3: a005678.
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Lüscher, C., and R. C. Malenka. 2011. Drug-evoked synaptic plasticity in addiction: From molecular changes to circuit remodeling. Neuron 69(4): 650–663.
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Morris, R. G., E. Anderson, G. S. Lynch, and M. Baudry. 1986. Selective impairment of learning and blockade of long-term potentiation by an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, AP5. Nature 319(6056): 774–776.
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Tonegawa, S., M. Pignatelli, D. S. Roy, and T. J. Ryan. 2015. Memory engram storage and retrieval. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 35: 101–109.
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Yuste, R. 2015. The discovery of dendritic spines by Cajal. Frontiers in Neuroanatomy 9(18). DOI: 10.3389/fnana.2015.00018.
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Sala, C., and M. Segal. 2014. Dendritic spines: The locus of structural and synaptic plasticity. Physiological Review 94(1): 141–188.
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Lamprecht, R., and J. LeDoux. 2004. Structural plasticity and memory. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 5(1): 45–54.
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Cichon, J., and W. B. Gan. 2006. Branch-specific dendritic spikes cause persistent synaptic plasticity. Nature 520(7546): 180–185.
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Nimchinsky, E. A., B. L. Sabatini, and K. Svoboda. 2002. Structure and function of dendritic spines. Annual Review of Physiology 64: 313–353.
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Allen, N. J. 2014. Synaptic plasticity: Astrocytes wrap it up. Current Biology 24(15): R697–699.
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Tremblay, M.-È., B. Stevens, A. Sierra, H. Wake, A. Bessis, and A. Nimmerjahn. 2011. The role of microglia in the healthy brain. Journal of Neuroscience 31(45): 16064–16069.

الفصل الخامس: التخليق العصبي في البلوغ

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Costandi, M. 2006. The discovery of the neuron. Neurophilosophy blog, 29 August, 2006. https://neurophilosophy.wordpress.com/2006/08/29/the-discovery-of-the-neuron/.
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Gross, C. G. 2012. A Hole in the Head: More Tales in the History of Neuroscience. MIT Press.
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Altman, J., and G. D. Das. 1965. Autoradiographic and histological evidence of postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis in rats. Journal of Comparative Neurology 124(3): 319–336.
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Kaplan, M. S. 1981. Neurogenesis in the 3-month-old rat visual cortex. Journal of Comparative Neurology 195(2): 323–338.
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Costandi, M. 2012. Fantasy fix. New Scientist 213(2854): 38–41.
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Ibid.
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Nottebohm, F. 1981. A brain for all seasons: Cyclical anatomical changes in song control nuclei of the canary brain. Science 214(4527): 1368–1370.
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Gould, E., and C. G. Gross. 2002. Neurogenesis in adult mammals: Some progress and problems. Journal of Neuroscience 22(3): 619–623.
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Reynolds, B. A., and S. Weiss. 1992. Generation of neurons and astrocytes from isolated cells of the adult mammalian central nervous system. Science 255(5052): 1707–1710.
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Costandi, M. 2012. Fantasy fix. New Scientist 213(2854): 38–41.
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Braun, S. M., and S. Jessberger. 2014. Adult neurogenesis: Mechanisms and functional significance. Development 141(10): 1983–1986.
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Gould, E., and C. G. Gross. 2002. Neurogenesis in adult mammals: Some progress and problems. Journal of Neuroscience 22(3): 619–623.
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Eriksson, P. S., E. Perfilieva, T. Björk-Eriksson, A.-M. Alborn, C. Nordborg, D. A. Peterson, and F. H. Gage. 1998. Neurogenesis in the adult human hippocampus. Nature Medicine 4(11): 1313–1317.
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Knoth, R., I. Singec, M. Ditter, G. Pattazis, P. Capetian, R. P. Meyer, V. Horvat, B. Volk, and G. Kempermann. 2010. Murine features of neurogenesis in the human hippocampus across the lifespan from 0 to 100 years. PLoS One 5: e8809.
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Sanai, N., A. D. Tramontin, A. Quiñones-Hinojosa, N. M. Barbaro, N. Gupta, S. Kunwar, M. T. Lawton, M. W. McDermott, A. T. Parsa, J. Manuel- García Verdugo, M. S. Berger, and A. Alvarez-Buylla. 2004. Unique astrocyte ribbon in adult human brain contains neural stem cells but lacks chain migration. Nature 427(6976): 740–744.
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Sanai, N., T. Nguyen, R. A. Ihrie, Z. Mirzadeh, H.-H. Tsai, M. Wong, N. Gupta, M. S. Berger, E. Huang, J. Manuel-García Verdugo, D. H. Rowitch, and A. Alvarez-Buylla. 2011. Corridors of migrating neurons in the human brain and their decline during infancy. Nature 478(7369): 382–386.
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Spalding, K. L., O. Bergmann, K. Alkass, S. Bernard, M. Salehpour, H. B. Huttner, E. Boström, I. Westerlund, C. Vial, B. A. Buchholz, G. Possnert, D. C. Mash, H. Druid, and J. Frisén. 2013. Dynamics of hippocampal neurogenesis in adult humans. Cell 153(6): 1219–1227.
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Ernst, A., K. Alkass, S. Bernard, M. Salehpour, S. Perl, J. Tisdale, H. Druid, and J. Frisén. 2014. Neurogenesis in the striatum of the adult human brain. Cell 156(5): 1072–1083.
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Hanson, N. D., M. J. Owens, and C. B. Nemeroff. 2011. Depression, antidepressants, and neurogenesis: A critical reappraisal. Neuropsychopharmacology 36(13): 2589–2602.
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Ernst, A. and J. Frisén. 2015. Adult neurogenesis in humans: Common and unique traits in mammals. PLoS Biology 13(1): e1002045.
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Vescovi, A. L., R. Galli, and B. A. Reynolds. 2006. Brain tumor stem cells. Nature Reviews Cancer 6(6): 425–436.
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Costandi, M. 2012. Fantasy fix. New Scientist 213(2854): 38–41.
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Casarosa, S., Y. Bozzi, and L. Conti. 2014. Neural stem cells: Ready for therapeutic applications? Molecular and Cellular Therapies 2: 31. DOI: 10.1186/2052-8426-2-31.

