ملاحظات

مقدِّمة: موقع ديلي بلانِت دوت كوم

(1)
Committee to Protect Journalists, 2005, International Press Freedom Awards, viewed July 27, 2007 http://www.cpj.org/awards05/galima.html.
(2)
Silverstone, R., 2006, Media and morality: On the rise of the mediapolis, Cambridge: Polity Press.
(3)
Tumber, H., 1999, News: A reader, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
(4)
Armitage, T., 2006, 2007 and the “next” big media thing, New Statesman, July 31, viewed August 30, 2007, http://www.newstatesman.com/200607310067.

الفصل الأول: «النجدة! النجدة! من سينقذنا؟»

(1)
Goldhammer, G., 2007, Newspapers parting with experience – and with journalism, Below the Fold, June 2, viewed September 11, 2007, http://belowthefold.typepad.com/my_weblog/2007/06/newspapers_part.html.
(2)
Polis, 2007, London School of Economics, viewed September 11, 2007, http://www.lse.ac.uk/collections/polis/.
(3)
Waghorn, R., 2007, Norwich City, MyFootballWriter.com, viewed August 2, 2007, http://norwichcity.myfootballwriter.com/index.asp.
(4)
Terazono, E., 2006, Sales of “lads’ mags” in decline, Financial Times, 28 August, p. 16, viewed July 27, 2007, Lexis Nexis.
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(5)
Brook, S., 2007, Bottom falls out of lads’ mags market, The Guardian, February 19, viewed July 27, http://media.guardian.co.uk/mediaguardian/story/0,,2015936,00.html.
(6)
Kerr, G. pers. comm., May 10, 2007.
(7)
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(8)
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(9)
Blogging is bringing new voices to the online world, 2006, PEW Internet and American Life Project, PEW Research Center, Washington, DC, viewed July 29, 2007, http://www.pewinternet.org/PPF/r/130/press_release.asp.
(10)
Ibid.
(11)
Wray, R., 2007, Broadband spreads across globe, Guardian Unlimited, June 13, viewed July 29, 2007, http://business.guardian.co.uk/story/0,,2102304,00.html#article_continue.
(12)
Orgad, S., 2006, This box was made for walking. London: Nokia and London School of Economics, viewed July 30, 2007, http://www.lse.ac.uk/collections/media@lse/pdf/Mobile_TV_Report_Orgad.pdf.
(13)
18 Doughty Street, 2007, Doughty Media Limited, London, viewed July 29, 2007, http://www.18doughtystreet.com/talk_tv.
(14)
Thickett, J., 2007, Can quality survive in a market that’s changing rapidly?, The Guardian, May 21, viewed July 29, 2007, http://media.guardian.co.uk/media-guardian/story/0,,2084082,00.html.
(15)
opendemocracy.net, 2007, opendemocracy, London, viewed September 11, 2007, http://www.opendemocracy.net/.
(16)
Slate.com, 2007, Slate, New York, viewed September 11, 2007, http://www.slate.com/.
(17)
Current TV, 2007, Current, San Francisco, viewed September 11, 2007, http://uk.current.com/.
(18)
Digg, 2007, Digg, San Francisco, viewed September 11, 2007, http://www.digg.com/.
(19)
Preston, P., 2007, If the net is killing newspapers, why are they doing so well?, The Observer, June 10, viewed July 29, 2007, http://media.guardian.co.uk/columnists/story/0,,2099477,00.html.
(20)
Ramesh, R., Pilkington, E., Tuckman, J., Watts, J., Tremlett, G., Traynor, I., McGreal, C., Lawson, M., and Henley, J., 2007, The world is watching, Guardian Unlimited, June 16, viewed July 29, 2007, http://www.guardian.co.uk/weekend/story/0,,2102856,00.html.
(21)
The state of the news media: An annual report on American journalism, 2007, Project for Excellence in Journalism, Washington, DC, viewed July 29, 2007, http://www.stateofthemedia.org/2007/chartland.asp?id=370&ct=col&dir=&sort=&col1_box=1&col2_box=1&col3_box=1&col4_box=1.
The state of the news media: An annual report on American journalism, 2007, Project for Excellence in Journalism, Washington, DC, viewed July 29, 2007, http://www.stateofthenewsmedia.com/2007/narrative_overview_audience.asp?cat=3&media=1.
(22)
The news consumers’ conundrum, 2007, Project for Excellence in Journalism, Washington, DC, viewed July 29, 2007, http://www.journalism.org/node/2327.
(23)
Briggs, A. and Burke, P., 2002, A social history of the media: From Gutenberg to the Internet. Cambridge: Polity Press, p. 306.
(24)
Fewell, M., 2006, POLIS Future of News seminar, November, 29. London School of Economics.
(25)
FactCheck, 2007, Channel 4 News, London, viewed September 11, 2007, http://www.channel4.com/news/factcheck.
(26)
Kiss, J., 2006, Channel 4 News: a future of interactivity and integration, Project for Excellence in Journalism, April 21, viewed July 29, 2007, http://www.journalism.co.uk/news/story1816.shtml.
(27)
Fewell, M., 2007, POLIS Future of News seminar, 24 January, London School of Economics.
(28)
Addis, R., 2007, POLIS Future of News seminar, 24 January, London School of Economics.
