ملاحظات

الفصل الأول: الورم في العائلة

(1)
When referring to the etymology of words throughout this book, Online Etymology Dictionary was my reference point; see www.etymology.com.
(2)
“More Patients Will Die of Pancreatic Cancer Than Breast Cancer,” Pancreatic Cancer Action Network, January 7, 2016, https://www.pancan.org/about-us/news-press-center/2016-press-releases/press-release-january-7-2016-cancer-statistics-2016-report/.
(3)
“Cancer Facts and Figures 2016,” American Cancer Society, http://www.cancer.org/acs/groups/content/@research/documents/document/acspc-047079.pdf.
(4)
Note that statistics in the text are most often for the United States. Breast, lung, colon, and prostate are the most common cancers in the United States, in the United Kingdom, and worldwide. While cancer-related statistics are often roughly the same in the United Kingdom as in the United States, incidence and mortality rates vary, medical systems and treatment protocols vary from country to country, and similar statistics are not necessarily determined in the same ways. Pancreatic cancer in the United Kingdom has an overall 5 percent, five-year survival rate, for instance, which is a few percentage points lower than in the United States, but there exists “no UKwide statistics for pancreatic cancer survival by stage,” as there does in the United States. “Survival Statistics for Pancreatic Cancer,” Cancer Research UK, https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/birthsdeathsandmarriages/deaths/bulletins/deathsregistrationsummarytables/2015.
(5)
Lola Rahib, Benjamin D. Smith, Rhonda Aizenberg, Allison B. Rosenzweig, Julie M. Fleshman, and Lynn M. Matrisian, “Predicting Cancer Incidence and Deaths to 2030,” Cancer Research 74:11 (June 2014), http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/74/11/2913.
(6)
“Breast Cancer Facts & Figures 2013-2014,” American Cancer Society, http://www.cancer.org/acs/groups/content/@research/documents/document/acspc-042725.pdf.
(7)
“SEER Stats Fact Sheets: Breast Cancer,” National Cancer Institute, http://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/breast.html.
(8)
“SEER Stats Fact Sheets: Pancreas Cancer,” National Cancer Institute, http://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/pancreas.html.
(9)
“Breast Cancer Facts & Figures 2013-2014,” American Cancer Society.
(10)
“Common Cancer Types,” American Cancer Society, http://www.cancer.gov/types/common-cancers.
(11)
Siddhartha Mukherjee, The Emperor of All Maladies: A Biography of Cancer (New York: Scribner, 2010), 154.
(12)
“‘UK Astronaut’ Piers Sellers on Living with Cancer,” BBC Online, January 21, 2016, http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-england-35374271.
(13)
Randy Pausch, “Really Achieving Your Childhood Dreams,” Carnegie Mellon, YouTube, September 18, 2007, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ji5_MqicxSo.
(14)
Mukherjee, The Emperor of All Maladies, 154.
(15)
Lynn Sherr, Sally Ride: America’s First Woman in Space (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2014), 307-308.
(16)
I wrote about the year I read Tolstoy’s novella in college and about the connections between that book and my life in “Sweet Dreams Are Made of This,” Dogwood: A Journal of Poetry and Prose 15 (2016): 15–32.
(17)
Thomas J. Papadimos and Stanislaw P. A. Stawicki, “The Death of Ivan Ilyich: A Blueprint for Intervention at the End of Life,” International Journal of Critical Illness and Injury Science 1:2, 125–28, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3249844/.
(18)
Patient autonomy and cultural differences are covered in numerous articles, including the following: N. Tchen et al., “Quality of Life and Understanding Disease Status Among Patients of Different Ethnic Origins,” British Journal of Cancer 89:4 (2003), 641–47, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2376912/; Mary S. McCabe et al., “When the Family Requests Withholding Information: Who Owns the Truth?” Journal of Oncology Practice 6:2 (2010), 94–96, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2835490/.
(19)
Ali Montezari, Azadeh Tavoli, Mohammed Ali, Mohagheghi, Rasool Rashan, and Zahra Tavoli, “Disclosure of Cancer Diagnosis and Quality of Life in Cancer Patients: Should It be the Same Everywhere?” BMC Cancer 9, 39, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2639611/.
(20)
Shekhawat Laxmi and Joad Anjum Khan, “Does the Cancer Patient Want to Know? Results from a Study in an Indian Tertiary Cancer Care Center,” South Asian Journal of Cancer 2:2 (2013), 57–61, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3876664/.
(21)
Atul Gawande, Being Mortal: Medicine and What Matters in the End (New York: Metropolitan Books, 2014), 2-3.
(22)
“My Big Brother,” Scrubs, Season 2, Episode 6, Touchstone Television, ABC.
(23)
Eve Ensler, In the Body of the World (New York: Metropolitan Books, 2013), 116-17.
(24)
Christopher Hitchens, Mortality (New York: Twelve, 2012), 7.
(25)
“SEER Stats Fact Sheets: Liver and Intrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer,” National Cancer Institute, http://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/livibd.html.
(26)
I wrote about my father’s cancer, its possible relationship to radiation exposure, and the Cold War in “Strange Attraction: John Wayne and Me,” The Southern Review (Spring, 2011), 313–28.
(27)
“The 1973 Fire, National Personnel Records Fire,” National Archives, http://www.archives.gov/st-louis/military-personnel/fire-1973.html.
(28)
“Radiation Compensation Exposure Act,” US Department of Justice, https://www.justice.gov/civil/common/reca.
(29)
Michael F. Sorrentino, Jiwon Kim, Andrew E. Foderaro, and Alexander G. Truesdell, “5-Fluorouracil Induced Cardiotoxicity: A Review of the Literature,” Via Medica 19:5, 453–58, https://journals.viamedica.pl/cardiology_journal/article/viewFile/22956/18191.
(30)
“SEER Stats Fact Sheets: Liver and Intrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer,” National Cancer Institute.
(32)
“Genetics of Breast and Gynecologic Cancers (PDQ)-Health Professional Version,” National Cancer Institute, http://www.cancer.gov/types/breast/hp/breast-ovarian-genetics-pdq#link/_95.
(33)
George Johnson, The Cancer Chronicles: Unlocking Medicine’s Deepest Mystery (New York: Knopf, 2013), 28.
(34)
“Body Measurements,” National Center for Health Statistics, National Center for Disease Control and Prevention, http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/body-measurements.htm.

