المراجع

يسير ثبتُ المراجع على خطى النهج غير الاعتيادي في تناوُل الموضوع، فبدلًا من تقديم سرْدٍ لحياة الإسكندر مصحوبًا بتأمُّلٍ لأهم الأسئلة المرتبطة به، تسعى هذه الدراسة إلى فتح «نوافذ» أخرى للتعرف على هذا الشخص؛ ومن ثَمَّ لا توجد إسنادات كثيرة إلى أعمال أكاديمية تتناول جوانبَ سيرة الإسكندر. ومن المصادر الحديثة المفيدة لهذه المعلومات كتاب «الإسكندر الأكبر» (٢٠٠٤) — المذكور أدناه — لمؤلِّفه بول كارتليدج. وتوجد صعوبة أخرى هي عدم وجود حواشٍ سفلية نذكر فيها المصادر المستغلقة، وهكذا نورد بعضها — مما نستبعد جذبه اهتمام قرَّاء كثيرين — في القائمة التالية.

(١) المصادر

  • De Selincourt, A. (tr.) 1929–1933 and 1972 rev. ed., intro. and notes J. R. Hamilton. Arrian’s Campaign of Alexander. London: Penguin.
    Accessible, readable translation with useful notes, basic bibliography, and four maps.
  • Heckel, W. and Yardley, J. C. (eds.) 2004. Alexander the Great: Historical Sources in Translation. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Following a description of sources, lost as well as extant, excerpts from the sources are organized by specific categories such as the Macedonian background, the army and war, Alexander and the Macedonians.
  • Pearson, L. 1960. The Lost Histories of Alexander the Great. New York: American Philological Association.
    Description of the known, now lost, accounts of Alexander, from those of official historians through reminiscences, antiquarians, and purported works such as Alexander’s last plans.
  • Robinson, C. A. Jr. 1932. The Ephemerides of Alexander’s Expedition. Providence: Brown University.
    Robinson, C. A. Jr. 1953. The History of Alexander the Great I: A Translation of the Extant Fragments. Providence: Brown University.
    Reconstruction of the day-book accounts of Alexander’s campaign thought to have been kept but whose genuineness is doubted by many.
  • Stoneman, R. 1994. Legends of Alexander the Great. London: Dent.
    Collection of legendary reports, such as a conversation between Alexander and Brahman leaders and a letter to Aristotle on India, that we wish were genuine.
  • Tarn, W. W. 1948. Alexander the Great II: Sources and Studies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Examination of sources with appendices on major issues such as the author’s view that Alexander was motivated by a belief in the brotherhood of mankind.

(٢) الإسكندر

  • Bosworth, A. B. and E. J. Baynham (eds.) 2000. Alexander the Great in Fact and Fiction. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.
    Articles resulting from a 1997 symposium with the aim of identifying distortion and myth-making in accounts of Alexander.
  • Cartledge, P. 2004. Alexander the Great: The Hunt for a New Past. NewYork: Vintage.
    Readable account resulting from the author’s goal of doing justice to the achievement of its subject, including some probing into Alexander’s psyche, while appreciating the limited evidence. Also valuable for its excellent aids: dramatis personae; glossary; sturdy, annotated bibliography.
  • Fuller, J. F. C., 1960. The Generalship of Alexander the Great. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
    An account of Alexander’s generalship by a modern commander.
  • Green, P. 1991. Alexander of Macedon 356–323 B. C.: A Historical Biography. Berkeley, Los Angeles, and Oxford: University of California Press.
    Reprint of the 1970 study that has rightly retained readership for its completeness, beginning with Philip and ending with reflection on the mythification that set in after Alexander’s death. Readers will appreciate the full references and bibliography as well as the engaging style that marks all of Green’s writing.
  • Mossé, C. 2004. Alexander: Destiny and Myth (tr. by J. Lloyd of Alesandre: La destinée d’un myth. Paris: Payot and Rivages, 2001). Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
    The original title more aptly defines the goal of the author in tracking the evolution of legends of Alexander, including the mythic elements. Following an account of Alexander’s campaign, discussion turns to specific aspects of the man and his legacy.
  • Napoleon’s estimation. LVII. A Manuscript found in the Portfolio of Las Cases, containing Maxims and Observations of Napoleon, collected during the last two years of his Residence at St. Helena tr. from the French. [London: Alexander Black, 1820.]
  • Tarn,W. W. 1948. Alexander the Great II: Sources and Studies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Wright, F. A. 1934. Alexander the Great. London: Routledge.