(29)
Murdock, G. and Golding, P., 2004, Dismantling the digital divide: Rethinking the dynamics of participation and exclusion, in A. Calabrese and C. Sparks (eds.), Toward a political economy of culture: Capitalism and communication in the twenty-first century, Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, p. 249.
(30)
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(31)
NPR, 2007, Wait, Wait … Don’t Tell Me, radio program, NPR and Chicago Public Radio, Washington, DC and Chicago, IL, viewed August 2, 2007, http://www.npr.org/programs/waitwait/.
(32)
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(33)
Hamm, S., 2007, Children of the web: How the second-generation Internet is spawning a global youth culture – and what business can do to cash in, Business Week, July 2, viewed July 29, 2007, http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/07_27/b4041401.htm?chan=top+news_top+news+index_best+of+bw.
(34)
Newspaper economics: 2006 annual report advertiser influence, 2006, Project for Excellence in Journalism, Washington, DC, March 13, viewed July 30, 2007, http://www.journalism.org/node/650.
(35)
Sawyers, M., 2007, Opinions on the status of newspapers, June,19, Editor’s Weblog, viewed July 29, 2007, http://www.editorsweblog.org/print_newspapers//2007/06/opinions_on_the_status_of_newspapers.php#more.
(36)
Higginbotham, A., 2006, Local hero, August 13, The Observer, viewed July 30, 2007, http://observer.guardian.co.uk/magazine/story/0,,1841318,00.html#article_continue.
(37)
YouTube vs. the boob tube, 2006, Project for Excellence in Journalism, Washington, DC, viewed August 2, 2007, http://www.journalism.org/node/4075.
(38)
Ofcom, 2007, A new approach to public service content in the digital media age, Ofcom, London, January 24, viewed July 30, 2007, www.ofcom.org.uk/consult/condocs/pspnewapproach/summary/.
(39)
Ofcom, 2007, UK’s Ethnic Minority groups watch less TV but compare well on mobile and broadband take-up, June 21, Ofcom, London, viewed July 30, 2007, http://www.ofcom.org.uk/media/news/2007/06/nr_20070621.
(40)
Richards, E., 2007, IPPR Media convention: remarks, January 18, Ofcom, London, viewed July 30, 2007, http://www.ofcom.org.uk/media/speeches/2007/01/ippr.
(41)
Prior, M., 2007, The real media divide, The Washington Post, July 16, p. A15, viewed July 30, 2007, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/07/15/AR2007071501110.html?sub=new.
(42)
20% loss of editorial staff at LA Times. It’s high noon at the LA Times, 2007, Project for Excellence in Journalism, viewed July 30, 2007, http://www.journalism.org/node/2018.
(43)
Castells, M., 2001, The Internet galaxy: Reflections on the Internet, business and society. Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. 191.
Norris, P., 2001, Digital divide: Civic engagement, information poverty, and the Internet worldwide. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Mansell, R., 2004, Political economy, power and new media, New Media & Society, 6(1), pp. 96–105.
(44)
Andrews, R., 2007, Thompson-Reuters deal confirmed, Forbes.com, May 15, viewed September 12, 2007, http://www.forbes.com/technology/2007/05/15/cx_0515paidcontent.html?partner=rss.
(45)
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(46)
Willsher, K., 2007, Le Monde journalists oust chief in protest at management style, The Guardian, May 24, viewed July 30, 2007, http://www.guardian.co.uk/france/story/0,,2086674,00.html#article_continue.
(47)
Burke, J., 2006, Has Libération lost its fight for freedom?, The Observer, September 17, viewed July 30, 2007, http://media.guardian.co.uk/presspublishing/story/0,,1874160,00.html.
(48)
Metro, 2007, Metro.us, New York, viewed July 30, 2007, http://ny.metro.us/metro/about/.
(49)
Campbell, K., 2007, POLIS Future of News seminar, January 24, London School of Economics.
(50)
Charman, P., 2007, POLIS Future of News seminar, January 24, London School of Economics.
(51)
Blair, T., 2007, Full transcript of Blair speech, June 12, Reuters, London, viewed July 30, 2007, http://uk.reuters.com/article/topNews/idUKZWE24585220070612?src=061207_1647_TOPSTORY_blair_attacks_media&pageNumber=4.
(52)
Lloyd, J., 2004, The fourth estate’s coup d’état, The Observer, June 13, viewed August 1, 2007, http://media.guardian.co.uk/site/story/0,,1237397,00.html.
(53)
Habermas, J., 1974, The public sphere: an encyclopaedia article, New German Critique, 1(3), pp. 49–55.
(54)
Habermas, J., 2006, Towards a United States of Europe (acceptance speech at Bruno Kreisky Prize), March 27, viewed July 30, 2007, http://www.signandsight.com/features/676.html.
(55)
Keen, A., 2007, The cult of the amateur: How today’s Internet is killing our culture, New York: Currency.
(56)
Ibid, p. 47.
(57)
Lemann, N., 2006, Amateur hour: Journalism without journalists, New Yorker, August 7, viewed July 30, 2007, http://www.newyorker.com/archive/2006/08/07/060807fa_fact1.
(58)
Illustrated Books and Newspapers’ Wordsworth 1846:
DISCOURSE was deemed Man’s noblest attribute,
And written words the glory of his hand;
Then followed Printing with enlarged command
For thought – dominion vast and absolute
For spreading truth, and making love expand.