الفصل الثاني: البنود والشروط

(1)
William Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet, 1.2.47–48, http://shakespeare.mit.edu/romeo_juliet/full.html.
(2)
“Lifetime Risk of Developing or Dying From Cancer,” American Cancer Society, http://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancerbasics/lifetime-probability-of-developing-or-dying-from-cancer.
(3)
S. Lochlann Jain, Malignant: How Cancer Becomes Us (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2013), 4.
(4)
George Orwell, “How the Poor Die,” The Orwell Prize website, Now 6 (1946), http://www.theorwellprize.co.uk/theorwell-prize/orwell/essays-and-other-works/how-the-poor-die/.
(5)
Jain, Malignant, 2.
(6)
“Vietnam Surgery Removes Tumor Twice Man’s Weight,” CNN, January 8, 2012, http://www.cnn.com/2012/01/06/health/vietnam-tumor.
(7)
Vellanki Venkata Sujatha and Sunkavalli Chinna Babu, “Giant ovarian serous cystadenoma in a postmenopausal woman: a case report,” Cases Journal 2, July 23, 2009, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2740039/.
(8)
“Diagnosis and Treatment,” The Desmoid Tumor Research Foundation, http://dtrf.org/diagnosis-and-treatment/.
(9)
“Malignant (adj.),” Online Etymology Dictionary, http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=malignant.
(10)
Susan Gubar, Memoir of a Debulked Woman (New York: W. W. Norton, 2012), 13.
(11)
Mukherjee, The Emperor of All Maladies, 38.
(13)
“How Is Breast Cancer Staged?” American Cancer Society, www.cancer.org/cancer/breastcancer/detailedguide/breast-cancer-staging.
(14)
Carla Malden, Afterimage: A Brokenhearted Memoir of a Charmed Life (Guilford, CT: Skirt!, 2011), 25.
(15)
Ensler, In the Body of the World, 87-88.
(16)
“Metastasis (n.),” Etymology Online Dictionary, http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=metastasis.
(17)
Malden, Afterimage, 99.
(18)
Ibid., 132.