الفصل السادس: تدريب الدماغ

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Owen, A. M., A. Hampshire, J. A. Grahn, R. Stenton, S. Dajani, A. S. Burns, R. J. Howard, and C. G. Ballard. 2010. Putting brain training to the test. Nature 465(7299): 775–778.
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Max Planck Institute for Human Development and Stanford Center on Longevity. 2014. A Consensus on the Brain Training Industry from the Scientific Community. Accessed on 4 September, 2015, from http://longevity3.stanford.edu/blog/2014/10/15/the-consensus-on-the-brain-training-industry-from-the-scientific-community/.
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Federal Trade Commission. 2016. Lumosity to pay $2 million to settle FTC deceptive advertising charges for its “brain training” program. Accessed on 23 February, 2016, from https://www.ftc.gov/news-events/press-releases/2016/01/lumosity-pay-2-million-settle-ftc-deceptive-advertising-charges/.
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Münte, T. F., E. Altenmüller, and L. Jancke. 2002. The musician’s brain as a model of neuroplasticity. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 3(6): 473–478.
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Mechelli, A., J. T. Crinion, U. Noppeney, J. O’Doherty, J. Ashburner, R. S. Frackowiak, and C. J. Price. 2004. Structural plasticity in the bilingual brain. Nature 431(7010): 757.
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Li, P., J. Legault, and K. A. Litcofsky. 2014. Neuroplasticity as a function of second language learning: Anatomical changes in the human brain. Cortex 58: 301–24.
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Costandi, M. 2014. Am I too old to learn a new language? The Guardian. http://www.theguardian.com/education/2014/sep/13/am-i-too-old-to-learn-a-language/.
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Schlaug, G., L. Jäncke, Y. Huang, J. F. Staiger, and H. Steinmetz. 1995. Increased corpus callosum size in musicians. Neuropsychologia 33(8): 1047–1055.
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Elbert, T., C. Pantev, C. Wienbruch, B. Rockstroh, and E. Taub. 1995. Increased cortical representation of the fingers of the left hand in string players. Science 270(5234): 305–307.
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Gaser, C., and G. Schlaug. 2003. Brain structures differ between musicians and non-musicians. Journal of Neuroscience 23(27): 9240–9245.
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Bengtsson, S. L., Z. Nagy, S. Skare, L. Forsman, H. Forssberg, and F. Ullén. 2005. Extensive piano practicing has regionally specific effects on white matter development. Nature Neuroscience 8(9): 1148–1150.
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Roberts, R. E., P. G. Bain, B. I. Day, and M. Husain. 2012. Individual differences in expert motor coordination associated with white matter microstructure in the cerebellum. Cerebral Cortex 23(10): 2282–2292.
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Driemeyer, J., J. Boyke, C. Gaser, C. Büchel, and A. May. 2008. Changes in gray matter induced by learning—Revisited. PLoS ONE 3(7): e2669. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0002669.
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Scholz, J., M. C. Klein, T. E. J. Behrens, and H. Johansen-Berg. 2009. Training induces changes in white matter architecture. Nature Neuroscience 12(11): 1370-1371.
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Maguire, E. A., D. G. Gadian, I. S. Johnsrude, C. D. Good, J. Ashburner, R. J. S. Frackowiak, and C. D. Frith. 2000. Navigation-related structural change in the hippocampi of taxi drivers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 97(8): 4398–4403.
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Woollett, K., and E. A. Maguire. 2011. Acquiring “the Knowledge” of London’s layout drives structural brain changes. Current Biology 21(24): 2109–2114.
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Debarnot, U., M. Sperduti, F. Di Rienzo, and A. Guillot. 2014. Expert bodies, expert minds: How physical and mental training shape the brain. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8(280): DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2014.00280.
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Zatorre, R. J., R. D. Fields, and H. Johansen-Berg. 2012. Plasticity in gray and white: Neuroimaging changes in brain structure during learning. Nature Neuroscience 15(4): 528–536.
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Naito, E., and S. Hirose. 2014. Efficient motor control by Neymar’s brain. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8. DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2014.00594.