Now prose and verse sunk into disrepute
Must lacquey a dumb Art that best can suit
The taste of this once-intellectual Land.
A backward movement surely have we here,
From manhood – back to childhood; for the age –
Back towards caverned life’s first rude career.
Avaunt this vile abuse of pictured page!
Must eyes be all in all, the tongue and ear
Nothing? Heaven keep us from a lower stage!
(Wordsworth, W., 1888, The complete poetical works, London: Macmillan and Co.)
(59)
Sampson, A., 1996, The crisis at the heart of our media, British Journalism Review, 7(3), pp. 42–51.
(60)
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(61)
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(62)
Tumber, H., 1999, News: A reader, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
(63)
Habermas, J., 1974 The public sphere: an encyclopaedia article, New German Critique, 1(3), pp. 49–55.
(64)
Ibid, p. 55.
(65)
Davies, G., 2005, The BBC and public value, in D. Helm (ed.) Can the Market Deliver?, London, John Libbey.
(66)
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(67)
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(68)
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(69)
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(70)
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(71)
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(73)
Sinreich, R., 2007, Hillary Clinton in Second Life, Personal Democracy Forum, March 21, viewed July 30, 2007, http://techpresident.com/node/171.
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(75)
Au, J.W., 2007, email to the author, July 10, 2007.
(76)
Au, J.W., email to the author, July 10, 2007, see also: Au, J.W. The making of Second Life: Notes from the new world, New York: HarperCollins.
(77)
Murray-Watson, A., 2007, Second Life rival seeks €1bn UK listing: Virginbacked start-up promises to become the “iTunes for the games industry,” The Independent, July 15, viewed July 30, 2007, http://news.independent.co.uk/business/news/article2770935.ece.
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Semuels, A., 2007, Virtual marketers have second thoughts about Second Life: Firms find that avatars created by participants in the online society aren’t avid shoppers, LA Times, July 14, viewed July 30, 2007, http://www.latimes.com/business/la-fi-secondlife14jul14,1,3135510.story?coll=la-headlines-business&ctrack=1&cset=true.

الفصل الثاني: «أهو طائر؟ أهي طائرة؟ كلا، إنه الإعلام الخارق!»

(1)
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(4)
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Martinson, J., 2007, China censorship damaged us, Google founders admit, The Guardian, January 27, viewed August 2, 2007, http://business.guardian.co.uk/davos2007/story/0,,1999994,00.html#article_continue.
(57)
McGuinness, B., 2007, Where have all the (marketing) leaders gone?, Below the Fold, July 14, viewed August 2, 2007, http://belowthefold.typepad.com/my_weblog/.
(58)
Rosen, J., 2007, NewAssignment.net, New York, viewed September 12, 2007, http://www.newassignment.net/.
(59)
Rosen, J., 2006, Introducing NewAssignment.Net, July 25, viewed September 12, 2007, http://journalism.nyu.edu/pubzone/weblogs/pressthink/2006/07/25/nadn_qa.html.
(60)
The Lady, 2007, The Lady, London, viewed August 2, 2007, http://www.lady.co.uk/index.cfm.
(61)
Usden, A., pers. comm., July 20, 2007.
(62)
Waghorn, R., 2007, Norwich City, MyFootballWriter.com, viewed August 2, 2007, http://norwichcity.myfootballwriter.com/index.asp.
(63)
Rick Waghorn, email to the author, June 1, 2007.
(64)
Ali, R., 2007, Local community network Backfence closing down all sites, Paidcontent.org, July 5, viewed August 2, 2007, http://paidcontent.org/entry/419-local-community-network-backfence-closing-down-all-sites/.
(65)
Jarvis, J., 2007, Towns are hyperlocal social networks with data (people that is), The Buzz Machine, July 11, viewed August 2, 2007, http://www.buzzmachine.com/2007/07/11/hyperlocal/.
(66)
Southwark Weekender, 2007, Southwark Newspaper Ltd., London, viewed August 2, 2007, http://www.southwarkweekender.co.uk/shopping/00,news,5124,183,00.htm.
(67)
Krim, T., 2007, NetVibes, viewed August 2, 2007, http://blog.netvibes.com/.
(68)
Wikipedia, 2007, Widget (computing) [sic], Wikimedia Foundation, St. Petersburg, FL, viewed August 2, 2007, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Widget_(computing).
(69)
This idea from Craig McGinty in a post on the author’s blog, Beckett, C., 2007, Widget News, charliebeckett.org, Polis, London School of Economics, London, July 20, viewed August 2, 2007, http://www.charliebeckett.org/?p=231.
(70)
Michael Oreskes, email to the author, August 1, 2007.
(71)
Taylor, V., pers. comm., August 10, 2007.
(72)
Eltringham, M., pers. comm., August 2007.
(73)
Ofcom, 2007, A new approach to public service content in the digital media age, Ofcom, London, January 24, viewed August 2, 2007, www.ofcom.org.uk/consult/condocs/pspnewapproach/summary/.
(74)
Radford, S., 2007, Village rocks at Shalfest, Newbury Today, July 16, viewed August 2, 2007, http://www.newburytoday.co.uk/News/Article.aspx?articleID=4718.