الفصل الثالث: الذات/الآخر

(1)
Mukherjee, The Emperor of All Maladies, 6.
(2)
Johnson, The Cancer Chronicles, 28.
(3)
E. Bianconi et al., “An Estimation of the Number of Cells in the Human Body,” Annals of Human Biology 40:6 (July 5, 2013), 463–71, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23829164.
(4)
Christian Tomasetti and Bert Vogelstein, “Cancer Etiology: Variation in Cancer Risk Among Tissues Can Be Explained by the Number of Stem Cell Divisions,” Science 347 (January 2, 2015): 78–81, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25554788.
(5)
Jennifer Couzin-Frankel, “The Simple Math Explains Why You May (or May Not) Get Cancer,” Science, January 1, 2015, http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2015/01/simple-math-explains-why-you-may-or-may-not-get-cancer.
(6)
Ibid.
(7)
Ibid.
(8)
“SEER Stats Fact Sheets: Colon and Rectum Cancer,” National Cancer Institute, http://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/colorect.html.
(9)
“SEER Stats Fact Sheets: Brain and Other Nervous System Cancer,” National Cancer Institute, http://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/brain.html.
(10)
Jennifer Couzin-Frankel, “Bad Luck and Cancer: A Science Reporter’s Reflections on a Controversial Story,” Science, January 13, 2015, http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2015/01/bad-luck-and-cancer-science-reporter-s-reflectionscontroversial-story.
(11)
Mukherjee, The Emperor of All Maladies, 16.
(12)
Ibid., 6.
(13)
“Small Potatoes,” The X-Files, 20th Century Fox, April 20, 1997.
(14)
Naohiku Kuno, “Mature Ovarian Cystic Teratoma with a Highly Differentiated Homunculus: A Case Study,” Birth Defects Research Part A: Clinical and Molecular Teratology, October 28, 2003, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14745894.
(15)
Michael Munn, John Wayne: The Man Behind the Myth (New York: Penguin, 2005), 257.
(16)
“Perceptions of Cancer in Society Must Change,” The Lancet 17:3 (March, 2016), 257, http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lanonc/article/PIIS1470-2045(16)00091-7/fulltext.
(17)
Gilda Radner, It’s Always Something (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2009), 75.
(18)
Ibid., 59.
(19)
“Perceptions of Cancer in Society Must Change,” 257.
(20)
Susan Gubar, Reading & Writing Cancer: How Words Heal (New York: W. W. Norton, 2016), 7.
(21)
Ibid., 8.
(22)
Christine Lennon, “Ovarian Cancer: Fighting for a Cure,” Harper’s Bazaar, June 3, 2009, http://www.harpersbazaar.com/beauty/health/news/a391/barack-obama-ovarian-cancer/.
(23)
Radner, It’s Always Something, 59.
(24)
Hitchens, Mortality, 6.
(25)
Ibid., 7.
(26)
“Loved Ones Recall Local Man’s Cowardly Battle with Cancer,” The Onion, February 24, 1999, http://www.theonion.com/article/loved-ones-recall-local-mans-cowardly-battle-with--772.
(27)
Emily Debrayda Phillips, Obituary, The Florida Times Union, March 31, 2015, http://www.legacy.com/obituaries/timesunion/obituary.aspx?n=emily-debraydaphillips&pid=174524066&.
(28)
Ibid.
(29)
Emily Dickinson, “Because I Could Not Stop for Death,” Academy Of American Poets, https://www.poets.org/poetsorg/poem/because-i-could-not-stop-death-479.
(30)
Gubar, Memoir of a Debulked Woman, 29.
(31)
Ibid.
(32)
Hitchens, Mortality, 89.
(33)
Ensler, In the Body of the World, 113.
(34)
“Staying Safe Around Bears,” US National Park Service, https://www.nps.gov/subjects/bears/safety.htm.
(35)
Italics mine. Jimmy Carter, “The State of the Union Address Delivered Before a Joint Session of Congress,” The American Presidency Project, January 23, 1980, http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=33079.
(36)
“A Promise Renewed: Fiscal Year 2015 Annual Report,” Susan G. Komen Foundation, 2015, https://www.komen.org/uploadedFiles/_Komen/Content/About_Us/Financial_Reports/SGK-2015-Annual-Report-reader.pdf.
(37)
“We Wage Hope: 2014 Impact Report,” Pancreatic Cancer Action Network, 2014, https://www.pancan.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/PCAN-Impact-Report-2014-sm.pdf.
(38)
Return of Organization Exempt from Tax (Form 990), National Pancreatic Cancer Foundation, http://www.npcf.us/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/F990-2015.pdf.
(39)
“Cancer Among Women,” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, https://www.cdc.gov/cancer/dcpc/data/women.htm.
(40)
“Cancer Disparities,” National Cancer Institute, http://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/understanding/disparities.
(41)
“Funding for Research Areas,” National Cancer Institute, http://www.cancer.gov/about-nci/budget/fact-book/data/research-funding.
(42)
Ibid.
(43)
“Current Grants by Cancer Type,” American Cancer Society, http://www.cancer.org/research/currentlyfundedcancerresearch/grants-by-cancer-type.
(44)
“CSR Insider’s Guide to Peer Review,” Center for Scientific Review, National Institutes of Health, http://public.csr.nih.gov/aboutcsr/NewsAndPublications/Publications/Pages/InsidersGuide.aspx.
(45)
Barbara Ehrenreich, “Welcome to Cancerland,” Harper’s Magazine, November 2001, 43–53.
(46)
Breast Prosthesis Program, Nordstrom, http://shop.nordstrom.com/c/prosthesis-program.
(47)
Rachel Kassnebrock, “Breast Cancer Industry Month Is Here!” Ms. Magazine, October 13, 2014, http://msmagazine.com/blog/2014/10/13/breast-cancer-industry-month-is-here/.
(48)
Ibid.
(49)
Lucy Grealy, Autobiography of a Face (New York: Harper Perennial, 1994), 7.
(50)
Gubar, Memoir of a Debulked Woman, 89.
(51)
In addition to how I discuss social identity and selfcategorization theories here, scholars are exploring ways in which these dynamics affect patient care. For instance, oncologists may use social identity to stereotype a patient in ways detrimental to positive outcomes. For one such examination, see Jake Harwood and Lisa Sparks, “Social Identity and Health: Intergroup Communication Approach to Cancer,” Health Communication 15:2 (2003), 145–59.
(52)
Susan Sontag, Illness as Metaphor (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1978), 3.
(53)
Hitchens, Mortality, 3.
(54)
Ibid.
(55)
Ibid., 28.
(56)
Gubar, Memoir of a Debulked Woman, 89.
(57)
Gubar, Reading & Writing Cancer, preface.
(58)
Ibid.
(59)
Kelly Corrigan, The Middle Place (New York: Hyperion, 2008), 154.
(60)
Ibid.
(61)
Meghan O’Rourke, The Long Goodbye (New York: Riverhead Books, 2011), 88-89.
(62)
Jain, Malignant, 3.
(63)
Hitchens, Mortality, 11.
(64)
Radner, It’s Always Something, 206.
(65)
“Leading Causes of Death,” National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/leading-causesof-death.htm. “Deaths Registered in England and Wales: 2015,” Office for National Statistics, https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/birthsdeathsandmarriages/deaths/bulletins/deathsregistrationsummarytables/2015.