(٣) مقدونيا

  • Andronikos, M. 1984 and 2004. Vergina: The Royal Tombs and the Ancient City. Athens: Ekdotike Athenon SA.
    Account by the archaeologist who discovered the remarkable tombs at Vergina in 1977. Chapters treat the Vergina antiquities, the royal tombs in particular, and questions concerning dating and identity of the dead. Initial identification placed Philip II in one of the tombs. The matter continues to be debated. Illustrations are numerous and magnificent.
  • Borza, E. N. 1982. The Natural Resources of Early Macedonia. In W. L. Adams and E. N. Borza (eds.), Philip II, Alexander the Great and the Macedonian Heritage. Lanham and New York: University Press of America, 1–20.
    Useful summary of the physical nature of Macedonia by a scholar who has a wide range of publications on ancient Macedonia to his credit.
  • Borza, E. N. 1990. In the Shadow of Olympus: The Emergence of Macedon. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Impressive account of Macedonian developments from their misty beginnings through the achievements of Philip II. The author tackles all of the thorny issues of this subject including the identities of the dead in the Vergina tombs. Bibliographic notes as well as more standard bibliographic references are very helpful.
  • Chroust, A.-H. 1972. Aristotle and the Foreign Policy of Macedonia. Review of Politics 34.3, 367–94.
    The author has devoted much of his career in scholarship to Aristotle. Included in his interests are the “historical Aristotle,” a focus that involves the philosopher’s links with Macedon and particular Macedonians.
  • Corvisier, J.-N. 1991. Aux Origines du Miracle Grec. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.
    An excellent resource for developments in northern Greece—Thessaly, Macedon, and Epiros—tracing the process of settlement, organization and use of space, and population size and dispersal.
  • Drougou, S. and C. Saatsoglou-Paliadeli 1999. Vergina: Wandering through the Archaeological Site. Athens: Ministry of Culture.
    Compact but beautifully illustrated guide to the site with succinct commentary on the excavation and its findings.
  • Edson, C. 1970. Early Macedonia. Archaia Makedonia 1, 17–44.
    Even before such finds as those at Vergina, Charles Edson penetrated the nature of its early culture in this revealing account.
  • Errington, R. M. 1990. A History of Macedonia (tr. by C. Errington of Geschichte Makedoniens. Munich: Beck, 1986). Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
  • Hammond, N. G. L. 1972. A History of Macedonia I: Historical Geography and Prehistory. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
    Dropped behind the lines of the German occupiers of Greece to aid the resistance, Nicholas Hammond became intimately familiar with the land. Macedonia was a major object of his attention through a long and distinguished career. Volume I of three describes the historical geography of Macedonia and its prehistory, carrying the story to 550 BC.
  • Hammond, N. G. L. 1991. The Miracle that was Macedonia. London and New York: Sidgwick and Jackson and St Martin’s Press.
    Far more compact account of ancient Macedonian history intended for a wider readership than the previous or subsequent books.
  • Hammond, N. G. L. and G. T. Griffith 1979. A History of Macedonia II: 550–336 BC. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
    In volume II in the series, the authors describe the development of the state and its difficulties in surviving.
  • Siganidou, M. and M. Lilimpaki-Akamati. 2003. Pella: Capital of Macedonians. Athens: Ministry of Culture.
    Another publication by the Greek Ministry of Culture in format and quality akin to that on Vergina, cited above.
  • Touratsoglou, I. 2004. Macedonia: History, Monuments, Museums. Athens: Ekdotike Athenon SA.
    Because the archaeological finds in Macedonia are recent, it is not easy to find useful compendia. This is an excellently full source.