(75)
Ofcom, 2007, A new approach to public service content in the digital media age, Ofcom, London, January 24, viewed August 2, 2007, www.ofcom.org.uk/consult/condocs/pspnewapproach/newapproach.pdf.
(76)
Ibid.
(77)
Curzon Prize, T., 2007, POLIS Future of News seminar, 24 January, London School of Economics.

الفصل الثالث: «ألن يمد أحدهم يد العون؟»

(1)
Blair, T., 2007, Full transcript of Blair speech, June 12, Reuters, London, viewed July 30, 2007, http://uk.reuters.com/article/topNews/idUKZWE24585220070612?src=061207_1647_TOPSTORY_blair_attacks_media&pageNumber=4.
(2)
McLuhan, M., 1962, The Gutenberg galaxy: The making of typographic man, Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
(3)
Wikipedia, 2007, John Pilger, Wikimedia Foundation, St. Petersburg, FL, viewed August 13, 2007, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Pilger.
Johnpilger.com, 2007, Doward, O. ITV, London, viewed August 13, 2007, http://www.johnpilger.com/page.asp?partID=5.
(4)
Norris, P., 2002, Democratic phoenix: Reinventing political activism, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
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(5)
Project for Excellence in Journalism, 2004, 2004 annual report: Newpaper public attitudes, March 15, viewed August 11, 2007, http://www.journalism.org/node/807.
(6)
Project for Excellence in Journalism, 2007, The state of the news media 2007: An annual report on American journalism, viewed August 11, 2007, http://www.stateofthenewsmedia.com/2007/narrative_overview_publicattitudes.asp?cat=8&media=1.
(7)
Ibid.
(8)
Trippi, J., 2004, Down from the mountain, keynote speech, O’Reilly digital democracy teach-in, San Diego, CA, February 9, viewed August 11, 2007, http://www.itconversations.com/transcripts/80/transcript80-2.html.
(9)
Horrigan, J., 2004, Pew Internet project data memo, Pew Internet and American Life Project, April, viewed August 11, 2007, http://www.pewinternet.org/PPF/r/121/report_display.asp.
(10)
Rainie, L., Cornfield, M., and Horrigan, J., 2005, The Internet and campaign 2004, Pew Internet and American Life Project, March 6, viewed August 11, 2007, http://www.pewinternet.org/PPF/r/150/report_display.asp.
(11)
Sweney, M., 2007, Olympics and presidents to drive ad spend growth, Media-Guardian, June 27, viewed August 13, 2007, http://media.guardian.co.uk/advertising/story/0,,2112934,00.html.
(12)
Farnsworth, M. 1998, Drudge Report: Newsweek kills story on White House intern, Australianpolitics.com, January 17, viewed August 11, 2007, http://australianpolitics.com/usa/clinton/impeachment/drudge.shtml.
(13)
Black, D., 2002, Escahnton, December 6, viewed August 11, 2007, http://atrios.blogspot.com/2002_12_01_atrios_archive.html#90023494.
(14)
Rosen, J., 2004, The legend of Trent Lott and the weblogs, PressThink, March 15, viewed August 11, 2007, http://journalism.nyu.edu/pubzone/weblogs/pressthink/2004/03/15/lott_case.html.
(15)
“Buckhead,” 2004, No title, Freerepublic.com, Fresno, CA, September 8, viewed August 11, 2007, http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1210662/replies?c=47.
(16)
Abovitz, R., 2005, Easongate: The end of MSN as we know it?, World Economic Forum, Geneva, Switzerland, February 8, viewed August 11, 2007, http://www.forumblog.org/blog/2005/02/following_eason.html.
(17)
Media Matters for America, 2005, “Go ahead, Jeff”: Talon News “reporter” Jeff Gannon is McClellan’s lifeline during briefings, Media Matters for America, February 2, viewed August 11, 2007, http://mediamatters.org/items/200502020014.
(18)
Leibovich, M., 2006, Lieberman hopes his fate isn’t sealed with a kiss, The New York Times, July 16, viewed August 13, 2007, http://www.nytimes.com/2006/07/16/washington/16lieberman.html?ex=1310702400&en=b423a86bccfd09af&ei=5088&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss.
(19)
DubyaD40web, 2007, Hillary Clinton Sopranos spoof, YouTube, June 19, viewed August 11, 2007, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=shKJk3Rph0E.
(20)
Zkman, 2006, George Allen introduces “Macaca”, YouTube, August 15, viewed August 11, 2007, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r90z0PMnKwI.
(21)
Albrekts, 2006, Rush Limbaugh trashes Michael J Fox, YouTube, October 25, viewed August 11, 2007, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0o6yrdInw6s.
(22)
Barelypolitical, 2007, “I’ve got a crush … on Obama” by Obama Girl, YouTube, June 13, viewed August 11, 2007, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wKsoXHYICqU.
(23)
Jarvis, J., 2007, Puppets aside, YouTube is the best forum for debate, The Guardian, July 30, viewed August 11, 2007, http://media.guardian.co.uk/mediaguardian/story/0,,2137336,00.html.
(24)
Huffington, A., 2007, New HuffPost project: The wisdom of the crowd hits the ’08 campaign trail, The Huffington Post, March 26, viewed August 11, 2007, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/arianna-huffington/new-huffpost-projectthe_b_44321.html.