الفصل السابع: إصابة الأعصاب وتلف الدماغ

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Buonomano, D. V., and M. M. Merzenich. 1998. Cortical plasticity: From synapses to maps. Annual Review of Neuroscience 21: 149–186.
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Ramachandran, V. S., and D. Rogers-Ramachandran. 2000. Phantom limbs and neural plasticity. Archives of Neurology 57(3): 317–320.
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Navarro, X., M. Vivó, and A. Valero-Cabré. 2007. Neural plasticity after peripheral nerve injury and regeneration. Progress in Neurobiology 82(4): 163–201.
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Pascual-Leone, A., A. Amedi, F. Fregni, and L. B. Merabet. 2005. The plastic human brain cortex. Annual Review of Neuroscience 28: 377–401.
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Schaechter, J. D., C. I. Moore, B. D. Connell, B. R. Rosen, and R. M. Dijkhuizen. 2006. Structural and functional plasticity in the somatosensory cortex of chronic stroke patients. Brain 129(10): 2722–2733.
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Costandi, M. 2014. Machine recovery. Nature 510(7506): S8-S9.
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Pascual-Leone, A., A. Amedi, F. Fregni, and L. B. Merabet. 2005. The plastic human brain cortex. Annual Review of Neuroscience 28: 377–401.
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Ibid.
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Rohan, J. G., K. A. Carhuatanta, S. M. McInturf, M. K. Miklasevich, and R. Jankord. 2015. Modulating hippocampal plasticity with in vivo brain stimulation. Journal of Neuroscience 35(37): 12824–12832.
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Pilato, F., P. Profice, L. Florio, R. Di Iorio, F. Iodice, D. Marisa, and D. L. Vincenzo. 2013. Non-invasive brain stimulation techniques may improve language recovery in stroke patients modulating neural plasticity. Journal of Neurology and Translational Neuroscience 1: 1012.
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Ward, N. 2011. Assessment of cortical reorganisation for hand function after stroke. Journal of Physiology 589(23): 5625–5632.
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Shah, P. P., J. P. Szaflarski, J. Allendorfer, and R. H. Hamilton. 2013. Induction of neuroplasticity and recovery in post-stroke aphasia by non-invasive brain stimulation. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7. DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2013.00888.
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Chollet, F., J. Tardy, J.-F. Albucher, C. Thalamas, E. Berard, C. Lamy, Y. Bejot, S. Deltour, A. Jaillard, P. Niclot, B. Guillon, T. Moulin, P. Marque, J. Pariente, C. Arnaud, and I. Loubinoux, (2011). Fluoxetine for motor recovery after acute ischemic stroke (FLAME): A randomized placebo-controlled trial. The Lancet Neurology 10(2): 123–130.

الفصل الثامن: الإدمان والألم

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Koob, G. F., and N. D. Volkow. 2010. Neurocircuitry of addiction. Neuropsychopharmacology Reviews 35(1): 217–238.
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Ibid.
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Lüscher, C., and R. C. Malenka. 2012. NMDA receptor-dependent long-term potentiation and long-term depression (LTP/LTD). Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology 4: a005710.
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O’Brien, C. P. 2009. Neuroplasticity in addictive disorders. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience 11(3): 350–353.
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Dodd, M. L., K. J. Klos, J. H. Bower, Y. E. Geda, K. A. Josephs, and J. E. Ahlskog. 2005. Pathological gambling caused by drugs used to treat Parkinson’s disease. Archives of Neurology 62(9): 1377–1381.
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Lumpkin, E. A., and M. J. Caterina. 2007. Mechanisms of sensory transduction in the skin. Nature 445(7130): 858–865.
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Woolf, C. J., and M. W. Salter 2000. Neuronal plasticity: Increasing the gain in pain. Science 288(5472): 1765–1768.
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Luo, C., T. Kuner, and R. Kuner. 2014. Synaptic plasticity in pathological pain. Trends in Neurosciences 37(6): 343–355.
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Gustin, S. M., C. C. Peck, L. B. Cheney, P. M. Macey, G. M. Murray, and L. A. Henderson. 2012. Pain and plasticity: Is chronic pain always associated with somatosensory cortex activity and reorganization? Journal of Neuroscience 32(43): 14874–14884.