(٤) الأرغيُّون

  • Borza, E. N. 1982. Athenians, Macedonians, and the Origins of the Macedonian Royal House. Hesperia Supplement 19, 7–13.
    Makes a case against the tradition that argued a Greek origin for the Argead rulers of Macedon. Acceptance of such a tradition, however, may have been useful for the Macedonian kings.
  • Greenwalt, W. S. 2003. Archelaus the Philhellene. Ancient World 34.2, 131–53.
    Focusing on the interest of Archelaos II in Greek culture, the author argues that it served as a tool for extensive change in Macedonian society, politics, and economic organization.
  • Hatzopoulos, M. B. 1986. Succession and Regency in Classical Macedonia. Archaia Makedonia 4, 279–92.
    That priority of succession was given to the ruling king’s first-born son is the argument of this important scholar of Macedonia.

(٥) فيليب

  • Hammond, N. 1995. Philip’s Innovations in Macedonian Economy. Symbolae Osloenses 70, 22–9.
    Concise overview of Philip’s role in the economic development of Macedonia.
  • Hatzopoulos, M. B and L. D. Loukopoulos (eds.) 1992. Philip of Macedon. Athens: Ekdotike Athenon SA.
    Collection of articles by major scholars on various aspects of Philip II. Included are the Charles Edson essay “Early Macedonia,” cited above under “Macedonia,” another by H. Dell, cited below under “Military momentum,” two contributions by G. Cawkwell on Philip’s relations with the Greeks, plus nine other essays. The volume is nicely illustrated, and includes useful but not overly extensive notes and bibliography.
  • Momigliano, A. 1934. Filippo il Macedone. Florence: Felice le Monnier.
    Contribution of one of the major scholars of the ancient world to our understanding of the role of Philip of Macedon. Beginning with an account of Macedonia from the time of Alexander I (to whom he credits the creation of the pez-hetairoi) to Philip II, the author then concentrates on Philip’s reign within the larger context of the period, and concludes with an examination of the new form of panhellenism that Philip’s success established for the Greeks.
  • Perlman, S. 1985. Greek Diplomatic Tradition and the Corinthian League of Philip of Macedon. Historia 34, 153–74.
    Makes a case for Philip’s use of traditional Greek treaties and diplomacy to create in the League of Corinth an organization that would be acceptable to the Greeks, while allowing him to become its hegemon as well as the leader of the campaign against Persia.
  • Roebuck, C. A. 1948. The Settlements of Philip II in 338 BC. Classical Philology 43, 73–92.
    Careful study of the settlements orchestrated by Philip following the Macedonian victory at Chaironeia that provided the basis for the creation of the League of Corinth.
  • Ryder, T. T. B. 1965. Eclipse of the Leading Powers and the Rise of Macedon. In Ryder, Koine Eirene. Oxford: Oxford University Press for the University of Hull, 87–101.
    Description of Philip’s successes within the fluid alliance structure of the fourth century.
  • Worthington, I. 2003. Alexander, Philip, and the Macedonian Background. In J. Roisman (ed.), Brill’s Companion to Alexander the Great. Leiden and Boston: Brill, 69–98.
    Persuasive argument that the adjective “great” is appropriate to Philip in light of his accomplishments as Macedonian king, commander of the army, and statesman in his wider dealings with other fourth-century states.

(٦) أوليمبياس

  • Carney, E. 1987. Olympias. Ancient Society 18, 35–62.
    Carney, E. 2000. Women and Monarchy in Macedonia. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.
    Carney, E., forthcoming. Olympias: Mother of Alexander the Great. London and New York: Routledge.
    Elizabeth Carney is the main source for serious study of the role of women, particularly royal women, in Macedonian history. Not only do individual figures gain personalities but the change in women’s status over time is carefully demonstrated.
  • Heckel,W. 1981. Philip and Olympias 337/36. In G. S. Shrimpton and D. J. McCargar (eds.), Classical Contributions: Studies in Honour of M. F. McGregor. Locust Valley, NY: J. J. Augustin, 51–7.
    Examination of the relationship between Philip and Olympias as a result of the quarrel between Philip and Alexander, which led to Alexander and Olympias leaving Macedonia from 337 to the following year.