(25)
Clinton, H., 2007, Hillary Clinton, Facebook, viewed August 11, 2007, http://lse.facebook.com/person.php?id=2290827757.
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Obama, B., 2007, Barack Obama, Facebook, viewed August 11, 2007, http://lse.facebook.com/person.php?id=2355496748.
(26)
Bai, M., 2007, The argument: Billionaires, bloggers, and the battle to remake Democratic politics, Penguin Press.
(27)
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(28)
Benn, T., Covert Action Quarterly, April 2001.
(29)
BBC News, 2000, Blair unveils internet plans, BBC News, September 11, viewed August 11, 2007, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/919903.stm.
(30)
Blair, T., 2007, Full transcript of Blair speech, June 12, Reuters, London, viewed July 30, 2007, http://uk.reuters.com/article/topNews/idUKZWE24585220070612?src=061207_1647_TOPSTORY_blair_attacks_media&pageNumber=4.
(31)
Staines, P., 2006, Something rotten in the media-politico nexus, Guido Fawkes’ blog, July 12, viewed August 11, 2007, http://www.order-order.com/2006_07_01_archive.html.
(32)
Hencke, D., 2006, Westminster weekly, The Guardian Unlimited, June 29, viewed August 11, 2007, http://download.guardian.co.uk/sys-audio/Politics/Westminster/2006/06/29/PoliticsShow290606.mp3.
(33)
Staines, P., 2006, Meanwhile, back at the ranch, Guido Fawkes’ blog, July 3, viewed August 11, 2007, http://www.order-order.com/2006/07/meanwhile-back-atranch.html.
(34)
Crerar, P. and Cecil, N., 2006, Double blow for two jags, The Evening Standard, July 4, p. 16, viewed August 11, 2007, Lexis Nexis.
(35)
Robinson, N., 2006, Prescott for dummies, Nick Robinson’s newslog, BBC News, July 5, viewed August 11, 2007, http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/nickrobinson/2006/07/05/index.html.
(36)
Staines, P., 2007, Guido Fawkes’ blog, viewed September 12, 2007,http://www.order-order.com/2006/07/meanwhile-back-at-ranch.html.
(37)
Staines, P., 2006, Robinson for dummies, Guido Fawkes’ blog, July 5, viewed August 11, 2007, http://www.order-order.com/2006/07/robinson-fordummies.html.
(38)
Humphrys, J., 2006, I will not quit; John Prescott gives his first broadcast interview since his political troubles began, Today Programme, radio broadcast, BBC Radio 4, July 6, viewed August 11, 2007, http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/today/listenagain/zthursday_20060706.shtml.
(39)
Staines, P., 2006, Three shags does not deny other affairs, Guido Fawkes’ blog, July 6, viewed August 11, 2007, http://www.order-order.com/2006/07/three-shags-does-not-deny-other.html.
(40)
Dale, I., 2007, Iain Dale’s diary, viewed August 11, 2007, http://iaindale.blogspot.com/.
(41)
Barkham, P., 2006, How the net closed on Prescott, The Guardian, July 10, viewed August 11, 2007, http://media.guardian.co.uk/mediaguardian/story/0,1816492,00.html.
(42)
Ibid.
(43)
Robinson, N., 2007, Nick Robinson’s newslog, BBC News, viewed August 11, 2007, http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/nickrobinson/.
(44)
Barkham, P., 2006, How the net closed on Prescott, The Guardian, July 10, viewed August 11, 2007, http://media.guardian.co.uk/mediaguardian/story/0,1816492,00.html.
(45)
BBC News, 2007, Road petition breaks a million, BBC News, Feburary 10, viewed August 11, 2007, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/6349027.stm.
(46)
Stiglitz, J. and Islam, R., 2002, A free press is crucial in overcoming global poverty, Global Policy Forum, November 14, viewed August 13, 2007, http://www.globalpolicy.org/globaliz/cultural/2002/1114pov.htm.
(47)
BBC News, 2005, Africa calls on G8 to scrap debt, BBC news, July 5, viewed August 13, 2007, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/4651337.stm.
BBC News, 2005, G8 leaders agree to $50bn aid boost, BBC News, July 8, viewed August 13, 2007, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/4662297.stm.
DFID, 2007, Getting rid of polio and measles in Uganda, DFID, London, January 18, viewed August 13, 2007, http://www.dfid.gov.uk/casestudies/files/africa/uganda-measles.asp.
USAID, 2007, Sub-Saharan Africa, USAID, Washington, DC, viewed August 13, 2007, http://www.usaid.gov/locations/sub-saharan_africa/.
(48)
Collier, P., 2004, Development and conflict, Centre for the Study of African Economics, Oxford University and United Nations, Economic and Social Development, viewed August 13, 2007, http://www.un.org/esa/documents/Development.and.Conflict2.pdf.
(49)
Amnesty International, 2007, Africa: The state of human rights, AllAfrica.com, May 24, viewed August 13, 2007, http://allafrica.com/stories/200705240372.html.
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UNAIDS, 2006, Report on the global AIDS epidemic 2006, Joint United Nations program on HIV/AIDS, May, viewed August 13, 2007, http://www.unaids.org/en/HIV_data/2006GlobalReport/default.asp.