الفصل التاسع: التغيرات الدماغية المستمرة مدى الحياة

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Anderson, A., and M. E. Thomason. 2013. Functional plasticity before the cradle: A review of neural functional imaging in the human fetus. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 37(9B): 2220–2232.
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Sweatt, J. D. 2013. The emerging field of neuroepigenetics. Neuron 80(3): 624–632.
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Weaver, I. C. G., N. Cervoni, F. A. Champagne, A. C. D’Alessio, S. Sharma, J. R. Seckl, S. Dymov, M. Szyf, and M. M. Meaney 2004. Epigenetic programming by maternal behavior. Nature Neuroscience 7(8): 847–854.
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McGowan, P. O., A. Sasaki, A. C. D’Alessio, S. Dymov, B. Labonté, M. Szyf, G. Turecki, and M. J. Meaney. 2009. Epigenetic regulation of the glucocorticoid receptor in human brain associates with childhood abuse. Nature Neuroscience 12(3): 342–348.
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Brito, N. H., and K. G. Noble. 2014. Socioeconomic status and structural brain development. Frontiers in Neuroscience 8: 276.
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Davidson, R. J., and B. S. McEwan. 2011. Social influences on neuroplasticity: Stress and interventions to promote well-being. Nature Neuroscience 15(5): 689–695.
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Blakemore, S.-J. 2012. Imaging brain development: The adolescent brain. NeuroImage 61(2): 397–406.
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Elyada, Y. M., and A. Mizrahi. 2015. Becoming a mother: Circuit plasticity underlying maternal behavior. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 35: 49–56.
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Kim, P., J. F. Leckman, L. C. Mayes, R. Feldman, X. Wang, and J. E. Swain. 2010. The plasticity of human maternal brain: Longitudinal changes in brain anatomy during the early postpartum period. Behavioral Neuroscience 124(5): 695–700.
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McEwan, A. M., D. T. A. Burgess, C. C. Hanstock, P. Seres, P. Khalili, S. C. Newman, G. B. Baker, N. D. Mitchell, J. Khudabux-Der, P. S. Allen, and J.-M. LeMelledo. 2012. Increased glutamate levels in the medial prefrontal cortex in patients with postpartum depression. Neuropsychopharmacology 37(11): 2428–2435.
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Kim, P., P. Rigo, L. C. Mayes, R. Feldman, J. F. Leckman, and J. E. Swain. 2014. Neural plasticity in fathers of human infants. Social Neuroscience 9(5): 522–535.
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Burke, S. N., and C. A. Barnes. 2006. Neural plasticity in the aging brain. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 7(1): 30–40.
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Grady, C. 2012. Trends in neurocognitive aging. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 13(7): 491–505.
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Rogalski, E. J., T. Gefen, J. Shi, M. Samimi, E. Bigio, S. Weintraub, C. Geula, and M. M. Mesulam. 2013. Youthful memory capacity in old brains: Anatomic and genetic clues from the Northwestern SuperAging Project. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 25(1): 29–36.
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Abutalebi, J., M. Canini, P. A. Della Rosa, L. P. Sheung, D. W. Green, and B. S. Weekes. 2014. Bilingualism protects anterior temporal lobes integrity in aging. Neurobiology of Aging 35(9): 2126–2133.
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Costandi, M. 2014. Am I too old to learn a new language? The Guardian. http://www.theguardian.com/education/2014/sep/13/am-i-too-old-to-learn-a-language/.
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Wong, C., L. Chaddock-Heyman, M. W. Voss, A. Z. Burzynska, C. Basak, K. I. Erickson, R. S. Prakash, A. N. Szabo-Reed, S. M. Phillips, T. Wojcicki, E. L. Mailey, E. McAuley, and A. F. Kramer. 2015. Brain activation during dualtask processing is associated with cardiorespiratory fitness and performance in older adults. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience 12(7): 154. DOI: 10.3389/fnagi.2015.00154.

الفصل العاشر: خاتمة

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Steele, C. J., J. A. Bailey, R. J. Zatoore, and V. B. Penhune. 2013. Early musical training and white matter plasticity: Evidence for a sensitive period. Journal of Neuroscience 33(3): 1282–1290.
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Kandel, E. R., J. H. Schwartz, and T. M. Jessell. 1995. Essentials of Neural Science and Behavior. Appleton & Lange.
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McKenzie, I. A., D. Ohayon, H. Li, J. P. de Faria, B. Emery, K. Tohyama, and W. D. Richardson. 2014. Motor skill learning requires active central myelination. Science 346(6207): 318–322.
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