(٧) اليونان ومقدونيا

(٧-١) الإثنية

  • Adams,W. L. 1996. Historical Perceptions of Greco-Macedonian Ethnicity in the Hellenistic Age. Balkan Studies 37, 205–22.
    While the focus of the discussion is post-Alexander, the author perceives, rightly I believe, the importance of hellenization in the fourth century. I would argue that the “blurring of lines” was occurring even earlier.
  • Badian, E. 1982. Greeks and Macedonians. In B. Barr-Sharrar and E. N. Borza (eds.), Macedonia and Greece in Late Classical and Early Hellenistic Times. Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art, 33–51.
    Professor Badian has published extensively and insightfully on Macedonian matters. In this essay he argues that Macedonians were not thought by others to be Greek, nor did they consider themselves to be Greek. A claim to Greek origins may have originated in the fifth or early fourth century, “a sorry time” for Macedonia.
  • Borza, E. N. 1996. Greeks and Macedonians in the Age of Alexander: The Source Traditions. In R.W.Wallace and E. M. Harris (eds.), Transitions to Empire: Essays in Greco-Roman History, 360–146 B. C., in Honor of E. Badian. Norman, OK and London: University of Oklahoma Press, 122–39.
    Borza, E. N. 1999. Origins, Ethnicity, and Institutions. In Before Alexander: Constructing Early Macedonia. Claremont, CA: Regina Books.
    In this and numerous other publications, Professor Borza solidly defends the view that Greek and Macedonian ethnicities differ from one another in most respects: language, cultural practices, material culture, societal organization, economic way of life.
  • Fotiadis, M. 2001. Imagining Macedonia in Prehistory, ca. 1900–1930. Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 14.2, 115–35.
    In an unusual, but valuable, approach to the issues of Macedonian identity, the author maintains that the view of Macedonians as the antithesis of the Greeks emerged when research in the region expanded during the early twentieth century. While Greeks might have passed through Macedonia, they continued south and produced a different way of life.
  • Hall, J. 2001. Contested Ethnicities: Perceptions of Macedon within Evolving Definitions of Greek Identity. In I. Malkin (ed.), Ancient Perceptions of Greek Ethnicity. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 159–86.
    Useful picture of the ambiguities between ethnicity and the heroic claims of peoples in northern Greece upon the expanding colonization from southern Greece.
  • Hammond, N. G. L. and G. T. Griffith 1979. A History of Macedonia II: 550–336 BC. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
    Chapter 3, part 5, discusses the influence of Greek culture, and part 6 treats the institutions of the Macedonians and their neighbors.
  • Promponas, I. K. 1977. MAKEDONIKA KAI OMHRIKA GLWSSA. Archaia Makedonia 2, 397–407.
    Evidence for Greek linguistic elements in Macedonia.

(٧-٢) نظرة الإغريق للمقدونيين

  • Connor,W. R. 1966. Greek Orations. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
    Handy English translation of important orations.
  • Jacoby, F. 1923–58. Die Fragmente der Griechischen Historiker. Berlin: Weidman.
  • Saunders, A. N. (tr.) 1975. Demosthenes and Aeschines. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Translations of the differing perspectives exemplified by Demosthenes, the bitter foe of Philip, and Aischines, who found traits to admire.

(٧-٣) النظرة المشتركة بين الإغريق والمقدونيين لبلاد فارس

  • Bloedow, E. 2003. Why did Philip and Alexander Launch a War against the Persian Empire? L’Antiquité Classique LXXII, 261–74.
  • I was elated and relieved to read this essay by a valued colleague and friend who argues the genuineness of common grounds for the campaign against Persia by the League of Corinth under its Macedonian hegemon.

(٧-٤) عام

  • Buckler, J. 2003. Aegean Greece in the Fourth Century. Leiden and Boston: Brill.
    Full account beginning with the end of the Peloponnesian War and ending in 336 with the death of Philip II.
  • Ehrenberg,V. 1960. The Greek State. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Although published in 1960, this account of the Greek state remains a standard source for the defining features of the polis as well as its structure and functions. A chapter on types of federations is valuable for developments of the fourth century and beyond.
  • Hansen, M. H. 2005. The Shotgun Method: The Demography of the Classical Polis. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press.
    One of many recent studies of the Greek polis by one of the most productive scholars on the subject, both through his individual publications and through the Copenhagen Polis Centre over which he presides.