(51)
Amnesty International, 2007, Africa: The state of human rights, AllAfrica.com, May 24, viewed August 13, 2007, http://allafrica.com/stories/200705240372.html.
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CNN, 2007, African Journalist Awards, 2007, CNN, Atlanta, GA, viewed August 13, 2007, http://www.cnn.com/WORLD/africa/africanawards/.
(53)
Wikipedia, 2007, Live Aid, Wikimedia Foundation, St. Petersburg, FL, viewed August 13, 2007, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Live_Aid.
(54)
Live 8, 2007, Charity Projects, London, viewed August 13, 2007, http://www.live8live.com/.
(55)
Putzel, J. and van der Zwan, J., 2005, Why Templates for media development do not work in crisis states, Crisis States Research Center, London School of Economics, London, viewed August 13, 2007, http://www.crisisstates.com/download/publicity/FINAL.MEDIA.REPORT.PDF.
(56)
IFEX, 2007, Uganda: Independent radio station closed, journalist charged, International Freedom of Expression Exchange, Toronto, viewed August 13, 2007, http://www.ifex.org/en/content/view/full/44/.
(57)
Beckett, C. and Kyrke-Smith, L. (eds.), Development, governance and the media: The role of the media in building African society, POLIS, London School of Economics, London, viewed August 13, 2007, http://www.lse.ac.uk/collections/polis/pdf/DGMfullreport.pdf.
(58)
CNN, 2007, African Journalist Awards, CCN, Atlanta, GA, viewed August 13, 2007, http://edition.cnn.com/WORLD/africa/africanawards/winners.html.
(59)
Zachary, G.P., 2007, Media and development, Africa Works, January 23, viewed August 13, 2007, http://africaworksgpz.com/g-pascal-zachary/.
(60)
BBC World Service Trust, 2006, Research summary report: African media development initiative, BBC World Service Trust, London, p. 43, viewed August 13, 2007, http://downloads.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/trust/pdf/AMDI/AMDI_summary_Report.pdf.
(61)
Nyirubugara, O., 2007, Mobile reporters in Africa, Africa News, July 25, viewed August 13, 2007, http://www.africanews.com/site/list_messages/10175.
(62)
Kenya Unlimited, 2007, Kenyan blogs webring, viewed August 13, 2007, http://www.kenyaunlimited.com/kenyan-blogs-webring/.
Blog Africa, 2007, Global Voices, Cambridge, MA, viewed August 13, 2007, http://www.blogafrica.com/.
(63)
The Zimbabwean, 2007, The Zimbabwean Limited, Hythe, viewed August 13, 2007, http://www.thezimbabwean.co.uk/index.cfm?id=199&linkid=35&siteid =1.
(64)
Bloomfield, S., 2007, Boom in blogs gives Africans a voice on the web, Independent.co.uk, August 2, viewed August 13, 2007, http://news.independent.co.uk/world/africa/article2826183.ece.
(65)
Heavens, A., 2005, African blogers find their voice, BBC Focus on Africa magazine, December 20, viewed August 13, 2007, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/4512290.stm.
(66)
Sleepless in Sudan, 2007, Sleepless in Sudan. Uncensored, direct from a dazed & confused aid worker in Darfur, Sudan, viewed August 13, 2007, http://sleeplessinsudan.blogspot.com/2005_10_01_archive.html.
(67)
Kalonji, C., 2007, Cedric au Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, viewed August 13, 2007, http://cedric.uing.net/.
(68)
Ibid.
(69)
Ibid.
(70)
Bankelele, 2007, Economic Matrix, Bankelele, July 29, viewed August 13, 2007, http://bankelele.blogspot.com.
(71)
Soremi, T., 2007, Rape of the Niger Delta, My Thots, July 26, viewed August 13, 2007, http://titilayoobishineshine.blogspot.com/.
(72)
Sarpong, O., 2007, South Africans – what are they doing, Sarpong Obed – ready to chew, July 31, viewed August 13, 2007, http://sarpongobed.blogspot.com/.
(73)
Sarpong, O., 2007, A Western evil, Sarpong Obed – ready to chew, August 3, viewed August 13, 2007, http://sarpongobed.blogspot.com/.
(74)
BBC World Service Trust, 2006, Research summary report: African media development initiative, BBC World Service Trust, London, p. 103, viewed August 13, 2007, http://downloads.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/trust/pdf/AMDI/AMDI_summary_Report.pdf.
(75)
McNair, B., 2007, An introduction to political communication (communication & society), London: Routledge, p. 6.
(76)
Trippi, J., 2007, Democracy reborn, digitally, Sunday Times (London), June 10, p. 19, viewed September 13, 2007, Lexis Nexis.

الفصل الرابع: محاربة قوة الشر

(1)
Khan, M., 2007, Khan’s Statement, The Telegraph, September 2, viewed August 30, 2007, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2005/09/02/wterr302.xml.
(2)
BBC Radio 4, 2006, Analysis: Telling Muslim stories, radio programme, BBC, London, December 28, viewed September 13, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/programmes/analysis/6199779.stm.
(3)
Jenkins, S., 2007, The British media does not do responsibility. It does stories, The Guardian, May 18, viewed July 30, 2007, http://media.guardian.co.uk/broadcast/comment/0,,2082508,00.html.