الفصل الرابع: جزء لا يتجزَّأ

(1)
“Mammogram Basics,” American Cancer Society, https://www.cancer.org/cancer/breast-cancer/screening-tests-and-early-detection.html.
(2)
“Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ),” National Cancer Institute, https://www.cancer.gov/types/breast/hp/breast-screening-pdq#section/all.
(3)
Ibid.
(4)
Ibid.
(5)
Ibid.
(6)
Christie Aschwanden, “I’m Just Saying No to Mammography: Why the Numbers Are in My Favor,” The Washington Post, October 7, 2013, https://www.washingtonpost.com/national/health-science/im-just-saying-no-to-mammography-why-thenumbers-are-in-my-favor/2013/10/07/733c0894-29e1-11e3-8ade-a1f23cda135e_story.html.
(7)
Paul Ehrlich, “Partial Cell Functions,” Nobel lecture, December 11, 1908, 304–20, http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1908/ehrlich-lecture.pdf.
(8)
Ibid.
(9)
Vincent T. DeVita and Elizabeth DeVita-Raeburn, The Death of Cancer (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2015), 108.
(10)
Ibid., 105.
(11)
Ibid., 68-69.
(12)
“Chemotherapy for Hodgkin Disease,” American Cancer Society, https://www.cancer.org/cancer/hodgkin-lymphoma/treating/chemotherapy.html.
(13)
Ibid., 17.
(14)
Gawande, Being Mortal, 167.
(15)
Ibid., 167-68.
(16)
DeVita and DeVita-Raeburn, The Death of Cancer, 26.
(17)
Gawande, Being Mortal, 177.
(18)
DeVita and DeVita-Raeburn, The Death of Cancer, 27.
(19)
Thierry Conroy et al., “FOLFIRINOX versus Gemcitabine for Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer,” New England Journal of Medicine 364 (May 12, 2011): 1817–25, http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1011923.
(20)
“Information for Health Care Providers,” Centers for Disease Control, http://www.cdc.gov/cancer/preventinfections/providers.htm.
(21)
Rhonda Pickett, email, February 19, 2015.
(22)
Ibid.
(23)
Donna D. Ignatavicius and M. Linda Workman, Medical-Surgical Nursing: Patient-Centered Collaborative Care (Amsterdam: Elsevier Health Sciences, 2015), 196.
(24)
Patricia Grace King, “The Cancer Diaries: Week Two,” June 21, 2014, http://www.patriciagraceking.com/uncategorized/the-cancer-diaries-week-two/.