(٨) الزخم العسكري

  • Dell, H. 1992. Philip and Macedonia’s Northern Neighbors. In M. B. Hatzopoulos and L. D. Loukopoulos (eds.), Philip of Macedon. Athens: Ekdotike Athenon SA, 90–9.
    Deftly and succinctly pictures the nature of the peoples inhabiting the northern extension of the Greek sphere and their interactions with reference to their role in Macedonian history.
  • Ellis, J. 1976. Philip II and Macedonian Imperialism. London: Thames and Hudson.
    This treatment of the rise of Macedonian power, especially during the reign of Philip II, stresses the need for an exceptional military in order, first, to survive as an independent state and, increasingly, to control hostile neighbors. The author also reveals how the existence of such a force would determine future actions on the part of its leaders.
  • Hanson,V. D. 1999. Wars of the Ancient Greeks. Washington DC: Smithsonian Publications.
    Chapter 3 of this account by a noted military historian discusses the great wars (490–362), and chapter 4 explores the second military revolution (362–336).
  • Marsden, E. W. 1977. Macedonian Military Machinery and its Designers under Philip and Alexander. Archaia Makedonia 2, 211–23.
    Important essay on an essential ingredient of the success of Philip and Alexander.

(٩) المعاونون

  • Edson, C. 1934. The Antigonids, Heracles, and Beroea. Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 45, 213–46.
    Argues the view that Antigonos came from Beroea, a stance not widely accepted although recent evidence strengthens the case: see A. B. Tataki, Ancient Beroea: Prosopography and Society. Melethmata 8. Athens: Research Centre for Greek and Roman Antiquity, National Hellenic Research Foundation.
  • Heckel, W. 1992. The Marshals of Alexander’s Empire. London and New York: Routledge.
    Provides an essential tool in a study of Alexander’s subordinates. Part I treats “Old Guard,” “New Men,” “Casualities of the Succession” and “Boyhood Friends.” Part II discusses careers within the military. It updates and serves, for non-German readers, the purpose of H. Berve’s two-volume work Das Alexanderreich auf prosopographischer Grundlage (Munich: Beck, 1925-1926).

(١٠) فارس

  • Briant, P. 2002. From Cyrus to Alexander: A History of the Persian Empire (tr. by P. T. Daniels of Histoire de l’Empire perse. Paris: Libraire Arthème Fayard, 1996). Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns.
    Fullest (1,196 pages), best-documented account available, unlikely to be bettered. The author does not see serious difficulties in the empire even after Alexander had entered Anatolia. Briant has also written two accounts of Alexander: an excellent, very concise study for the French Que sais-je? series, Alexandre Le Grand (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1974, sixth ed. 2005) and Alexander the Great: The Heroic Ideal (French edition 1987; English edition, London: Thames and Hudson, 1996).
  • Cawkwell, G. 2005. The Greek Wars: The Failure of Persia. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Useful summary that discloses several serious flaws in the empire, such as the internal disorder that often accompanied accessions. See esp. chapter 10, “The End of the Achaemenids: Macedonia and Persia.”
  • Cook, J. M. 1983. The Persian Empire. London: Schocken Books.
    Account of Achaemenid Persia from its emergence through its defeat at the hands of the Macedonian army of Alexander; far more concise than Briant (2002).
  • Starr, C. 1973 and 1977. Greeks and Persians in the Fourth Century: A Study in Cultural Contacts before Alexander. Part I, Iranica Antiqua 11, 39–99; Part II, Iranica Antigua 12, 49–115.
    Valuable examinations of the cultural relationships of the peoples facing one another across the Aegean Sea during the critical decades of the rise of Macedonia.

(١٠-١) زينوفون

  • The Persian Expedition (Anabasis) 1972. Tr. Rex Warner, intro. G. Cawkwell. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Xenophon’s account of the Greek mercenaries’ participation in the contest between Artaxerxes II and his brother Kyros.
  • The Education of Kyros (Cyropaideia) 2001. Tr. H. G. Dakyns. New York: Knopf.
    Description of the education of Kyros the Great that preserves information about Achaemenid culture.

(١١) موضوعات متفرقة

  • Braudel, F. 2001. Memory and the Mediterranean. New York: Knopf.
    Magnificent account of the flow of history in cultures connected by the Mediterranean Sea from prehistory to the Roman creation of its empire, by the man who had been identified as one of the greatest historians of the twentieth century.
  • Diamond, J. 1997. Guns, Germs and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. New York: Norton.

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