(4)
BBC News, 2007, Misbah parents reach settlement, BBC News, January 18, viewed September 13, 2007, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/scotland/highlands_and_islands/6273641.stm.
(5)
BBC Radio 4, 2006, Analysis: Telling Muslim stories, radio programme, BBC, London, December 28, viewed September 13, 2007, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/programmes/analysis/6199779.stm.
(6)
Ibid.
(7)
Select Committee on Office of the Deputy Prime Minister, House of Commons, 2004, Memorandum by Nick Carter, Editor of the Leicester Mercury (SOC 74), Housing, Planning, Local Government and the Regions Written Evidence, May 5, viewed August 30, 2007, http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200304/cmselect/cmodpm/45/45we17.htm.
(8)
9/11 Truth, 2007, 9/11Truth.org, Kansas City, MO, viewed August 30, 2007, http://www.911truth.org/index.php?topic=contacts.
(9)
McLeod, J., 2007, Glasgow bomber and online jihadist, Canada Free Press, August 21, viewed August 30, 2007, http://www.canadafreepress.com/2007/cover082107.htm.
(10)
Lammy, D., 2006, Diversity in the media – the twin challenge, POLIS lecture, London College of Communication, October 18, viewed August 30, 2007, http://www.lse.ac.uk/collections/polis/davidlammytranscript.htm.
(11)
Ofcom, 2007, UK’s Ethnic minority groups watch less TV but compare well on mobile and broadband take-up, June 21, Ofcom, London, viewed July 30, 2007, http://www.ofcom.org.uk/media/news/2007/06/nr_20070621.
(12)
Munro, J. email to the author July 10, 2007.
(13)
Urquhart, C., 2007, The girl who urges children to fight Israel … with clean teeth, The Observer, August 26, viewed August 30, 2007, http://www.guardian.co.uk/israel/Story/0,,2156377,00.html.
(14)
Media12312345, 2007, Hamas “Mickey Mouse” wants Islam takeover, YouTube, viewed August 30, 2007, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pCNGJtIg73s.
(15)
Fouda, R., 2006, Aljazeera – a different voice in the world?, POLIS The news we deserve lecture series, London School of Economics, October 2, viewed August 30, 2007, http://www.lse.ac.uk/collections/LSEPublicLecturesAndEvents/events/2006/20060904t1239z001.htm.
(16)
Ibid.
(17)
Birt, Y., 2007, POLIS Reporting Muslims and Extremism seminar, July 5, London School of Economics, viewed September 13, 2007, www.lse.ac.uk/collections/polis/pdf/FINAL%20MUSLIM%20SEMINAR%20REPORT.doc.
(18)
Wikipedia, 2007, Ed Husain, The Wikimedia Foundation, St. Petersburg, FL, viewed August 30, 2007, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ed_Husain.

الفصل الخامس: يمكننا جميعًا أن نكون أبطالًا خارقين

(1)
Goldhammer, G., 2007, Media must learn to think beyond the medium, Below the Fold, April 28, viewed August 30, 2007, www.belowthefold.typepad.com/my_weblog/2007/04/media-must-lear.html.
(2)
Schlosser, E., 2005, Fast food nation, London: Harper Perennial.
(3)
Fahrenheit 9/11, 2004, documentary motion picture, produced by Lions Gate Films, directed by Michael Moore.
(4)
Armitage, T., 2006, 2007 and the “next” big media thing, New Statesman, July 31, viewed August 30, 2007, http://www.newstatesman.com/200607310067.
(5)
McLeary, P., 2007, How TalkingPointsMemo beat the big boys on the U.S. Attorney story, Columbia Journalism Review, March 15, viewed August 30, 2007, http://www.cjr.org/behind_the_news/how_talkingpointsmemo_beat_the.php?page=2.
(6)
Jarvis, J., 2006, New rule: Cover what you do best. Link to the rest., The Buzz Machine, July 5, viewed August 30, 2007, http://www.buzzmachine.com/2007/02/22/new-rule-cover-what-you-do-best-link-to-the-rest/.
(7)
Stephens, M., 2007, Beyond the news, Columbia Journalism Review, January/February, viewed September 13, 2007, http://www.cjr.org/feature/beyond_the_news.php?page=5.
(8)
Leigh, D. and Evans, R., 2007, The BAE files, Guardian Unlimited, viewed August 30, 2007, http://www.guardian.co.uk/baefiles/.
(9)
Smith, P., 2007, Guardian investigators share BAE bribery exposé on the web, PressGazette.co.uk, July 23, viewed September 13, 2007, http://www.pressgazette.co.uk/story.asp?storycode=38280.
(10)
Wikipedia, 2007, The Wikimedia Foundation, St. Petersburg, FL, viewed August 1, 2007, http://www.wikipedia.org/.
(11)
Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2007, Encyclopaedia Britannica UK Ltd, London, viewed August 1, 2007, http://info.britannica.co.uk/?jlnk=hsl0010.
Giles, J., 2005, Internet encyclopaedias go head to head, December 14 (updated March 28, 2006), Nature, viewed August 1, 2007, http://www.nature.com/news/2005/051212/full/438900a.html.