الفصل الخامس: الداخل/الخارج

(1)
“Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident: An Overview,” World Health Organization, April 2006, http://www.who.int/ionizing_radiation/chernobyl/backgrounder/en/.
(2)
Jimmy Carter, Why Not the Best? The First Fifty Years, reprint (Fayetteville, AR: University of Arkansas Press, 1996), 54.
(3)
Ibid.
(4)
Denise Grady, “In a Former First Family, Cancer Has a Grim Legacy,” New York Times, August 7, 2007, http://www.nytimes.com/2007/08/07/health/07jimm.html.
(5)
Erwin Schrӧdinger, What Is Life?, 1944 (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2012), 1.
(6)
Carina Storrs, “How Much Do CT Scans Increase the Risk of Cancer?” Scientific American, July 1, 2013, https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/how-much-ct-scans-increase-risk-cancer/.
(7)
Ibid.
(8)
Ibid.
(9)
Nicholas Palvidis, Georgio Stanta, and Riccardo A. Audisio, “Cancer Prevalence and Mortality in Centarians: A Systemic Review,” Clinical Review of Oncological Hematology 83:1 (July 2012), 145–52, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22024388.
(10)
“Survival Rates for Melanoma Skin Cancer, by Stage,” American Cancer Society, http://www.cancer.org/cancer/skincancer-melanoma/detailedguide/melanoma-skin-cancersurvival-rates-by-stage.
(11)
Linda Marsa, “Immunotherapy’s Promise Against Cancer,” U.S. News and World Report, October 6, 2015, http://health.usnews.com/health-news/patient-advice/articles/2015/10/06/immunotherapys-promise-against-cancer.
(12)
Andy Coghlan, “Cancer’s Penicillin Moment: Drugs that Unleash the Immune System,” New Scientist, March 2, 2016, www.newscientist.com/article/2078956-cancerspenicillin-moment-drugs-that-unleash-the-immune-system/.
(13)
Rhonda Pickett, email, October 13, 2016.
(14)
DeVita and DeVita-Raeburn, The Death of Cancer, 252.
(15)
Domenico Napolitani, Michelle Signore, and Daniele C. Struppa, “Cancer Quasispecies and Stem-like Adaptive Aneuploidy,” F1000Research 2 (December 2013), 268.
(16)
Danely P. Slaughter, Harry W. Southwick, and Walter Smejkal, “‘Field Cancerization’ in Oral Stratified Squamous Epithelium,” Cancer 6 (September 1953), 963–68, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/store/10.1002/1097-0142(195309)6:5%3C963::AIDCNCR2820060515%3E3.0.CO;2-Q/asset/2820060515_ftp.pdf?v=1&t=iufl1ugj&s=bd2f274c75ceaca14c00f0932bf9a1a3609db96f.
(17)
“Provocative Questions,” National Cancer Institute, https://provocativequestions.nci.nih.gov/rfa/mainquestions_listview.html.
(18)
Ibid.
(19)
Ibid.
(20)
Katy J. L. Bell, Chris Del Mar, Gordon Wright, James Dickinson, and Paul Glasziou, “Prevalence of Incidental Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review of Autopsy Studies,” International Journal of Cancer 137: 7, 1749–57, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ijc.29538/full.
(21)
Janina Marguc, Jens Förster, and Gerben A. Van Kleef, “Stepping Back to See the Big Picture: When Obstacles Elicit Global Processing,” The Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 101:5 (November 2011), 883–901.
(22)
Jeannine Gailey, “When My Doctor Said, ‘We’re Lucky We Found the Cancer,’” The Mighty, August 12, 2016, https://themighty.com/2016/08/does-luck-play-a-role-in-receiving-a-carcinoid-syndrome-diagnosis/.
(23)
Lucille Clifton, “1994,” Poetry Foundation, https://www.poetryfoundation.org/poems-and-poets/poems/detail/49490.
(24)
Audre Lorde, The Cancer Journals, Aunt Lute Books, 1980.
(25)
Ibid.
(26)
Gubar, Reading & Writing Cancer, 31.
(27)
Charles and Ray Eames (writers and directors), Powers of Ten, IBM Distribution, 1977, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0fKBhvDjuy0.

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