(12)
Glaister, D., 2005, LA Times “wikitorial” gives editors red faces, The Guardian, June 22, viewed August 2007, http://www.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,1511745,00.html.
(13)
Wikinews, 2007, Wikimedia Foundation, St. Petersburg, FL, viewed August 1, 2007, http://en.wikinews.org/wiki/Main_Page.
(14)
BBC News Online, 2007, US university shooting kills 33, BBC, 17 April, viewed August 1, 2007, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/6560685.stm.
Garfunkel, J., 2007, Virginia Tech shooting: Can media get beyond retroactive response to tragedy?, Mediashift, PBS, April 20, viewed August 1, 2007, http://www.pbs.org/mediashift/2007/04/virginia_tech_shootingcan_medi.html.
(15)
Cohn, D., 2007, VA Tech and the changing role of citizen networks, Newassignment.net, April 17, viewed August 1, 2007, http://citmedia.org/blog/2007/04/17/virginia-tech-how-media-are-evolving/.
(16)
Bradshaw, P. (ed.), 2007, Wiki journalism: Are wikis the new blogs? Wikijournalism: Front Page, viewed August 30, 2007, http://wikijournalism.pbwiki.com/.
(17)
Sholin, R., 2007, Further notes on the new journalism skillset, Invisible Inkling, February 5, viewed September 13, 2007, http://www.ryansholin.com/2007/02/05/further-notes-on-the-new-journalism-skillset/.
(18)
Surowiecki, J., 2005, The wisdom of crowds, New York, Anchor Books.
(19)
Tumber, H., 1999, News: A reader, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 79–81.
(20)
24weeks.com, 2007, ESP Metanational LLP, viewed August 1, 2007, http://www.24weeks.com/about#Espra-an_Evolutionary_Tool.
Hallett, T., 2007, BBC’s new media boss tal-ks web 3.0, Silicon.com, London, July 3, viewed August 1, 2007, http://networks.silicon.com/webwatch/0,39024667,39167725,00.htm.
(21)
Ofcom, 2007, Media Literacy, Ofcom, viewed August 30, 2007, http://www.ofcom.org.uk/advice/media_literacy/.
(22)
Ibid.
(23)
About, 2007, Creative Commons, San Francisco, CA, viewed August 30, 2007, http://creativecommons.org/about/.
About, 2007, Free Software Foundation, Boston, MA, viewed August 30, 2007, http://www.fsf.org/about.
(24)
Ashley, J., 2006, In defence of professional columnists, Comment is Free, Guardian Unlimited, May 18, viewed August 30, 2007, http://commentisfree.guardian.co.uk/jackie_ashley/2006/05/in_defence_of_professional_col.html.
(25)
Beckett, C. (ed.), 2007, The Future of News Seminar 4: The practicalities and politics of online journalism, POLIS, London School of Economics, 24 May, viewed 30 August 2007, http://www.lse.ac.uk/collections/polis/pdf/Future%20of%20News%204%20report.doc.
(26)
O’Reilly, T., 2007, Draft blogger’s code of conduct, O’Reilly Radar, August 4, viewed September 13, 2007, http://radar.oreilly.com/archives/2007/04/draft_bloggers_1.html.
(27)
Ewan MacIntosh, viewed November 2007, http://edu.blogs.com/ewanmcintosh/.
(28)
Ibid.
(29)
Ibid.
(30)
Mansell, R., 2007, Introductory remarks, Third Informal Thematic Debate: Civilizations and the Challenge for Peace: Obstacles and Opportunities, United Nations General Assembly 61st Session, May 11, viewed August 30, 2007, http://www.lse.ac.uk/collections/polis/crossingboundaries.htm.
(31)
Lippmann, W., 1922 Public opinion, New York: Free Press; Dewey, J. 1927, The public and its problem. New York: Holt.
(32)
Chouliaraki, L., pers. comm., September 6, 2007.
(33)
Mansell, R., 2007, Introductory remarks, Third Informal Thematic Debate: Civilizations and the Challenge for Peace: Obstacles and Opportunities, United Nations General Assembly 61st Session, May 11, viewed August 30, 2007, http://www.lse.ac.uk/collections/polis/crossingboundaries.htm.
(34)
Wikipedia, 2007, John Pilger, Wikimedia Foundation, St. Petersburg, FL, viewed August 13, 2007, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Pilger.
Johnpilger.com, 2007, Doward, O. ITV, London, viewed August 13, 2007, http://www.johnpilger.com/page.asp?partID=5.
(35)
Wikipedia, 2007, P.J. O’Rourke, The Wikimedia Foundation, St. Petersburg, FL, viewed August 31, 2007, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/P._J._O’Rourke.
O’Rourke, P.J., 2007, P.J. O’Rourke, New York: Grove/Atlantic, Inc., viewed August 31, 2007, http://www.groveatlantic.com/grove/bin/wc.dll?groveproc~genauth~568~0.
(36)
Bell, M., 1996, In harm’s way, New York: Penguin.
(37)
Silverstone, R., 2006, Media and morality: On the rise of the mediapolis, Cambridge: Polity Press.
(38)
Ibid, p. 117.
(39)
Polis, viewed 12 December 2007, www.lse.ac.uk/Polis.
(40)
Silverstone, R., 2006, Media and morality: On the rise of the mediapolis, Cambridge: Polity Press, p. 162.

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